Budapest is the capital and the most populous city of Hungary, the tenth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits. The city had an estimated population of 1,752,704 in 2016 distributed over a land area of about 525 square kilometres. Budapest is both a city and county, forms the centre of the Budapest metropolitan area, which has an area of 7,626 square kilometres and a population of 3,303,786, comprising 33 percent of the population of Hungary; the history of Budapest began when an early Celtic settlement transformed into the Roman town of Aquincum, the capital of Lower Pannonia. The Hungarians arrived in the territory in the late 9th century; the area was pillaged by the Mongols in 1241. Buda, the settlements on the west bank of the river, became one of the centres of Renaissance humanist culture by the 15th century; the Battle of Mohács in 1526 was followed by nearly 150 years of Ottoman rule. After the reconquest of Buda in 1686, the region entered a new age of prosperity.
Pest-Buda became a global city with the unification of Buda, Óbuda, Pest on 17 November 1873, with the name'Budapest' given to the new capital. Budapest became the co-capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a great power that dissolved in 1918, following World War I; the city was the focal point of the Hungarian Revolution of 1848, the Battle of Budapest in 1945, the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. Budapest is an Alpha − global city with strengths in commerce, media, fashion, technology and entertainment, it is Hungary's financial centre and the highest ranked Central and Eastern European city on Innovation Cities Top 100 index, as well ranked as the second fastest-developing urban economy in Europe. Budapest is the headquarters of the European Institute of Innovation and Technology, the European Police College and the first foreign office of the China Investment Promotion Agency. Over 40 colleges and universities are located in Budapest, including the Eötvös Loránd University, the Semmelweis University and the Budapest University of Technology and Economics.
Opened in 1896, the city's subway system, the Budapest Metro, serves 1.27 million, while the Budapest Tram Network serves 1.08 million passengers daily. Budapest is cited as one of the most beautiful cities in Europe, ranked as "the world's second best city" by Condé Nast Traveler, "Europe's 7th most idyllic place to live" by Forbes. Among Budapest's important museums and cultural institutions is the Museum of Fine Arts. Further famous cultural institutions are the Hungarian National Museum, House of Terror, Franz Liszt Academy of Music, Hungarian State Opera House and National Széchényi Library; the central area of the city along the Danube River is classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and has many notable monuments, including the Hungarian Parliament, Buda Castle, Fisherman's Bastion, Gresham Palace, Széchenyi Chain Bridge, Matthias Church and the Liberty Statue. Other famous landmarks include Andrássy Avenue, St. Stephen's Basilica, Heroes' Square, the Great Market Hall, the Nyugati Railway Station built by the Eiffel Company of Paris in 1877 and the second-oldest metro line in the world, the Millennium Underground Railway.
The city has around 80 geothermal springs, the largest thermal water cave system, second largest synagogue, third largest Parliament building in the world. Budapest attracts 4.4 million international tourists per year, making it a popular destination in Europe. The separate towns of Buda, Óbuda, Pest were in 1873 unified and given the new name Budapest. Before this, the towns together had sometimes been referred to colloquially as "Pest-Buda". Pest has been sometimes used colloquially as a shortened name for Budapest. All varieties of English pronounce the -s- as in the English word pest; the -u in Buda- is pronounced either /u/ like food or /ju/ like cue. In Hungarian, the -s- is pronounced /ʃ/ as in wash; the origins of the names "Buda" and "Pest" are obscure. The first name comes from: Buda was the name of the first constable of the fortress built on the Castle Hill in the 11th century or a derivative of Bod or Bud, a personal name of Turkic origin, meaning'twig'. or a Slavic personal name, the short form of Budimír, Budivoj.
Linguistically, however, a German origin through the Slavic derivative вода is not possible, there is no certainty that a Turkic word comes from the word buta ~ buda'branch, twig'. According to a legend recorded in chronicles from the Middle Ages, "Buda" comes from the name of its founder, brother of Hunnic ruler Attila. There are several theories about Pest. One states that the name derives from Roman times, since there was a local fortress called by Ptolemaios "Pession". Another has it that Pest originates in the Slavic word for пещера, or peštera. A third cites pešt, referencing a cave where fires burned or a limekiln; the first settlement on the territory of Budapest was built by Celts before 1 AD. It was occupied by the Romans; the Roman settlement – Aquincum – became the main city of Pannonia Inferior in 106 AD. At first it was a military settlement, the city rose around it, making it the focal point of the city's commercial life. Today this area corresponds to the Óbuda district within Budapest.
The Romans constructed roads, amphitheaters and houses with heated floors in this fortified military camp. The Roman city of Aquincum is the best-conserved of the Roman sites in Hungary; the archaeological site was turned into a museum with open-air sections. The Magyar tribes led by Árpád, forc
Hármashatár-hegy is the name of a mountain in the city of Budapest, Hungary. Its name comes from the fact. Today, these cities have merged into Budapest. However, the border between the II and III districts still bisects the mountain; the mountain is located at 495 m above sea level. The mountain is a popular place for hiking and paragliding. In the winter it is a place for sled riding. There are several trails in the area, but the only one that reaches the top is the blue trail known as the Country Blue Trail. At the summit there are radio towers, as well as a restaurant, it is windy at the peak, due to the lack of trees. Snow may linger up to two weeks. On average, the temperature is a couple of degrees Celsius less than on the Pest side; the non-public Hármashatárhegy Airport has a single 1000 x 100 m runway and serves the Budapest-Hármashatárhegy region. Hármashatár-hegy is part of the Buda Hills
Austrian German, Austrian Standard German, Standard Austrian German, or Austrian High German, is the variety of Standard German written and spoken in Austria. It has the highest sociolinguistic prestige locally, as it is the variation used in the media and for other formal situations. In less formal situations, Austrians tend to use forms closer to or identical with the Bavarian and Alemannic dialects, traditionally spoken – but written – in Austria. Austrian German has its beginning in the mid-18th century, when empress Maria Theresa and her son Joseph II introduced compulsory schooling and several reforms of administration in their multilingual Habsburg empire. At the time, the written standard was Oberdeutsche Schreibsprache, influenced by the Bavarian and Alemannic dialects of Austria. Another option was to create a new standard based on the Southern German dialects, as proposed by the linguist Johann Siegmund Popowitsch. Instead they decided for pragmatic reasons to adopt the standardized Chancellery language of Saxony, based on the administrative language of the non-Austrian area of Meißen and Dresden.
Thus Standard Austrian German has the same geographic origin as the Standard German of Germany and Swiss High German. The process of introducing the new written standard was led by Joseph von Sonnenfels. Since 1951 the standardized form of Austrian German for official texts and schools has been defined by the Austrian Dictionary, published under the authority of the Austrian Federal Ministry of Education and Culture; as German is a pluricentric language, Austrian German is one among several varieties of Standard German. Much like the relationship between British English and American English, the German varieties differ in minor respects but are recognizably equivalent and mutually intelligible; the official Austrian dictionary, das Österreichische Wörterbuch, prescribes grammatical and spelling rules defining the official language. Austrian delegates participated in the international working group that drafted the German spelling reform of 1996—several conferences leading up to the reform were hosted in Vienna at the invitation of the Austrian federal government—and adopted it as a signatory, along with Germany and Liechtenstein, of an international memorandum of understanding signed in Vienna in 1996.
The "sharp s" is used in Austria, as in Germany. Because of the German language's pluricentric nature, German dialects in Austria should not be confused with the variety of Standard German spoken by most Austrians, distinct from that of Germany or Switzerland. Distinctions in vocabulary persist, for example, in culinary terms, where communication with Germans is difficult, administrative and legal language, due to Austria's exclusion from the development of a German nation-state in the late 19th century and its manifold particular traditions. A comprehensive collection of Austrian-German legal and economic terms is offered in Markhardt, Heidemarie: Wörterbuch der österreichischen Rechts-, Wirtschafts- und Verwaltungsterminologie; the former standard, used for about 300 years or more in speech in refined language, was the Schönbrunner Deutsch, a sociolect spoken by the imperial Habsburg family and the nobility of Austria-Hungary. It differed from other dialects in pronunciation; this was not a standard in a modern technical sense, as it was just the social standard of upper-class speech.
For many years, Austria had a special form of the language for official government documents. This form is known as Österreichische Kanzleisprache, or "Austrian chancellery language", it is a traditional form of the language derived from medieval deeds and documents, has a complicated structure and vocabulary reserved for such documents. For most speakers, this form of the language is difficult to understand, as it contains many specialised terms for diplomatic, internal and military matters. There are no regional variations, because this special written form has been used by a government that has now for centuries been based in Vienna. Österreichische Kanzleisprache is now used less and less, thanks to various administrative reforms that reduced the number of traditional civil servants. As a result, Standard German is replacing it in government and administrative texts; when Austria became a member of the European Union, 23 food-related terms were listed in its accession agreement as having the same legal status as the equivalent terms used in Germany.
Austrian German is the only variety of a pluricentric language recognized under international law or EU primary law. In Austria, as in the German-speaking parts of Switzerland and in southern Germany, verbs that express a state tend to use sein as the auxiliary verb in the perfect, as well as verbs of movement. Verbs which fall into this category include liegen and, in parts of Carinthia, schlafen. Therefore, the perfect of these verbs would be ich bin gesessen, ich bin gelegen and ich bin geschlafen respectively. In Germany, the words stehen and gestehen are identic
Geography of Hungary
With a land area of 93,030 square km, Hungary is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It measures about 250 km from north, it has 2,106 km of boundaries, shared with Austria to the west, Serbia and Slovenia to the south and southwest, Romania to the southeast, Ukraine to the northeast, Slovakia to the north. Hungary's modern borders were first established after World War I when, by the terms of the Treaty of Trianon in 1920, it lost more than 71% of what had been the Kingdom of Hungary, 58.5% of its population, 32% of the Hungarians. The country secured some boundary revisions from 1938 to 1941: In 1938 the First Vienna Award gave back territory from Czechoslovakia, in 1939 Hungary occupied Carpatho-Ukraine. In 1940 the Second Vienna Award gave back Northern Transylvania and Hungary occupied the Bácska and Muraköz regions during the Invasion of Yugoslavia. However, Hungary lost these territories again with its defeat in World War II. After World War II, the Trianon boundaries were restored with a small revision that benefited Czechoslovakia.
Most of the country has an elevation of less than 200 m. Although Hungary has several moderately high ranges of mountains, those reaching heights of 300 m or more cover less than 2% of the country; the highest point in the country is Kékes in the Mátra Mountains northeast of Budapest. The lowest spot is 77.6 m above sea level, located in the south near Szeged. The major rivers in the country are the Tisza; the Danube is navigable within Hungary for 418 kilometers. The Tisza River is navigable for 444 km in the country. Less important rivers include the Drava along the Croatian border, the Rába, the Szamos, the Sió, the Ipoly along the Slovakian border. Hungary has three major lakes. Lake Balaton, the largest, is 78 km long and from 3 to 14 km wide, with an area of 600 square km. Hungarians refer to it as the Hungarian Sea, it is an important recreation area. Its shallow waters offer good summer swimming, in winter its frozen surface provides excellent opportunities for winter sports. Smaller bodies of water are Lake Velence in Fejér County and Lake Fertő, the artificial Lake Tisza.
Hungary has three major geographic regions: the Great Alföld, lying east of the Danube River. The country's best natural resource is fertile land. About 70% of the country's total territory is suitable for agriculture. Hungary lacks extensive domestic sources of energy and raw materials needed for industrial development. Main articles: Little Hungarian Plain, Great Alföld; the Little Alföld or Little Hungarian Plain is a plain of 8,000 km2 in northwestern Hungary, southwestern Slovakia and eastern Austria, along the lower course of the Rába River, with high quality fertile soils. The Transdanubia region lies in the western part of the country, bounded by the Danube River, the Drava River, the remainder of the country's border with Slovenia and Croatia, it lies west of the course of the Danube. It contains Lake Balaton; the region consists of rolling hills. Transdanubia is an agricultural area, with flourishing crops and viticulture. Mineral deposits and oil are found in Zala county close to the border of Croatia.
The Great Alföld contains the basin of its branches. It encompasses more than half of the country's territory. Bordered by mountains on all sides, it has a variety of terrains, including regions of fertile soil, sandy areas and swampy areas. Hungarians have inhabited the Great Plain for at least a millennium. Here is found the puszta, a long, uncultivated expanse, with which much Hungarian folklore is associated. In earlier centuries, the Great Plain was unsuitable for farming because of frequent flooding. Instead, it was the home of massive herds of horses. In the last half of the 19th century, the government sponsored programs to control the riverways and expedite inland drainage in the Great Plain. With the danger of recurrent flooding eliminated, much of the land was placed under cultivation, herding ceased to be a major contributor to the area's economy. Main articles: Alpokalja, Transdanubian Mountains, North Hungarian Mountains. Although the majority of the country has an elevation lesser than 300 m, Hungary has several moderately high ranges of mountains.
They can be classified to four geographic regions, from west to east: Alpokalja, Transdanubian Mountains and North Hungarian Mountains. Alpokalja is located along the Austrian border; the Transdanubian Mountains stretch from the west part of Lake Balaton to the Danube Bend near Budapest, where it meets the North Hungarian Mountains. Its tallest peak is the 757 m high Pilis. Mecsek is the southernmost Hungarian mountain range, located north from Pécs - Its highest point is the Zengő with 682 metres; the North Hungarian Mountains lie north of Budapest and run in a northeasterly direction south of the border with Slovakia. The higher ridges, which are forested, have rich coal and iron deposits. Minerals are a major resource of the area and have long been the
Buda was the ancient capital of the Kingdom of Hungary and since 1873 has been the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest, on the west bank of the Danube. Buda comprises a third of Budapest’s total territory and is in fact wooded. Landmarks include Buda Castle, the Citadella, President of Hungary's residence Sándor Palace; the Buda fortress and palace were built by King Béla IV of Hungary in 1247, were the nucleus round which the town of Buda was built, which soon gained great importance, became in 1361 the capital of Hungary. While Pest was Hungarian in the 15th century, Buda had a German majority. Buda became part of Ottoman-ruled central Hungary from 1541 to 1686, it was the capital of the province of Budin during the Ottoman era. By the middle of the seventeenth century Buda had become majority Muslim resulting from an influx of Balkan Muslims. In 1686, two years after the unsuccessful siege of Buda, a renewed European campaign was started to enter Buda, the capital of medieval Hungary.
This time, the Holy League's army was twice as large, containing over 74,000 men, including German, Hungarian, Spanish, French, Burgundian and Swedish soldiers, along with other Europeans as volunteers and officers, the Christian forces reconquered Buda. After the reconquest of Buda, bourgeoisie from different parts of southern Germany moved into the deserted city. Germans — clinging to their language — crowded out assimilated the Hungarians and Serbians they had found here; as the rural population moved into Buda, in the 19th century Hungarians became the majority there. Edmund Hauler and philologist Andrew III of Hungary, buried in the Greyfriars' Church in Buda Jadwiga of Poland, born here, first woman proclaimed to be'king' of Poland. Capestrano, Italy Pest Óbuda Buda Castle Richard Brookes, "Buda", The General Gazetteer, London: J. F. C. Rivington David Brewster, ed.. "Buda". Edinburgh Encyclopædia. Edinburgh: William Blackwood. John Thomson, "Buda", New Universal Gazetteer and Geographical Dictionary, London: H.
G. Bohn Charles Knight, ed.. "Buda". Geography. English Cyclopaedia. 2. London: Bradbury, Evans, & Co. Drawings of Castle Buda over the centuries
Óbuda was a city in Hungary, merged with Buda and Pest on 17 November 1873. The name means Old Buda in Hungarian; the name in Croatian and Serbian for this city is Stari Budim, but the local Croat minority calls it Obuda. The island next to this part of the city today hosts the Sziget Festival, a huge music and cultural festival. Óbuda's centre is Fő tér, connected to a small square with a sculpture of people waiting for the rain to stop. It is accessible by HÉV. Settlements dating from the stone age have been found in Óbuda; the Romans built the capital of Pannonia province here. Hungarians arrived after 900 and it served as an important settlement of major tribal leaders kings. Béla IV of Hungary built a new capital after the 1241-42 Mongol invasion in Buda, somewhat south of Óbuda; the Jewish Elementary School in Óbuda was victim of the Holocaust. On 13 June 2012, a commemorative plaque to the former teachers and students was affixed to the wall of the building erected on the site of the school.
Quote: I will give them an everlasting name, that shall not be cut off. Károly Bebo – sculptor József Manes Österreicher – physician Pál Harrer – the first and only mayor of Óbuda Egon Orowan – physicist and metallurgist Aquincum Museum, small museum displays jewels, metal tools, wall paintings relating to the lives of ancient Romans living in Aquincum; the museum's outdoor site contains remnants of the town, including courtyards, baths, a market place, large columns, a stone sarcophagus. Roman ruins elsewhere in Óbuda include baths that served the Roman legionnaires stationed in Aquincum, the Hercules Villa, two amphitheatres, the Aquincum Civil Amphitheater and the larger Aquincum Military Amphitheatre. Kassák Museum, a branch museum of the Petőfi Literary Museum. Kerületi TUE, football team 33 FC, football team Official website A Walk through Old Buda
Hungary is a country in Central Europe. Spanning 93,030 square kilometres in the Carpathian Basin, it borders Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, Slovenia to the west. With about 10 million inhabitants, Hungary is a medium-sized member state of the European Union; the official language is Hungarian, the most spoken Uralic language in the world, among the few non-Indo-European languages to be spoken in Europe. Hungary's capital and largest city is Budapest; the territory of modern Hungary was for centuries inhabited by a succession of peoples, including Celts, Germanic tribes, West Slavs and the Avars. The foundations of the Hungarian state were established in the late ninth century CE by the Hungarian grand prince Árpád following the conquest of the Carpathian Basin, his great-grandson Stephen I ascended the throne in 1000, converting his realm to a Christian kingdom. By the 12th century, Hungary became a regional power, reaching its cultural and political height in the 15th century.
Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, Hungary was occupied by the Ottoman Empire. It came under Habsburg rule at the turn of the 18th century, joined Austria to form the Austro–Hungarian Empire, a major European power; the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed after World War I, the subsequent Treaty of Trianon established Hungary's current borders, resulting in the loss of 71% of its territory, 58% of its population, 32% of ethnic Hungarians. Following the tumultuous interwar period, Hungary joined the Axis Powers in World War II, suffering significant damage and casualties. Hungary became a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which contributed to the establishment of a socialist republic spanning four decades; the country gained widespread international attention as a result of its 1956 revolution and the seminal opening of its previously-restricted border with Austria in 1989, which accelerated the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. On 23 October 1989, Hungary became a democratic parliamentary republic.
Hungary is an OECD high-income economy and has the world's 58th largest economy by PPP. It ranks 45th on the Human Development Index, owing in large part to its social security system, universal health care, tuition-free secondary education. Hungary's rich cultural history includes significant contributions to the arts, literature, sports and technology, it is the 13th most popular tourist destination in Europe, attracting 15.8 million international tourists in 2017, owing to attractions such as the largest thermal water cave system in the world, second largest thermal lake, the largest lake in Central Europe and the largest natural grasslands in Europe. Hungary's cultural and academic prominence classify it as a middle power in global affairs. Hungary joined the European Union in 2004 and has been part of the Schengen Area since 2007, it is a member of numerous international organizations, including the United Nations, NATO, WTO, World Bank, the AIIB, the Council of Europe, the Visegrád Group.
The "H" in the name of Hungary is most due to early founded historical associations with the Huns, who had settled Hungary prior to the Avars. The rest of the word comes from the Latinized form of Byzantine Greek Oungroi. According to an explanation,the Greek name was borrowed from Old Bulgarian ągrinŭ, in turn borrowed from Oghur-Turkic Onogur. Onogur was the collective name for the tribes who joined the Bulgar tribal confederacy that ruled the eastern parts of Hungary after the Avars; the Hungarian endonym is Magyarország, composed of ország. The word magyar is taken from the name of one of the seven major semi-nomadic Hungarian tribes, magyeri; the first element magy is from Proto-Ugric *mäńć-'man, person' found in the name of the Mansi people. The second element eri,'man, lineage', survives in Hungarian férj'husband', is cognate with Mari erge'son', Finnish archaic yrkä'young man'; the Roman Empire conquered the territory west of the Danube between 35 and 9 BC. From 9 BC to the end of the 4th century, Pannonia was part of the Roman Empire, located within part of Hungary's territory.
Around AD 41–54, a 500-strong cavalry unit created the settlement of Aquincum and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. A civil city grew in the neighbourhood of the military settlement and in AD 106 Aquincum became the focal point of the commercial life of this area and the capital city of the province of Pannonia Inferior; this area now corresponds to the Óbuda district of Budapest, with the Roman ruins now forming part of the modern Aquincum museum. Came the Huns, a Central Asian tribe who built a powerful empire. After Hunnish rule, the Germanic Ostrogoths and Gepids, the Avar Khaganate, had a presence in the Carpathian Basin. In the 9th century, East Francia, the First Bulgarian Empire and Great Moravia ruled the territory of the Carpathian Basin; the freshly unified Hungarians led by Árpád, settled in the Carpathian Basin starting in 895. According to linguistic evidence, they originated from an ancient Uralic-speaking population that inhabited the forested area between the Volga River and the Ural Mountains.
As a federation of united tribes, Hungary was established in 895, some 50 years after the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun in 843, before the unification of the Anglo-Saxon king