The bristle-nosed barbet is a bird species in the family Lybiidae. It used to be placed in the family Bucconidae, split up, it is found in Angola, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ghana, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Togo. Image at the Internet Bird Collection
The African barbets are birds in the family Lybiidae. They were united with their New World and Asian relatives in the Capitonidae for quite some time, but this has been confirmed to be limited to the main New World lineage. There are 42 species ranging from the type genus Lybius of forest interior to the tinkerbirds of forest and scrubland, they are found throughout sub-Saharan Africa, with the exception of the far south-west of South Africa. The African terrestrial barbets, range from the southern Sahara to South Africa. Members of one genus, they are the most open-country species of barbets; the subfamily Lybiinae contains the African arboreal barbets. There are 36 species of Lybiinae in 6 genera. Most African barbets are about 20–25 cm long, plump-looking, with large heads, their heavy bill is fringed with bristles, they are solitary birds, eating insects and fruit. Figs and numerous other species of fruiting tree and bush are visited, an individual barbet may feed on as many as 60 different species in its range.
They will visit plantations and take cultivated fruit and vegetables. Fruit is eaten indigestible material such as seed pits regurgitated later. Regurgitation does not happen in the nest, although tinkerbirds do place sticky mistletoe seeds around the entrances of their nests to deter predators; as the other barbets, they are thought to be important agents in seed dispersal in tropical forests. As well as taking fruit, African barbets take arthropod prey, gleaned from the branches and trunks of trees. A wide range of insects are taken, including ants, dragonflies, locusts, beetles and mantids. Scorpions and centipedes are taken, a few species will take small vertebrates such as lizards and geckos; the precise nesting details of many African barbets are not yet known, although peculiarly among the Piciformes, some sociable species will nest in riverbanks or termite nests. Like many members of their order, their nests are in holes bored into a tree, they lay between 2 and 4 eggs, incubated for 13–15 days.
Nesting duties are shared by both parents. There has been little interference by humans; some of the species which require primary woodland are declining due to deforestation to the benefit of close relatives. For example, the loss of highland woods in Kenya has seen the moustached tinkerbird disappear and the red-fronted tinkerbird expand its range. Subfamily Lybiinae Genus Gymnobucco Genus Stactolaema Genus Pogoniulus – tinkerbirds Genus Buccanodon – yellow-spotted barbet Genus Tricholaema Genus Lybius Subfamily Trachyphoninae Genus Trachyphonus It is not resolved whether the Early to Middle Miocene genus Capitonides from Europe belongs to this family or the Asian barbets. Indeed, given that the prehistoric birds somewhat resembled a primitive toucan, they might occupy a more basal position among the barbet-toucan clade altogether. On the other hand, they show some similarities to Trachyphonus in particular and have been placed into this genus, but this move is not accepted. "CMC 152", a distal carpometacarpus similar to that of barbets and found at the Middle Miocene locality of Grive-Saint-Alban was considered to differ from Capitonides in the initial description, being closer to extant barbets.
This fossil is sometimes lumped into Trachyphonus too. Supposed fossil remains of Late Miocene Pogoniulus were found at Kohfidisch but are not yet studied, it is not clear whether they given the late date this may well be so. Ballmann, Peter: Les Oiseaux miocènes de la Grive-Saint-Alban. Geobios 2: 157–204. Doi:10.1016/S0016-699580005-7 Mlíkovský, Jirí: Cenozoic Birds of the World, Part 1: Europe. Ninox Press, Prague. ISBN 80-901105-3-8 PDF fulltext Short, L. L. & Horne, J. F. M.: Family Capitonidae. In: del Hoyo, Josep. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. ISBN 84-87334-37-7 Media related to African barbet at Wikimedia Commons
Birds known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, a strong yet lightweight skeleton. Birds range in size from the 5 cm bee hummingbird to the 2.75 m ostrich. They rank as the world's most numerically-successful class of tetrapods, with ten thousand living species, more than half of these being passerines, sometimes known as perching birds. Birds have wings which are less developed depending on the species. Wings, which evolved from forelimbs, gave birds the ability to fly, although further evolution has led to the loss of flight in flightless birds, including ratites and diverse endemic island species of birds; the digestive and respiratory systems of birds are uniquely adapted for flight. Some bird species of aquatic environments seabirds and some waterbirds, have further evolved for swimming; the fossil record demonstrates that birds are modern feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from earlier feathered dinosaurs within the theropod group, which are traditionally placed within the saurischian dinosaurs.
The closest living relatives of birds are the crocodilians. Primitive bird-like dinosaurs that lie outside class Aves proper, in the broader group Avialae, have been found dating back to the mid-Jurassic period, around 170 million years ago. Many of these early "stem-birds", such as Archaeopteryx, were not yet capable of powered flight, many retained primitive characteristics like toothy jaws in place of beaks, long bony tails. DNA-based evidence finds that birds diversified around the time of the Cretaceous–Palaeogene extinction event 66 million years ago, which killed off the pterosaurs and all the non-avian dinosaur lineages, but birds those in the southern continents, survived this event and migrated to other parts of the world while diversifying during periods of global cooling. This makes them the sole surviving dinosaurs according to cladistics; some birds corvids and parrots, are among the most intelligent animals. Many species annually migrate great distances. Birds are social, communicating with visual signals and bird songs, participating in such social behaviours as cooperative breeding and hunting and mobbing of predators.
The vast majority of bird species are monogamous for one breeding season at a time, sometimes for years, but for life. Other species have breeding systems that are polygynous or polyandrous. Birds produce offspring by laying eggs, they are laid in a nest and incubated by the parents. Most birds have an extended period of parental care after hatching; some birds, such as hens, lay eggs when not fertilised, though unfertilised eggs do not produce offspring. Many species of birds are economically important as food for human consumption and raw material in manufacturing, with domesticated and undomesticated birds being important sources of eggs and feathers. Songbirds and other species are popular as pets. Guano is harvested for use as a fertiliser. Birds prominently figure throughout human culture. About 120–130 species have become extinct due to human activity since the 17th century, hundreds more before then. Human activity threatens about 1,200 bird species with extinction, though efforts are underway to protect them.
Recreational birdwatching is an important part of the ecotourism industry. The first classification of birds was developed by Francis Willughby and John Ray in their 1676 volume Ornithologiae. Carl Linnaeus modified that work in 1758 to devise the taxonomic classification system in use. Birds are categorised as the biological class Aves in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylogenetic taxonomy places Aves in the dinosaur clade Theropoda. Aves and a sister group, the clade Crocodilia, contain the only living representatives of the reptile clade Archosauria. During the late 1990s, Aves was most defined phylogenetically as all descendants of the most recent common ancestor of modern birds and Archaeopteryx lithographica. However, an earlier definition proposed by Jacques Gauthier gained wide currency in the 21st century, is used by many scientists including adherents of the Phylocode system. Gauthier defined Aves to include only the crown group of the set of modern birds; this was done by excluding most groups known only from fossils, assigning them, instead, to the Avialae, in part to avoid the uncertainties about the placement of Archaeopteryx in relation to animals traditionally thought of as theropod dinosaurs.
Gauthier identified four different definitions for the same biological name "Aves", a problem. Gauthier proposed to reserve the term Aves only for the crown group consisting of the last common ancestor of all living birds and all of its descendants, which corresponds to meaning number 4 below, he assigned other names to the other groups. Aves can mean all archosaurs closer to birds than to crocodiles Aves can mean those advanced archosaurs with feathers Aves can mean those feathered dinosaurs that fly Aves can mean the last common ancestor of all the living birds and all of its descendants (a "c
The grey-throated barbet is a species of bird in the Lybiidae family. It is found in Angola, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Kenya, South Sudan and Uganda
John Gerrard Keulemans
Johannes Gerardus Keulemans was a Dutch bird illustrator. For most of his life he lived and worked in England, illustrating a large number of the best-known ornithology books of the nineteenth century. Keulemans was born in Rotterdam; as a young man he collected animal specimens for museums such as the Natural History Museum in Leiden, whose director, Hermann Schlegel, encouraged Keulemans and sent him on the 1864 expedition to West Africa. In 1869, he was persuaded by Richard Bowdler Sharpe to illustrate his Monograph of the Alcedinidae, or Family of Kingfishers and to move to England, where he lived for the rest of his life, he was married twice, had eight children by his first wife and seven children by his second wife. Only nine of his children reached adulthood, he wrote topics on spirituality, claimed he had a premonition at the moment of death of one of his sons. He is buried in Buckingham Road cemetery, Ilford, in an unmarked grave. Keulemans provided illustrations for The Ibis and The Proceedings of the Zoological Society.
He illustrated many important bird books, including Buller's A History of the Birds of New Zealand, William Vincent Legge's History of the Birds of Ceylon, Daniel Giraud Elliot's Monograph of the Bucerotidae, Henry Seebohm's Monograph of the Turdidae, Osbert Salvin's Biologia Centrali-Americana, Edgar Leopold Layard's Birds of South Africa and Henry Eeles Dresser's History of the Birds of Europe, a single illustration in The Journal of the Linnean Society. One of his last great achievements was his contribution of over one hundred plates for Frederick Du Cane Godman's Monograph of the Petrels, he spent some time collecting birds in Cape Verde and West Africa. Keulemans is credited with describing the Cape Verde swamp-warbler, Calamodyta brevipennis; this is a drab bird about 14–16 cm. light brown above and on its flanks, buff below. He did not publish an illustration of it, but his plate for Acrocephalus brunnescens in George Henderson's Lahore to Yarkand is similar, his notes and findings on the island of Principe, along with those of his colleague Dr. H. Dohrn, would become the basis for a description of a rare ibis, Lampribis rothschildi Bannerman.
The only significant biography of Keulemans is by Jan Coldewey and Tony Keulemans, Feathers to Brush, a book that includes a bibliography of the artist's publications, a genealogical tree and appendices detailing his spiritualism, with a sample of his financial correspondence. Of note is a contemporary obituary of Keulemans in the journal British Birds. Tony Keulemans wrote Beyond the grave, which tells the story of a remarkable discovery of a painting John Gerrard had made of his own gravestone, and Tony Keulemans wrote an errata list to Feathers to Brush, which includes additional literature references and new genealogical findings. Keulemans's work is characterised by its consistency, showing little change over the course of his career, focused to an extraordinary degree on the rendering of fine detail; these generalisations have proven to be the basis for unjustified criticism of his work, since the nature of scientific illustration places a premium on consistency. Aside from this, a number of critics have rightly placed Keulemans above his contemporaries.
Keulemans was prodigious in his output - he was commissioned to paint pictures of birds extensively throughout his career, his prints were published continuously from 1867 to 1911. Keulemans' first prints appeared in two books by Francois Pollen, Contributions a l'histoire naturelle des Lemuriens and Een blik in Madagascar; some appeared after his death until 1915. A calculation of his total output gives about 4,000-5,000 published illustrations; the vast majority of these were vignettes published within octavo-size books and publications, a great number of his works appeared in quarto and in folio. While the subject of his illustrations was entirely avian, he was commissioned to create portraits of mammals and shells. Most of the illustrations by Keulemans were produced through traditional lithography, allowing for a finished product that depicts a vivid, lifelike figure through depth and tone. Printing was carried out by the two firms of Mintern and Hanhart, early in his career, some were printed by P. M. W. Trap.
The published lithographs were not coloured, some were not intended to be coloured. The technique of lithography made it necessary for the print to be coloured by hand; this was done by semi-skilled artisans working in an assembly line in a manner similar to stencilling. While Keulemans' talents as a draughtsman were hardly disputed by his contemporaries the finished, coloured plates were the subject of criticism. If the depicted colours did not match those of the birds, the value of the finished product was diminished. Keulemans painted remarkable pictures of extinct birds, including Walter Rothschild's Avifauna of Laysan, Extinct Birds. Examples in the American Museum of Natural History in New York include the Choiseul crested pigeon, Kangaroo Island emu, Lyall's wren, Hawaii oo, Hawaii mamo, Oahu oo, Guadalupe petrel, the laughing owl; the only work, not only illustrated but
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
A chordate is an animal constituting the phylum Chordata. During some period of their life cycle, chordates possess a notochord, a dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, a post-anal tail: these five anatomical features define this phylum. Chordates are bilaterally symmetric; the Chordata and Ambulacraria together form the superphylum Deuterostomia. Chordates are divided into three subphyla: Vertebrata. There are extinct taxa such as the Vetulicolia. Hemichordata has been presented as a fourth chordate subphylum, but now is treated as a separate phylum: hemichordates and Echinodermata form the Ambulacraria, the sister phylum of the Chordates. Of the more than 65,000 living species of chordates, about half are bony fish that are members of the superclass Osteichthyes. Chordate fossils have been found from as early as the Cambrian explosion, 541 million years ago. Cladistically, vertebrates - chordates with the notochord replaced by a vertebral column during development - are considered to be a subgroup of the clade Craniata, which consists of chordates with a skull.
The Craniata and Tunicata compose the clade Olfactores. Chordates form a phylum of animals that are defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following anatomical features: A notochord, a stiff rod of cartilage that extends along the inside of the body. Among the vertebrate sub-group of chordates the notochord develops into the spine, in wholly aquatic species this helps the animal to swim by flexing its tail. A dorsal neural tube. In fish and other vertebrates, this develops into the spinal cord, the main communications trunk of the nervous system. Pharyngeal slits; the pharynx is the part of the throat behind the mouth. In fish, the slits are modified to form gills, but in some other chordates they are part of a filter-feeding system that extracts particles of food from the water in which the animals live. Post-anal tail. A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus. An endostyle; this is a groove in the ventral wall of the pharynx. In filter-feeding species it produces mucus to gather food particles, which helps in transporting food to the esophagus.
It stores iodine, may be a precursor of the vertebrate thyroid gland. There are soft constraints that separate chordates from certain other biological lineages, but are not part of the formal definition: All chordates are deuterostomes; this means. All chordates are based on a bilateral body plan. All chordates are coelomates, have a fluid filled body cavity called a coelom with a complete lining called peritoneum derived from mesoderm; the following schema is from the third edition of Vertebrate Palaeontology. The invertebrate chordate classes are from Fishes of the World. While it is structured so as to reflect evolutionary relationships, it retains the traditional ranks used in Linnaean taxonomy. Phylum Chordata †Vetulicolia? Subphylum Cephalochordata – Class Leptocardii Clade Olfactores Subphylum Tunicata – Class Ascidiacea Class Thaliacea Class Appendicularia Class Sorberacea Subphylum Vertebrata Infraphylum incertae sedis Cyclostomata Superclass'Agnatha' paraphyletic Class Myxini Class Petromyzontida or Hyperoartia Class †Conodonta Class †Myllokunmingiida Class †Pteraspidomorphi Class †Thelodonti Class †Anaspida Class †Cephalaspidomorphi Infraphylum Gnathostomata Class †Placodermi Class Chondrichthyes Class †Acanthodii Superclass Osteichthyes Class Actinopterygii Class Sarcopterygii Superclass Tetrapoda Class Amphibia Class Sauropsida Class Synapsida Craniates, one of the three subdivisions of chordates, all have distinct skulls.
They include the hagfish. Michael J. Benton commented that "craniates are characterized by their heads, just as chordates, or all deuterostomes, are by their tails". Most craniates are vertebrates; these consist of a series of bony or cartilaginous cylindrical vertebrae with neural arches that protect the spinal cord, with projections that link the vertebrae. However hagfish have incomplete braincases and no vertebrae, are therefore not regarded as vertebrates, but as members of the craniates, the group from which vertebrates are thought to have evolved; however the cladistic exclusion of hagfish from the vertebrates is controversial, as they ma