Oxford English Dictionary
The Oxford English Dictionary is the principal historical dictionary of the English language, published by Oxford University Press. It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a comprehensive resource to scholars and academic researchers, as well as describing usage in its many variations throughout the world; the second edition, comprising 21,728 pages in 20 volumes, was published in 1989. Work began on the dictionary in 1857, but it was only in 1884 that it began to be published in unbound fascicles as work continued on the project, under the name of A New English Dictionary on Historical Principles. In 1895, the title The Oxford English Dictionary was first used unofficially on the covers of the series, in 1928 the full dictionary was republished in ten bound volumes. In 1933, the title The Oxford English Dictionary replaced the former name in all occurrences in its reprinting as twelve volumes with a one-volume supplement. More supplements came over the years until 1989.
Since 2000, compilation of a third edition of the dictionary has been underway half of, complete. The first electronic version of the dictionary was made available in 1988; the online version has been available since 2000, as of April 2014 was receiving over two million hits per month. The third edition of the dictionary will most only appear in electronic form: the Chief Executive of Oxford University Press has stated that it is unlikely that it will be printed; as a historical dictionary, the Oxford English Dictionary explains words by showing their development rather than their present-day usages. Therefore, it shows definitions in the order that the sense of the word began being used, including word meanings which are no longer used; each definition is shown with numerous short usage quotations. This allows the reader to get an approximate sense of the time period in which a particular word has been in use, additional quotations help the reader to ascertain information about how the word is used in context, beyond any explanation that the dictionary editors can provide.
The format of the OED's entries has influenced numerous other historical lexicography projects. The forerunners to the OED, such as the early volumes of the Deutsches Wörterbuch, had provided few quotations from a limited number of sources, whereas the OED editors preferred larger groups of quite short quotations from a wide selection of authors and publications; this influenced volumes of this and other lexicographical works. According to the publishers, it would take a single person 120 years to "key in" the 59 million words of the OED second edition, 60 years to proofread them, 540 megabytes to store them electronically; as of 30 November 2005, the Oxford English Dictionary contained 301,100 main entries. Supplementing the entry headwords, there are 157,000 bold-type derivatives; the dictionary's latest, complete print edition was printed in 20 volumes, comprising 291,500 entries in 21,730 pages. The longest entry in the OED2 was for the verb set, which required 60,000 words to describe some 430 senses.
As entries began to be revised for the OED3 in sequence starting from M, the longest entry became make in 2000 put in 2007 run in 2011. Despite its considerable size, the OED is neither the world's largest nor the earliest exhaustive dictionary of a language. Another earlier large dictionary is the Grimm brothers' dictionary of the German language, begun in 1838 and completed in 1961; the first edition of the Vocabolario degli Accademici della Crusca is the first great dictionary devoted to a modern European language and was published in 1612. The official dictionary of Spanish is the Diccionario de la lengua española, its first edition was published in 1780; the Kangxi dictionary of Chinese was published in 1716. The dictionary began as a Philological Society project of a small group of intellectuals in London: Richard Chenevix Trench, Herbert Coleridge, Frederick Furnivall, who were dissatisfied with the existing English dictionaries; the Society expressed interest in compiling a new dictionary as early as 1844, but it was not until June 1857 that they began by forming an "Unregistered Words Committee" to search for words that were unlisted or poorly defined in current dictionaries.
In November, Trench's report was not a list of unregistered words. The Society realized that the number of unlisted words would be far more than the number of words in the English dictionaries of the 19th century, shifted their idea from covering only words that were not in English diction
A personal trainer is an individual certified to have a varying degree of knowledge of general fitness involved in exercise prescription and instruction. They motivate clients by providing feedback and accountability to clients. Trainers measure their client's strengths and weaknesses with fitness assessments; these fitness assessments may be performed before and after an exercise program to measure their client's improvements in physical fitness. They should educate their clients in many other aspects of wellness besides exercise, including general health and nutrition guidelines, it is important that a trainer takes their time to evaluate a clients personal life outside of the gym. This way, personal trainers can figure out what kind of stress their client may be putting on certain areas of the body during their every day lives. Qualified personal trainers or certified personal trainers recognize their own areas of expertise. If a trainer suspects that one of their clients has a medical condition that could prevent the client from safe participation in an exercise program, they must refer the client to the proper health professional for prior clearance.
The scope of practice for a personal trainer is to enhance the components of fitness for the general, healthy population. Proper exercise prescription may result in improved body composition, physical performance, heart condition and health outcomes; the decision to hire a trainer may be related to a perceived ability to facilitate these factors through proper prescription and instruction or factors related to motivation and adherence. A trainer pays close attention to their client's exercise form, workout routine, nutrition plan. Personal training in men and women has been shown to exercise behavior patterns, improve perceptual benefit-to-concern ratio for exercise, increase confidence to choose exercise in the face of other time demands. Personal training results in higher strength, higher workout intensities, higher perceived exertion during exercise; the profession is not restricted by venue, personal trainers may work in fitness facilities, in their personal homes, in client homes, over live video, or outdoors.
All personal trainers and group exercise instructors work in physical fitness facilities, health clubs, fitness centers located in the amusement and recreation industry or in civic and social organizations. Personal training is not regulated in any jurisdiction in the United States except for Washington D. C. which adopted registration requirements for personal fitness trainers in February 2014. Some employers, such as gyms require personal trainers to be certified. However, this is not always the case and some personal trainers are able to find work without certification. Overall, personal trainers must possess certain skills, such as a passion for fitness and helping others achieve their goals, industry knowledge and the ability to communicate with their clients. Personal trainers may specialize in a certain training type, training philosophy, performance type, exercise modality, or client population. In general, most personal trainers develop exercise prescription plans for aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and/or flexibility training.
With aerobic exercise prescription, personal trainers determine the type of exercise, duration of exercise, frequency of exercise. For resistance exercise prescription, the type of exercise, total session volume, rest period and intensity are determined. Personal trainers may be involved in prescription of stretching routines or other approaches. Personal trainers help clients to perform exercises with correct technique, minimising the risk of injury. While some discuss nutrition, ergogenic supplementation, spiritual practices with clients, there is debate within the industry as to whether it fits within their scope of practice and training qualifications. Personal trainer accreditation is a process that provides certification of competency as a personal trainer. Qualification standards for personal trainers vary between countries. In Australia, personal trainers may work independently with suitable insurance or choose to be a member of a registering body; the qualifications levels include. These can be obtained from nationally accredited colleges.
Once working in the industry, trainers who are members of associations are required to complete short courses to obtain continuing education credit points they need to keep their registration. A minimum of 20 CEC points. Many personal trainers have additional qualifications in weight loss, strength training, kid's fitness, nutrition, in part due to the CEC program. CEC courses can cover a wide variety of topics such as different training techniques, exercise styles, health conditions, physiology and rehabilitation. In Brazil, personal trainers must have a bachelor's degree in "Physical Education" and be registered with the Conselho Federal de Educação Física, risk criminal charges if they operate without these two requirements. In Canada, the main certifying bodies are Canadian Fitness Education Services, Canadian Fitness Professionals, Certified Personal Trainers Network, Canadia
Cynicism is a school of thought of ancient Greek philosophy as practiced by the Cynics. For the Cynics, the purpose of life is to live in agreement with nature; as reasoning creatures, people can gain happiness by rigorous training and by living in a way, natural for themselves, rejecting all conventional desires for wealth, power and fame. Instead, they were to lead a simple life free from all possessions; the first philosopher to outline these themes was Antisthenes, a pupil of Socrates in the late 5th century BC. He was followed by Diogenes. Diogenes took Cynicism to its logical extremes, came to be seen as the archetypal Cynic philosopher, he was followed by Crates of Thebes, who gave away a large fortune so he could live a life of Cynic poverty in Athens. Cynicism spread with the rise of the Roman Empire in the 1st century, Cynics could be found begging and preaching throughout the cities of the empire. Cynicism declined and disappeared in the late 5th century, although similar ascetic and rhetorical ideas appear in early Christianity.
By the 19th century, emphasis on the negative aspects of Cynic philosophy led to the modern understanding of cynicism to mean a disposition of disbelief in the sincerity or goodness of human motives and actions. The name Cynic derives from Ancient Greek κυνικός, meaning'dog-like', κύων, meaning'dog'. One explanation offered in ancient times for why the Cynics were called "dogs" was because the first Cynic, taught in the Cynosarges gymnasium at Athens; the word cynosarges means the "place of the white dog". It seems certain, that the word dog was thrown at the first Cynics as an insult for their shameless rejection of conventional manners, their decision to live on the streets. Diogenes, in particular, was referred to as the "Dog", a distinction he seems to have revelled in, stating that "other dogs bite their enemies, I bite my friends to save them." Cynics sought to turn the word to their advantage, as a commentator explained: There are four reasons why the Cynics are so named. First because of the indifference of their way of life, for they make a cult of indifference and, like dogs and make love in public, go barefoot, sleep in tubs and at crossroads.
The second reason is that the dog is a shameless animal, they make a cult of shamelessness, not as being beneath modesty, but as superior to it. The third reason is that the dog is a good guard, they guard the tenets of their philosophy; the fourth reason is that the dog is a discriminating animal which can distinguish between its friends and enemies. So do they recognize as friends those who are suited to philosophy, receive them kindly, while those unfitted they drive away, like dogs, by barking at them. Cynicism is one of the most striking of all the Hellenistic philosophies, it offered people the possibility of freedom from suffering in an age of uncertainty. Although there was never an official Cynic doctrine, the fundamental principles of Cynicism can be summarized as follows: The goal of life is eudaimonia and mental clarity or lucidity - "freedom from smoke" which signified false belief, mindlessness and conceit. Eudaimonia is achieved by living in accord with Nature. Arrogance is caused by false judgments of value, which cause negative emotions, unnatural desires, a vicious character.
Eudaimonia, or human flourishing, depends on self-sufficiency, arete, love of humanity and indifference to the vicissitudes of life. One progresses towards flourishing and clarity through ascetic practices which help one become free from influences – such as wealth and power – that have no value in Nature. Examples include Diogenes' practice of walking barefoot in winter. A Cynic defaces the nomos of society, thus a Cynic has no property and rejects all conventional values of money, fame and reputation. A life lived according to nature requires only the bare necessities required for existence, one can become free by unshackling oneself from any needs which are the result of convention; the Cynics adopted Heracles as epitomizing the ideal Cynic. Heracles "was he who brought Cerberus, the hound of Hades, from the underworld, a point of special appeal to the dog-man, Diogenes." According to Lucian, "Cerberus and Cynic are related through the dog."The Cynic way of life required continuous training, not just in exercising judgments and mental impressions, but a physical training as well: used to say, that there were two kinds of exercise: that, namely, of the mind and that of the body.
None of this meant. Cynics were in fact to live in the full glare of the public's gaze and be quite indifferent in the face of any insults which might result from their unconventional behaviour; the Cynics are said to have invented the idea of cosmopolitanism: when he was asked where he came from, Diogenes replied that he was "a citizen of the world."The ideal Cynic would evangelise.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician and philosopher in the Roman Empire. Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy, pathology and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic; the son of Aelius Nicon, a wealthy architect with scholarly interests, Galen received a comprehensive education that prepared him for a successful career as a physician and philosopher. Born in Pergamon, Galen travelled extensively, exposing himself to a wide variety of medical theories and discoveries before settling in Rome, where he served prominent members of Roman society and was given the position of personal physician to several emperors. Galen's understanding of anatomy and medicine was principally influenced by the then-current theory of humorism, as advanced by ancient Greek physicians such as Hippocrates, his theories influenced Western medical science for more than 1,300 years.
His anatomical reports, based on dissection of monkeys the Barbary macaque, pigs, remained uncontested until 1543, when printed descriptions and illustrations of human dissections were published in the seminal work De humani corporis fabrica by Andreas Vesalius where Galen's physiological theory was accommodated to these new observations. Galen's theory of the physiology of the circulatory system remained unchallenged. 1242, when Ibn al-Nafis published his book Sharh tashrih al-qanun li’ Ibn Sina, in which he reported his discovery of the pulmonary circulation. Galen saw himself as both a physician and a philosopher, as he wrote in his treatise entitled That the Best Physician Is Also a Philosopher. Galen was interested in the debate between the rationalist and empiricist medical sects, his use of direct observation and vivisection represents a complex middle ground between the extremes of those two viewpoints. Many of his works have been preserved and/or translated from the original Greek, although many were destroyed and some credited to him are believed to be spurious.
Although there is some debate over the date of his death, he was no younger than seventy when he died. In medieval Europe, Galen's writings on anatomy became the mainstay of the medieval physician's university curriculum, but because of the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West they suffered from stasis and intellectual stagnation. However, in the Eastern Roman Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate they continued to be studied and followed; some of Galen's ideas were incorrect. Greek and Roman taboos had meant that dissection was banned in ancient times, but in Middle Ages it changed: medical teachers and students at Bologna began to open human bodies, Mondino de Luzzi produced the ﬁrst known anatomy textbook based on human dissection. Galen's original Greek texts gained renewed prominence during the early modern period. In the 1530s, Belgian anatomist and physician Andreas Vesalius took on a project to translate many of Galen's Greek texts into Latin. Vesalius's most famous work, De humani corporis fabrica, was influenced by Galenic writing and form.
Galen's name Γαληνός, Galēnos comes from the adjective "γαληνός", "calm". Galen describes his early life in On the affections of the mind, he was born in September AD 129. His father, Aelius Nicon, was a wealthy patrician, an architect and builder, with eclectic interests including philosophy, logic, astronomy and literature. Galen describes his father as a "highly amiable, just and benevolent man". At that time Pergamon was a major cultural and intellectual centre, noted for its library, second only to that in Alexandria, attracted both Stoic and Platonic philosophers, to whom Galen was exposed at age 14, his studies took in each of the principal philosophical systems of the time, including Aristotelian and Epicurean. His father had planned a traditional career for Galen in philosophy or politics and took care to expose him to literary and philosophical influences. However, Galen states that in around AD 145 his father had a dream in which the god Asclepius appeared and commanded Nicon to send his son to study medicine.
Again, no expense was spared, following his earlier liberal education, at 16 he began studies at the prestigious local sanctuary or Asclepieum dedicated to Asclepius, god of medicine, as a θεραπευτής for four years. There he came under the influence of men like Aeschrion of Pergamon and Satyrus. Asclepiea functioned as spas or sanitoria to which the sick would come to seek the ministrations of the priesthood. Romans frequented the temple at Pergamon in search of medical relief from disease, it was the haunt of notable people such as Claudius Charax the historian, Aelius Aristides the orator, Polemo the sophist, Cuspius Rufinus the Consul. Galen's father died in 148, leaving Galen independently wealthy at the age of 19, he followed the advice he found in Hippocrates' teaching and travelled and studied including such destinations as Smyrna, Crete, Cilicia and the great medical school of Alexandria, exposing himself to the various schools of thought in medicine. In 157, aged 28, he returned to Pergamon as physician to the gladiators of the High Priest of Asia, one of the most influential and wealt
Heracles, born Alcaeus or Alcides was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of Amphitryon. He was a half-brother of Perseus, he was the greatest of the Greek heroes, a paragon of masculinity, the ancestor of royal clans who claimed to be Heracleidae, a champion of the Olympian order against chthonic monsters. In Rome and the modern West, he is known as Hercules, with whom the Roman emperors, in particular Commodus and Maximian identified themselves; the Romans adopted the Greek version of his life and works unchanged, but added anecdotal detail of their own, some of it linking the hero with the geography of the Central Mediterranean. Details of his cult were adapted to Rome as well. Many popular stories were told of the most famous being The Twelve Labours of Heracles, his figure, which drew on Near Eastern motifs such as the lion-fight, was known. Heracles was the greatest of Hellenic chthonic heroes, but unlike other Greek heroes, no tomb was identified as his.
Heracles was both god, as Pindar says heros theos. The core of the story of Heracles has been identified by Walter Burkert as originating in Neolithic hunter culture and traditions of shamanistic crossings into the netherworld, it is possible that the myths surrounding Heracles were based on the life of a real person or several people whose accomplishments became exaggerated with time. Based on commonalities in the legends of Heracles and Odysseus, author Steven Sora suggested that they were both based on the same historical person, who made his mark prior to recorded history. Heracles' role as a culture hero, whose death could be a subject of mythic telling, was accepted into the Olympian Pantheon during Classical times; this created an awkwardness in the encounter with Odysseus in the episode of Odyssey XI, called the Nekuia, where Odysseus encounters Heracles in Hades: Ancient critics were aware of the problem of the aside that interrupts the vivid and complete description, in which Heracles recognizes Odysseus and hails him, modern critics find good reasons for denying that the verses beginning, in Fagles' translation His ghost I mean... were part of the original composition: "once people knew of Heracles' admission to Olympus, they would not tolerate his presence in the underworld", remarks Friedrich Solmsen, noting that the interpolated verses represent a compromise between conflicting representations of Heracles.
In Christian circles a Euhemerist reading of the widespread Heracles cult was attributed to a historical figure, offered cult status after his death. Thus Eusebius, Preparation of the Gospel, reported that Clement could offer historical dates for Hercules as a king in Argos: "from the reign of Hercules in Argos to the deification of Hercules himself and of Asclepius there are comprised thirty-eight years, according to Apollodorus the chronicler: and from that point to the deification of Castor and Pollux fifty-three years: and somewhere about this time was the capture of Troy." Readers with a literalist bent, following Clement's reasoning, have asserted from this remark that, since Heracles ruled over Tiryns in Argos at the same time that Eurystheus ruled over Mycenae, since at about this time Linus was Heracles' teacher, one can conclude, based on Jerome's date—in his universal history, his Chronicon—given to Linus' notoriety in teaching Heracles in 1264 BCE, that Heracles' death and deification occurred 38 years in 1226 BCE.
The ancient Greeks celebrated the festival of the Heracleia, which commemorated the death of Heracles, on the second day of the month of Metageitnion. What is believed to be an Egyptian Temple of Heracles in the Bahariya Oasis dates to 21 BCE. A reassessment of Ptolemy's descriptions of the island of Malta attempted to link the site at Ras ir-Raħeb with a temple to Heracles, but the arguments are not conclusive. Several ancient cities were named Heraclea in his honor. Although the Athenians were among the first to worship Heracles as a god, there were Greek cities that refused to recognize the hero's divine status. There are several polis that provided two separate sanctuaries for Heracles, one recognizing him as a god, the other only as a hero; this ambiguity helped create the Heracles cult when historians and artists encouraged worship such as the painters during the time of the Peisistratos, who presented Heracles entering Olympus in their works. Some sources explained that the cult of Heracles persisted because of the hero's ascent to heaven and his suffering, which became the basis for festivals, ritual and the organization of mysteries.
There is the observation, for example, that sufferings gave rise to the rituals of grief and mourning, which came before the joy in the mysteries in the sequence of cult rituals. Like the case of Apollo, the cult of Hercules has been sustained through the years by absorbing local cult figures such as those who share the same nature, he was constantly invoked as a patron for men the young ones. For example, he was considered the ideal in warfare so he presided over gymnasiums and the ephebes or those men undergoing military training. There were ancient towns and cities that adopted Hera
Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get hot in summers. Kabul serves as its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires"; the land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire, its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet Union protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed, but they still control a significant portion of the country. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites; the country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic
A festival is an event ordinarily celebrated by a community and centering on some characteristic aspect of that community and its religion or cultures. It is marked as a local or national holiday, mela, or eid. Next to religion and folklore, a significant origin is agricultural. Food is such a vital resource. Religious commemoration and thanksgiving for good harvests are blended in events that take place in autumn, such as Halloween in the northern hemisphere and Easter in the southern. Festivals serve to fulfill specific communal purposes in regard to commemoration or thanking to the gods and goddesses. Celebrations offer a sense of belonging for religious, social, or geographical groups, contributing to group cohesiveness, they may provide entertainment, important to local communities before the advent of mass-produced entertainment. Festivals that focus on cultural or ethnic topics seek to inform community members of their traditions. In Ancient Greece and Rome, festivals such as the Saturnalia were associated with social organisation and political processes as well as religion.
In modern times, festivals may be attended by strangers such as tourists, who are attracted to some of the more eccentric or historical ones. The Philippines is one example of a modern society with a large number of festivals, as each day of the year has at least one specific celebration. There are more than 42,000 known major and minor festivals in the country, the majority of which are specific to the barangay level; the word "festival" was used as an adjective from the late fourteenth century, deriving from Latin via Old French. In Middle English, a "festival dai" was a religious holiday, its first recorded used as a noun was in 1589. Feast first came into usage as a noun circa 1200, its first recorded use as a verb was circa 1300; the term "feast" is used in common secular parlance as a synonym for any large or elaborate meal. When used as in the meaning of a festival, most refers to a religious festival rather than a film or art festival. In the Philippines and many other former Spanish colonies, the Spanish word fiesta is used to denote a communal religious feast to honor a patron saint.
Many festivals have religious origins and entwine cultural and religious significance in traditional activities. The most important religious festivals such as Christmas, Rosh Hashanah and Eid al-Adha serve to mark out the year. Others, such as harvest festivals, celebrate seasonal change. Events of historical significance, such as important military victories or other nation-building events provide the impetus for a festival. An early example is the festival established by Ancient Egyptian Pharaoh Ramesses III celebrating his victory over the Libyans. In many countries, royal holidays commemorate dynastic events just as agricultural holidays are about harvests. Festivals are commemorated annually. There are numerous types of festivals in the world and most countries celebrate important events or traditions with traditional cultural events and activities. Most culminate in the consumption of specially prepared food and they bring people together. Festivals are strongly associated with national holidays.
Lists of national festivals are published to make participation easier. Among many religions, a feast is a set of celebrations in honour of God. A feast and a festival are interchangeable. Most religions have festivals that recur annually and some, such as Passover and Eid al-Adha are moveable feasts – that is, those that are determined either by lunar or agricultural cycles or the calendar in use at the time; the Sed festival, for example, celebrated the thirtieth year of an Egyptian pharaoh's rule and every three years after that. In the Christian liturgical calendar, there are two principal feasts, properly known as the Feast of the Nativity of our Lord and the Feast of the Resurrection. In the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican liturgical calendars there are a great number of lesser feasts throughout the year commemorating saints, sacred events or doctrines. In the Philippines, each day of the year has at least one specific religious festival, either from Catholic, Islamic, or indigenous origins.
Buddhist religious festivals, such as Esala Perahera are held in Sri Thailand. Hindu festivals, such as Holi are ancient; the Sikh community celebrates the Vaisakhi festival marking the new birth of the Khalsa. Among the many offspring of general arts festivals are more specific types of festivals, including ones that showcase intellectual or creative achievement such as science festivals, literary festivals and music festivals. Sub-categories include rock festivals, jazz festivals and buskers festivals. In the Philippines, aside from numerous art festivals scattered throughout the year, February is known as national arts month, the culmination of all art festivals in the entire archipelago. Film festivals involve the screenings of several different films, are held annually; some of the most significant film festivals include the Berlin International Film Festival, the Venice Film Festival and the Cannes Film Festival. A food festival is an event celebrating drink; these highlight the output of producers from a certain region.
Some food festivals are focused on a particular item of food, such as the National Peanut Festival in