A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. In its current meaning, it refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. Before the 20th century, the system of gymnasiums was a widespread feature of educational system throughout many countries of central, north and southern Europe; the word "γυμνάσιον" was first used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual education of young men. The latter meaning of a place of intellectual education persisted in many European languages, whereas in English and Spanish the former meaning of a place for physical education was retained instead, more familiarly in the shortened form gym; the gymnasium is a secondary school. They are thus meant for the more academically minded students, who are sifted out at about the age of 10–13.
In addition to the usual curriculum, students of a gymnasium study Latin and Ancient Greek. Some gymnasiums provide general education; the four traditional branches are: humanities modern languages mathematics and physical sciences economics and other social sciences Curricula differ from school to school but include literature, informatics, chemistry, geography, music, philosophy, civics/citizenship, social sciences, several foreign languages. Schools concentrate not only on academic subjects, but on producing well-rounded individuals, so physical education and religion or ethics are compulsory in non-denominational schools which are prevalent. For example, the German constitution guarantees the separation of church and state, so although religion or ethics classes are compulsory, students may choose to study a specific religion or none at all. Today, a number of other areas of specialization exist, such as gymnasiums specializing in economics, technology or domestic sciences. In some countries, there is a notion of progymnasium, equivalent to beginning classes of the full gymnasium, with the rights to continue education in a gymnasium.
Here, the prefix pro- is equivalent to pre-, indicating that this curriculum precedes normal gymnasium studies. In the German-speaking, Nordic and Baltic European countries, this meaning for "gymnasium" has been the same at least since the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century; the term was derived from the classical Greek word "γυμνάσιον", applied to an exercising ground in ancient Athens. Here teachers gathered and gave instruction between the hours devoted to physical exercises and sports, thus the term became associated with and came to mean an institution of learning; this use of the term did not prevail among the Romans, but was revived during the Renaissance in Italy, from there passed into the Netherlands and Germany during the 15th century. In 1538, Johannes Sturm founded at Strasbourg the school which became the model of the modern German gymnasium. In 1812, a Prussian regulation ordered all schools with the right to send their students to the university to bear the name of gymnasium.
By the 20th century, this practice was followed in the entire Austrian-Hungarian and Russian Empires. In the modern era, many countries which have gymnasiums were once part of these three empires. In Albania a gymnasium education takes three years following a compulsory nine-year elementary education and ending with a final aptitude test called Albanian: Matura Shtetërore; the final test is standardized at the state level and serves as an entrance qualification for universities. These can be either private; the subjects taught are mathematics, Albanian language, one to three foreign languages, geography, computer science, the natural sciences, history of art, philosophy, physical education and the social sciences. The gymnasium is viewed as a destination for the best performing students and as the type of school that serves to prepare students for university, while other students go to technical/vocational schools. Therefore, gymnasiums base their admittance criteria on an entrance exam, elementary school grades or some combination of the two.
In Austria the Gymnasium has two stages, from the age of 11 to 14, from 15 to 18, concluding with Matura. Three types existed; the Humanistisches Gymnasium focuses on Latin. The Neusprachliches Gymnasium puts its focus on spoken languages; the usual combination is English and Latin. The Realgymnasium emphasises the sciences. In the last couple of decades more autonomy has been granted to schools and various types have been developed, focusing on sports, music or economics, for example. In Belarus, gymnasium is the highest variant of secondary education, whic
The tetrad test is a series of behavioral paradigms in which rodents treated with cannabinoids such as THC show effects. It is used for screening drugs that induce cannabinoid receptor-mediated effects in rodents; the four behavioral components of the tetrad are spontaneous activity, catalepsy and analgesia. Common assays for these behavioral paradigms are as follows: Spontaneous activity is determined by an open field test, in which a mouse is placed in a cage with perpendicular grid lines spaced by approx. 1 inch. An experimenter counts the number of line crossings by the mouse in a given amount of time. Catalepsy is determined by the bar test; the mouse is placed on a bar oriented parallel to and 1 inch off of the ground. If the mouse remains immobile on the bar for more than 20 seconds, it is considered cataleptic. Hypothermia is determined by using a rectal probe to measure the rectal temperature. Analgesia is determined by the hot plate or tail immersion test. In the hot plate test, the mouse is placed on a heated plate between 54 and 58°C.
An experimenter measures the time it takes for the animal to raise its feet or jump off of the hot plate. In the tail immersion test, the mouse is immobilized and its tail is placed into a warm water bath also between 54 and 58°C. An experimenter measures the time. Direct CB1 agonists, such as THC, or WIN 55,212-2, have effects in all components of the tetrad and induce hypomotility, catalepsy and analgesia in rodents. Accordingly, all true "tetrad effects" are not observed following treatment with antagonists or inverse agonists of CB1 such as rimonabant. Data have shown, that CB2 receptors are involved in the tetrad effects induced by cannabinoids, other, associated with CB1 agonism
In economics, the lump of labour fallacy is the misconception that there is a fixed amount of work—a lump of labour—to be done within an economy which can be distributed to create more or fewer jobs. It was considered a fallacy in 1891 by economist David Frederick Schloss, who held that the amount of work is not fixed; the term originated to rebut the idea that reducing the number of hours employees are allowed to labour during the working day would lead to a reduction in unemployment. The term is commonly used to describe the belief that increasing labour productivity, immigration, or automation causes an increase in unemployment. Whereas opponents of immigration argue that immigrants displace a country's workers, this is a fallacy, as the number of jobs in the economy is not fixed and immigration increases the size of the economy and may increase productivity and overall economic activity, as well as reduce incentives for off-shoring and business closures, thus creating more jobs; the lump of labor fallacy is known as the lump of jobs fallacy, fallacy of labour scarcity, fixed pie fallacy, the zero-sum fallacy – due to its ties to zero-sum games.
The term "fixed pie fallacy" is used more to refer to the idea that there is a fixed amount of wealth in the world. This and other zero-sum fallacies can be caused by zero-sum bias; the lump of labour fallacy has been applied to concerns around labour. Given a fixed availability of employment, the lump of labour position argues that allowing immigration of working-age people reduces the availability of work for native-born workers. However, skilled immigrating workers can bring capabilities that are not available in the native workforce, for example in academic research or information technology. Additionally, immigrating workforces create new jobs by expanding demand, thus creating more jobs, either directly by setting up businesses, or indirectly by raising consumption; as an example, a greater population that eats more groceries will increase demand from shops, which will therefore require additional shop staff. Advocates of restricting working hours regulation may assume that there is a fixed amount of work to be done within the economy.
By reducing the amount that those who are employed are allowed to work, the remaining amount will accrue to the unemployed. This policy was adopted by the governments of Herbert Hoover in the United States and Lionel Jospin in France, in the 35-hour working week. Many economists agree that such proposals are to be ineffective, because there are substantial administrative costs associated with employing more workers; these can include additional costs in recruitment and management that would increase average cost per unit of output. This overall would lead to a reduced production per worker, may result in higher unemployment. Early retirement has been used to induce workers to accept termination of employment before retirement age following the employer's diminished labour needs. Government support for the practice has come from the belief that this should lead to a reduction in unemployment; the unsustainability of this practice has now been recognised, the trend in Europe is now towards postponement of the retirement age.
In an editorial in The Economist a thought experiment is proposed in which old people leave the workforce in favour of young people, on whom they become dependent for their living through state benefits. It is argued that since growth depends on having either more workers or greater productivity, the society cannot become more prosperous by paying an increasing number of its citizens unproductively; the article points out that early retirees with private pension funds become a burden on society as they depend on equity and bond income generated by workers. Indivisibility of labour Labour Luddite fallacy Parable of the broken window Working time Zero-sum bias Paul Krugman essay on the Lump of Labour Fallacy The Economist Glossary: Lump of Labour fallacy Zero sum fallacy in stock trading