Gwynedd is a county in Wales, sharing borders with Powys, Denbighshire, Anglesey over the Menai Strait, Ceredigion over the River Dyfi. The scenic Llŷn Peninsula and most of Snowdonia National Park are in Gwynedd. Bangor is the home of Bangor University. In the northern part of the county, the other main settlements are Caernarfon, Ffestiniog and Pwllheli; the largest settlement in the south is Tywyn. As a local government area, it is the second largest in Wales in terms of land area and one of the most sparsely populated. A majority of the population is Welsh-speaking. Gwynedd refers to being one of the preserved counties of Wales, covering the two local government areas of Gwynedd and Anglesey. Named after the old Kingdom of Gwynedd, both culturally and Gwynedd can be used for most of North Wales, such as the area, policed by the Gwynedd Constabulary; the current area is 2,548 square kilometres smaller than Luxembourg, with a population of 121,874 as measured in the 2011 Census. In the past, historians such as J. E. Lloyd assumed that the Celtic source of the word "Gwynedd" meant "collection of tribes" - the same root as the Irish fine, meaning "tribe".
Further, a connection is recognised between the name and the Irish Féni, an early ethnonym for the Irish themselves, related to fían, "company of hunting and fighting men, company of warriors under a leader". *u̯en-, u̯enə is the Indo-European stem. The Irish settled in NW Wales, in Dyfed, at the end of the Roman era. Venedotia was the Latin form, in Penmachno there is a memorial stone from c. AD 500 which reads: Cantiori Hic Iacit Venedotis; the name was retained by the Brythons when the kingdom of Gwynedd was formed in the 5th century, it remained until the invasion of Edward I. This historical name was revived when the new county was formed in 1974. Gwynedd was an independent kingdom from the end of the Roman period until the 13th century, when it was conquered by England; the modern Gwynedd was one of eight Welsh counties created on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. It covered the entirety of the historic counties of Anglesey and Caernarfonshire, all of Merionethshire apart from Edeirnion Rural District.
The county was divided into five districts: Aberconwy, Dwyfor and Anglesey. The Local Government Act 1994 abolished the 1974 county on 1 April 1996, its area was divided: the Isle of Anglesey became an independent unitary authority, Aberconwy passed to the new Conwy County Borough; the remainder of the county was constituted as a principal area, with the name Caernarfonshire and Merionethshire, as it covers most of the areas of those two historic counties. As one of its first actions, the Council renamed itself Gwynedd on 2 April 1996; the present Gwynedd local government area is governed by Gwynedd Council. As a unitary authority, the modern entity no longer has any districts, but Arfon and Meirionnydd remain as area committees; the pre-1996 boundaries were retained as a preserved county for a few purposes such as the Lieutenancy. In 2003, the boundary with Clwyd was adjusted to match the modern local government boundary, so that the preserved county now covers the two local government areas of Gwynedd and Anglesey.
Conwy county borough is now within Clwyd. A Gwynedd Constabulary was formed in 1950 by the merger of the Anglesey and Merionethshire forces. A further amalgamation took place in the 1960s when Gwynedd Constabulary was merged with the Flintshire and Denbighshire county forces, retaining the name Gwynedd. In one proposal for local government reform in Wales, Gwynedd had been proposed as a name for a local authority covering all of north Wales, but the scheme as enacted divided this area between Gwynedd and Clwyd. To prevent confusion, the Gwynedd Constabulary was therefore renamed the North Wales Police; the Snowdonia National Park was formed in 1951. After the 1974 local authority reorganisation, the park fell within the boundaries of Gwynedd, was run as a department of Gwynedd County Council. After the 1996 local government reorganisation, part of the park fell under Conwy County Borough, the park's administration separated from the Gwynedd council. Gwynedd Council still appoints nine of the eighteen members of the Snowdonia National Park Authority.
The county has a mixed economy. An important part of the economy is based on tourism: many visitors are attracted by the many beaches and the mountains. A significant part of the county lies within the Snowdonia National Park, which extends from the north coast down to the district of Merioneth in the south, but tourism provides seasonal employment and thus there is a shortage of jobs in the winter. Agriculture is less important than in the past in terms of the number of people who earn their living on the land, but it remains an important element of the economy; the most important of the traditional industries is the slate industry, but these days only a small percentage of workers earn their living in the slate quarries. Industries which have developed more include TV and sound studios: the record company Sain has its HQ in the county. There is one nuclear power station in Gwynedd at Trawsfynydd The education sector is very important for the local economy, incl
Agrotera basinotata is a moth of the family Crambidae described by George Hampson in 1891. It is native to Queensland, Hong Kong and Japan, but was introduced to Hawaii for the control of Melastoma malabathricum; the wingspan is about 20 mm. Adults have brown wings with a cream and yellow pattern near the base; the wing margins are chequered. The abdomen has cream and yellow banding, a brown tip; the larvae feed on Melastoma malabathricum, but Syzygium buxifolium. Herbison-Evans, Don & Crossley, Stella. "Agrotera basinotata Hampson, 1891". Australian Caterpillars and their Butterflies and Moths. Retrieved 9 March 2018. Japanese Moths
Okukor is the name given to a bronze statue of a cock from West Africa, held by Jesus College, Cambridge. One of the Benin bronzes, it was taken from the Kingdom of Benin by the British expedition of 1897, sent to punish the Oba of Benin after several British officials were killed, it became controversial in 2016 as a symbol of looted art and colonialism, with demands that it be sent back to Nigeria. The cock is an important animal in the religion of Benin, treated as a worthy animal sacrifice to deities such as Olokun, a spirit of wealth and of the sea. More than two dozen bronze cocks are known in the art of Benin, dated between the 17th and 19th centuries; these statues of male chickens were cast using a lost wax process, modelled with comb and spurs, incised patterns representing feathers, mounted on a large square base, decorated with a guilloche pattern. They may have been ceremonial objects, displayed on an ancestral altar commemorating a queen mother, an unusual example of a male animal being used to commemorate a woman, attributable to the traditional power and privileges of the queen mother.
The Oba's senior wife, thus the mother of a future king, was given honorific title "Eson, Ogoro Madagba". There are examples of historic Benin bronze cocks in many museum collections, including the National Museum of African Art in Washington DC. Reproductions are still made in Nigeria by traditional processes; the statue at Jesus College, Cambridge was described as an artistic masterpiece by The Guardian's art columnist, Jonathan Jones. It was bequeathed to the college in 1930, on the death of George William Neville, a student at the college and served as a captain in the British Army in the 1897 Benin Exhibition; the heraldic arms of the college include three cocks, a form of canting arms in honour of its founder Bishop John Alcock. The statue was displayed in the dining hall at Jesus College until 2016. In the aftermath of the Rhodes Must Fall campaign, there were demands that the statue should be returned to Africa, it was removed from public display with the intention of repatriating it to Nigeria.
Despite constant appeals from Prince of Benin Gregory Akenzua, the Okukor remains stored at the college. Ancient Art from Africa - Benin & Ife, Galerie Peter Herrmann Antique Works of Art from Benin, collected by Lieutenant-General Pitt Rivers, 1900