Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
AC4 is a hardcore band from Umeå, Sweden. Refused members Dennis Lyxzén and David Sandström had been talking about starting a new band for a long time. In the spring of 2008 Karl Backman had written songs for the new band and they started to rehearse. Jens Nordén had played with Lyxzén in pre-Refused straight edge hardcore band Step Forward and since 1990 with Backman in punk band The Vectors; the "AC" in the name is the regional code for the Västerbotten province. The first show was at a squatting on Parkgatan in Umeå on the Mayu 5th, 2008. In May 2008 someone posted a live song on YouTube, it had over 14,000 hits the first week. They performed at Storsjöyran and Umeå Punkfest in 2008. In 2009 they performed at Way Out West Festival and released the self-titled debut album on Lyxzén's label Ny Våg. In 2010 their European tour took them around their native Sweden, as well as Norway, Germany, Austria, Italy and Wales, they released the Umeå Hardcore 7" EP in Europe, a special 7" for Australia only and the debut album came out in America.
AC4 refused to do interviews with mainstream media and would only answer questions from fanzine writers who were under the age of 18. To promote their Australian tour in April, 2011, Dennis conducted a number of interviews with the local press, including Melbourne radio show Bullying The Jukebox. While on tour in Australia a short documentary film about the band entitled "A few minutes with AC4" was filmed, along with a promotional video for the song "Won't Bow Down" from their debut album. In May 2012 the band announced that Sandström had been replaced by Christoffer Röstlund Jonsson and that the recording of a second album had begun; the album Burn The World was released in March 2013 on Deathwish Inc.. The band is performing at some upcoming festivals including Groezrock on a spring 2013 tour. A week before the tour the band announced that Nordén had left AC4, but is being replaced by their producer Fredrik Lyxzén. Current membersDennis Lyxzén – lead vocals Karl Backman – guitar, backing vocals Christoffer Röstlund Jonsson – bass, backing vocals Fredrik Lyxzén – drums Former membersDavid Sandström – bass, backing vocals Jens Nordén – drums AC4 CD/LP Ny Våg, Sweden 2009 LP Deranged Records, Canada 2010 CD Shock Entertainment, Australia 2011 Burn the World CD/LP Ny Våg records, Sweden 2013 LP Deathwish Inc.
USA 2013 Split 7" w/ Surprise Sex Attack 7" Aniseed records 2010 Umeå Hardcore' 7" P-Trash records 2010 Umeå Vråljazz Giganter' CD/LP Ny Våg records 2010 "Curva del Diablo" "Burn the World" Official AC4 Facebook Official AC4 Myspace Rockfoto AC4 Ny Våg Triple R interview with Dennis
Districts of Sweden
Municipalities in Sweden are in some rare cases divided into smaller districts or urban districts, are sometimes assigned administrative boards responsible for certain areas of governance in their respective areas. These districts are not specified by national Swedish law, but rather are created by individual municipalities, thus the Swedish names of these districts vary from municipality to municipality, including kommundelar, stadsdelområden, primärområden, or stadsdelsnämndsområden; the degree of administrative autonomy of these districts varies but is very limited. The city council of Stockholm Municipality has divided the city into smaller subdivisions; the city uses the English term "district" to describe these subdivisions. The districts were first created in 1997 to facilitate the efficiency of local government in Stockholm; the number of districts was reduced from 24 to 18 the following year, reduced again to the current 14 in 2007. Since the establishment of these districts, certain administrative tasks, such as school administration were re-centralized.
Each district has its own district administration, led by a district council, responsible for certain areas of municipal governance within their district, including pre-school education, park maintenance, local economic initiatives, elderly services, financial counseling, refugee reception services. Individual district councils have no power over city planning or tax policy, both of which are retained by the central city council; the councilors that serve on these district councils are part-time politicians holding other employment. They are preferably residents of the district; the central city council itself is responsible for setting the budget and responsibilities of the district councils. The city council appoints the members of each district council, so the political makeup of the district council resembles that of the central city council, not that of the district; the member of the district council are not elected in any fashion by the residents of the district in question. Stockholm's 14 districts are sometimes divided into smaller parts for statistical purposes, however these smaller districts have no administrative function in the city's governance.
Stockholm has 14 districts as of the administrative changes made in 2007: Gothenburg Municipality is divided into subdivisions which it refers to as "districts" in English, though as with Stockholm's districts, they are referred to as boroughs in unofficial contexts. The Swedish term used by the city council is stadsdelsnämndsområden; these districts were created in 1990. Just like in Stockholm, these districts each have a local governing body which Gothenburg calls "district committees." These committees serve a nearly identical function to Stockholm's district councils, including recreation, local economic issues and social services, the lower levels of the education system, like Stockholm's councils, these committees are appointed by the centralized city council. Gothenburg is divided into each with a district committee; these 21 districts can be further divided into 94 subdivisions which exist only for statistical and organizational purposes, serve no administrative function. The 21 districts of Gothenburg and the premiärområden enclosed within each: Malmö Municipality is divided into five districts.
These districts each have a board or council called a stadsdelsfullmäktige, each consisting of eleven members, which are responsible for various local administrative tasks. In Malmö, the district councils are responsible for assisting members of the community in contacting their politicians or navigating their way through government agencies; these are the five districts of Malmö: Väster Innerstaden Norr Söder Öster Other smaller municipalities in Sweden use municipal subdivisions for official purposes, however these are not always administrative. For example, Strängnäs Municipality uses district councils which serve a purely advisory function and have no administrative power. Borås Municipality is divided into ten districts, each with a district council responsible for pre-school and primary school, recreational services, services for the elderly. Torshälla is a region inside Eskilstuna Municipality which has withheld a degree of autonomy since merging with Eskilstuna, including their own city council.
Other municipalities that use districts for advisory or administrative purposes include Huddinge, Kalmar, Köping, Södertälje, Umeå and Västerås. Government of Sweden Swedish municipal assemblies Politics of Sweden City of Stockholm City of Stockholm: About Stockholm
Fredrik Jörgen "Fredde" Granberg, is a Swedish actor and director. Known for his role in the Ronny and Ragge comedy series, which he played along with actor Peter Settman. In the 2013 Julkalendern in SVT, he played the lead role in Barna Hedenhös
Cecilia Uddén is a Swedish journalist, radio host and foreign reporter for Sveriges Radio. Uddén has worked as a radio foreign correspondent to the Middle East since 1993. Cecilia Uddén was born in Hägersten, the oldest daughter of Per Olov Edvin Uddén and Sigrid Chatarina Öhlén-Johannsen. During her childhood, her family spent time in Cairo and Bangkok, Thailand. Uddén studied philosophy at Stockholm University, she studied journalism at Skurups folkhögskola in Skurup, Sweden. Uddén is married to a cultural journalist and translator; the couple has two children. In 1988, Uddén started working in Sveriges Radio's culture department. Between 1993 and 1998, she was a foreign correspondent to the Middle East and was based in Cairo and Jerusalem. Between 1998 and 2003, she was the foreign correspondent to Washington for Sveriges Radio. In 2004, she began to host the radio show Konflikt, broadcast between 2004 and 2005, she worked as a foreign correspondent based in Amman from 2006 and 2011. After the Syrian authorities withdrew permission for her to work as a journalist, stating that she had conveyed "false information", Uddén left Syria in December 2016.
SR rejected. During the 2004 American presidential election, Uddén was criticised for making an evaluative statement about one of the candidates on Sveriges Radio; the comment was seen as a breach of impartiality, leading to the suspension of Uddén from election coverage. Uddén was criticized in December 2011 by Peter Wolodarski in Dagens Nyheter after she posed for a photo with two salafists she had interviewed. 1997: Stora Journalistpriset 2001: Sveriges Radios språkpris 2003: Jolopriset 2005: Torgny Segerstedts frihetspenna 2006: Vilhelm Moberg-priset 2010: Cordelia Edvardsonpriset 2011: Stora Journalistpriset
Roland Stoltz (ice hockey, born 1931)
For the younger Swedish ice hockey player, see Roland Stoltz. Frank Roland "Rolle" Stoltz was a Swedish ice hockey defenceman, he competed in the 1960, 1964 and 1968 Olympics and finished in fifth and fourth place, respectively. At the world championships he won two gold, two silver and two bronze medals between 1957 and 1967, was named the best defenseman in 1963. Stoltz won European titles in 1957 and 1962, was selected to the Swedish all-star team in 1959, 1960, 1963, 1964 and 1966. In 1999 he was inducted into the IIHF Hall of Fame. Stoltz was a mechanic with a Swedish mining machinery company. After retiring from competitions he worked as an ice hockey commentator on the Swedish national television. Biographical information and career statistics from Eurohockey.com, or Legends of Hockey
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th