Baltimore and Ohio Railroad
The Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was the first common carrier railroad and the oldest railroad in the United States, with its first section opening in 1830. It came into being because the city of Baltimore wanted to compete with the newly constructed Erie Canal and another canal being proposed by Pennsylvania, which would have connected Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. At first this railroad was located in the state of Maryland, with an original line built from the port of Baltimore west to Sandy Hook. At this point to continue westward, it had to cross into Virginia over the Potomac River, adjacent to the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers. From there it passed through Virginia from Harpers Ferry to a point just west of the junction of Patterson Creek and the North Branch Potomac River, where it crossed back into Maryland to reach Cumberland. From there it was extended to the Ohio River at Wheeling and a few years also to Parkersburg, West Virginia, it continued to construct lines into Ohio, including a junction at Portsmouth.
In years, B&O advertising carried the motto: "Linking 13 Great States with the Nation." As part of a series of mergers, the B&O is now part of the CSX Transportation network. The B&O included the Leiper Railroad, the first permanent horse-drawn railroad in the U. S. At the end of 1970, the B&O operated 5,552 miles of road and 10,449 miles of track, not including the Staten Island Rapid Transit or the Reading and its subsidiaries, it includes the oldest operational railroad bridge in the United States. When CSX established the B&O Railroad Museum as a separate entity from the corporation, it donated some of the former B&O Mount Clare Shops in Baltimore, including the Mt. Clare roundhouse, to the museum, while selling the rest of the property; the B&O Warehouse at the Camden Yards rail junction in Baltimore now dominates the view over the right-field wall at the Baltimore Orioles' current home, Oriole Park at Camden Yards. Part of the B&O Railroad's immortality has come from being one of the four featured railroads on the U.
S. version of the board game Monopoly. It is the only railroad on the board that did not directly serve New Jersey; the fast-growing port city of Baltimore, Maryland faced economic stagnation unless it opened routes to the western states, as New York had done with the Erie Canal in 1820. On February 27, 1827, twenty-five merchants and bankers studied the best means of restoring "that portion of the Western trade, diverted from it by the introduction of steam navigation." Their answer was to build a railroad—one of the first commercial lines in the world. Their plans worked well, despite many political problems from canal backers and those associated with other railroads; the railroad grew from a capital base of $3 million in 1827 to a large enterprise generating $2.7 million of annual profit on its 380 miles of track in 1854, with 19 million passenger miles. The railroad fed tens of millions of dollars of shipments to and from Baltimore and its growing hinterland to the west, thus making the city the commercial and financial capital of the region south of Philadelphia.
Two men — Philip E. Thomas and George Brown — were the pioneers of the railroad, they spent the year 1826 investigating railway enterprises in England, which were at that time being tested in a comprehensive fashion as commercial ventures. Their investigation completed, they held an organizational meeting on February 12, 1827, including about twenty-five citizens, most of whom were Baltimore merchants or bankers. Chapter 123 of the 1826 Session Laws of Maryland, passed February 28, 1827, the Commonwealth of Virginia on March 8, 1827, chartered the Baltimore and Ohio Rail Road Company, with the task of building a railroad from the port of Baltimore west to a suitable point on the Ohio River; the railroad, formally incorporated April 24, was intended to provide a faster route for Midwestern goods to reach the East Coast than the hugely successful but slow Erie Canal across upstate New York. Thomas was elected as Brown the treasurer; the capital of the proposed company was fixed at five million dollars, but the B&O was capitalized in 1827 with a three million dollar issue of stock.
Every citizen of Baltimore owned a share, as the offering was oversubscribed. Construction began on July 4, 1828, when Charles Carroll of Carrollton performed the groundbreaking by laying the cornerstone; the initial tracks were built with granite stringers topped by strap iron rails. The first section, from Baltimore west to Ellicott's Mills, opened on May 24, 1830. A horse pulled the first cars 26 miles and back, since the B&O did not decide to use steam power for several years. Railroad men in South Carolina had earlier commissioned a steam locomotive from a New York foundry, while the B&O was still experimenting with horse power and sails; the B&O's first locomotive, the "Tom Thumb", was made in America and would pull passenger and freight cars at 18 miles per hour. Developers decided to follow the Patapsco River to a point near Parr's Ridge, where the railroad would cross a height of land and descend into the valley of the Monocacy and Potomac rivers. Further extensions opened to Frederick on December 1, 1831.
The connection to the Winchester and Potomac Railroad at Harpers Ferry opened in 1837 the line to Martinsburg in May 1842.
Clarksburg, West Virginia
Clarksburg is a city in and the county seat of Harrison County, West Virginia, United States, in the north-central region of the state. The population of the city was 16,578 at the 2010 census, it is the principal city of the Clarksburg, WV Micropolitan Statistical Area, which had a population of 94,221 in 2014. Clarksburg was named National Small City of the Year in 2011 by the National League of Cities. Indigenous peoples have lived in the area for thousands of years; the Oak Mounds outside Clarksburg were created by the Hopewell culture mound builders between 1 and 1000 C. E; the first known non-indigenous visitor to the area that became Clarksburg was John Simpson, a trapper, who in 1764 located his camp on the West Fork River opposite the mouth of Elk Creek at 39°16′53″N 80°21′05″W As early as 1772, settlers began claiming lands near where Clarksburg now stands, building cabins. In 1773, Major Daniel Davisson took up 400 acres, upon which the principal part of the town is now located. By 1774, people settling near present Clarksburg included: Daniel Davisson, Obadiah Davisson, Amaziah Davisson, Thomas and Matthew Nutter and Andrew Cottrill, Sotha Hickman, Samuel Beard.
Undoubtedly, others located on these public lands. The Virginia General Assembly authorized the town of Clarksburg in 1785. Now a city, it is named for General George Rogers Clark, a Virginian who conducted many expeditions against the British and Indians during the Indian Wars and the war of the American Revolution, including the strategically critical capture of Fort of Vincennes, now in the State of Indiana, in 1778; as now-President George Washington had proposed years earlier, the General Assembly authorized a road from Winchester, Virginia to Morgantown in 1786, a branch from this road would soon begin through Clarksburg toward the Little Kanawha River. In 1787, the Virginia General Assembly authorized the Randolph Academy at Clarksburg, a private school led by Rev. George Towers and the first west of the Alleghenies. However, although many here as the 19th century began wanted the National Road westward to follow McCulloch's Path, Congress instead authorized construction on an easier route through Maryland and Wheeling, which opened in 1818.
Construction of the first Harrison County courthouse began in Clarksburg in 1787. That building was followed by four larger courthouses; the first Court House stood on what is now the North East Corner of Main Streets. Poor transportation slowed northwestern Virginia's development, so subscribers in Winchester, Kingwood, Clarksburg and other towns en route caused the Northwestern Turnpike to be built. While the toll road increased development around Clarksburg in the 1830s, it used a anachronistic model. Nonetheless, the Randolph Academy was razed and replaced by the Northwestern Academy in 1841, a year after stage coach service began between Clarksburg and Parkersburg on the Ohio River. Clarksburg's development increased more a decade due to new technology and further subscriptions; the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad reached Clarksburg from Grafton in 1856. Two of the modern city's historic buildings date from this prewar era; the Stealey-Goff-Vance House, now owned by the Harrison County Historical Society, was constructed in 1807, expanded in 1891 and listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1979.
Waldomore was built beginning in 1839, served as the Clarksburg Public Library from 1931-1976, added to the National Register in 1978. During the Virginia Secession Convention of 1861, both Harrison County delegates opposed secession although delegate Benjamin Wilson abstained from the final vote, its other delegate, John S. Carlile, became a leader of the Wheeling Convention which led to creation of the Restored Government of Virginia during the American Civil War, creation of the State of West Virginia. On the other hand, Confederate General Stonewall Jackson had been born in Clarksburg in 1828. Clarksburg's citizenry reflected this divide. Union General McClellan established his headquarters near Clarksburg until the First Battle of Bull Run; the B&O line made Clarksburg an important Union supply base throughout the war, with at one point more than 7000 troops in the city. It became a target of Confederate raiders, but none reached the city, instead striking surrounding areas with fewer defenders.
The closest, most famous raid, the Jones-Imboden Raid of April and May 1863, was designed to impede recognition of West Virginia. In 1877, Clarksburg became one of three cities from which West Virginia voters would select their new state capitol. Despite its central location and an early lead, it came in second. Around that time Clarksburg gained some industry and manufacturing involving glass and coal; the city grew but and services increased apace. The still-functional Despard Building was built
Salem, West Virginia
Salem is a city in Harrison County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 1,586 at the 2010 census, it is located at the junction of U. S. Route 50 and West Virginia Route 23. Salem University is located in Salem. Salem is located at 39°17′0″N 80°33′46″W, along Salem Fork, a tributary of Tenmile Creek. in western Harrison County According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.34 square miles, all of it land. Salem was settled in the summer of 1790 — as "New Salem" — by forty Seventh Day Baptist families from Shrewsbury, New Jersey. Notable settler family names included Lippincott, Babcock, Plumer and Randolph. New Salem was formally chartered and made a town by legislative enactment of the Virginia Assembly on December 19, 1794, on land owned by Samuel Fitz Randolph. John Patterson, John Davis, Samuel Lippincott, James Davis, Zebulon Maxon, Benjamin Thorp, Thomas Clayton, William Davis, Jacob Davis, George Jackson and John Haymond were appointed its first trustees.
By the 1870s, the town was more being called "Salem" than "New Salem", as the separation of West Virginia from Virginia in 1863 had diminished the need to distinguish it from the town named Salem near Roanoke. The US Postal Service made the change official in March 1884. Salem was incorporated by the state of West Virginia on 25 February 1905. Salem has a history of large fires; the same full city block has burned down twice in the city's history. The north side of Main Street downtown burned once in 1901 and again on March 2, 2006; the more recent fire burned the old city bank building, several store fronts, several residences. The fire was determined to have been started by a hot water tank in an apartment; the fire departments' ability to put out the blaze was hampered by a limited city water supply. The Salem College Administration Building and Salem Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,586 people, 662 households, 384 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,183.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 834 housing units at an average density of 622.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.5% White, 4.1% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.1% Asian, 0.1% from other races, 2.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.1% of the population. There were 662 households of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 36.4% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.0% were non-families. 35.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age in the city was 36.1 years. 20.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.1% male and 50.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,006 people, 744 households, 412 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,451.0 people per square mile. There were 858 housing units at an average density of 620.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.39% White, 2.34% African American, 0.20% Native American, 7.93% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.75% from other races, 1.35% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.00% of the population. There were 744 households out of which 26.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.6% were married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 44.5% were non-families. 36.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21 and the average family size was 2.92. In the city, the population was spread out with 18.3% under the age of 18, 25.2% from 18 to 24, 21.0% from 25 to 44, 18.3% from 45 to 64, 17.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.4 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.0 males. The median income for a household in the city was $16,577, the median income for a family was $27,688. Males had a median income of $27,031 versus $16,667 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,188. About 26.7% of families and 34.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 40.6% of those under age 18 and 14.7% of those age 65 or over. Jennings Randolph: US Senator for West Virginia Melvin Mayfield: US Army soldier and a recipient of the US military's highest decoration — the Medal of Honor — for his actions in World War II
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
Lost Creek, West Virginia
Lost Creek is a town in Harrison County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 496 at the 2010 census; the town takes its name from nearby Lost Creek. The Daniel Bassel House and Lost Creek Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Depot are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Lost Creek is located at 39°9′30″N 80°20′53″W. in southern Harrison County According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.97 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 496 people, 185 households, 139 families residing in the town; the population density was 511.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 205 housing units at an average density of 211.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 95.8% White, 0.8% African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.6% from other races, 2.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 185 households of which 37.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.7% were married couples living together, 20.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 24.9% were non-families.
18.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 2.97. The median age in the town was 38.2 years. 27.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 48.2% male and 51.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 467 people, 184 households, 133 families residing in the town; the population density was 461.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 207 housing units at an average density of 204.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.29% White, 0.21% Asian, 1.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.43% of the population. There were 184 households out of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 15.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.7% were non-families. 24.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.00. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.8% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 23.6% from 45 to 64, 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.3 males. The median income for a household in the town was $26,563, the median income for a family was $35,893. Males had a median income of $32,292 versus $19,500 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,711. About 22.6% of families and 26.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.8% of those under age 18 and 20.5% of those age 65 or over
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Harrison County, West Virginia
Harrison County is a county in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 69,099; the county seat is Clarksburg. The county was founded in 1784. Harrison County is part of WV Micropolitan Statistical Area. Indigenous peoples lived in the area; the Oak Mounds outside Clarksburg were built by the Hopewell culture mound builders sometime between 1 and 1000 C. E. White trappers visited the area, now Harrison County as early as the 1760s; some traded with the Native Americans of the area. The Virginia Colony claimed the area as part of its vast Augusta County; the first permanent settler in the area was hunter and trapper John Simpson, who erected a cabin at the mouth of Elk Creek on the West Fork River in 1763 or'64. Simpson left his name on "Simpson's Creek" after building and living in a cabin there for several months. Settler Daniel Davisson, an immigrant from New Jersey, claimed the land upon which present-day Clarksburg, Harrison County, was formed in 1773. Simpson's story did not end well.
According to a 19th-century local historian, he...... continued to hunt and trap for a year without encountering any other human being. In 1765, he went to the South Branch to dispose of a stock of skins and furs, returning to his camp, remained until permanent settlements were made in the vicinity.... Simpson's cabin was located about one mile from Clarksburg, on the west side of the West Fork River... Simpson became indebted to a man named Cottrial to the amount of "one quart of salt", which he agreed to pay him, either in money or salt, upon his return from Winchester, whither he was going to dispose of a stock of skins and furs. Upon his return, a dispute arose between them, regarding the payment, Cottrial, in the heat of passion, hastened from the house, grasping Daniel Davisson's gun, which stood leaning against the cabin, took aim through the space between the logs, attempted to shoot Simpson; the latter, was too quick for him, springing outside, grasped the gun from Cottrial's hands and killed him.
This was the first tragedy of this nature in the vicinity. After the American Revolutionary War, Harrison County was organized in 1784, formed from Monongalia County and named for Benjamin Harrison V, who had retired as the Governor of Virginia. Over the next 72 years, all of eight present-day West Virginia counties and parts of ten others were formed from this original Harrison County; the first meeting of the Harrison County court was held on July 1784 at home of George Jackson. The group decided, they moved the county seat to Clarksburg. The town, named in honor of the explorer General George Rogers Clark, was chartered by the Virginia General Assembly in October 1785, it was incorporated in 1795. Clarksburg's first newspaper, The By-Stander, began publication in 1810. Construction of the Northwestern Turnpike connecting Winchester and Parkersburg, reached the town in 1836, stimulating development by connecting it to other markets. Clarksburg's economic development was helped by the arrival of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in 1856.
The railroad was instrumental in the development of the local coal mining industry during the late 1800s and early 1900s. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 417 square miles, of which 416 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles is water. The county is drained by the West Fork River and its tributaries, including Tenmile Creek, Simpson Creek, Elk Creek, and. Marion County Taylor County Barbour County Upshur County Lewis County Doddridge County Wetzel County As of the census of 2000, there were 68,652 people, 27,867 households, 19,088 families residing in the county; the population density was 165 people per square mile. There were 31,112 housing units at an average density of 75 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.55% White, 1.61% Black or African American, 0.15% Native American, 0.59% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 0.86% from two or more races. 0.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 27,867 households out of which 29.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.30% were living together, 11.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.50% were non-families.
27.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.10% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 27.50% from 25 to 44, 24.50% from 45 to 64, 16.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,562, the median income for a family was $36,870. Males had a median income of $30,721 versus $22,110 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,810. About 13.60% of families and 17.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.10% of those under age 18 and 9.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 69,099 people, 28,533 households, 18,992 famil