1934 Swissair Tuttlingen accident
The 1934 Swissair Tuttlingen accident occurred on 27 July 1934 when a Swissair Curtiss AT-32C Condor II aircraft crashed near Tuttlingen, Germany while flying through a thunderstorm, killing all 12 people on board. It was the worst air crash in 1934 and Swissair's first aviation accident since its foundation in 1931; the aircraft involved in the accident, registered CH-170, was a Curtiss AT-32C Condor II, a variant of the standard T-32 developed for Swiss flag carrier Swissair, its only operator. CH-170 had entered service on 28 March 1934 and, by the time of the accident, had only been in service for four months; the cabin was configured with seating for up to 15 people. The aircraft's flight attendant, Nelly Diener known as the Engel der Lüfte, is notable for being Europe's first air stewardess, she had been working for Swissair since 1 May 1934. The other two crew members were the pilot, Armin Mühlematter, the radio navigator, Hans Daschinger. On the accident flight, there were nine passengers aboard.
The aircraft departed Zurich for Berlin, with stopovers in Leipzig. Shortly after crossing the Swiss-German border, the aircraft, cruising at an altitude of about 3,000 meters, encountered a thunderstorm, while flying through it, the right wing broke off; this resulted in an immediate loss of control and the aircraft plummeted into a forest near Tuttlingen, exploding into flames on impact. Investigators found that oscillations in the wing had caused a stress fracture, the severity of, exacerbated by the violent weather conditions in which the aircraft was flying. German investigators, determined that one fracture formed in the wing and engine mount structure due to defective construction and welding techniques in conjunction with the engine vibrations, while a second fracture resulted from the force of the turbulence in the storm
The Avro Avian was a series of British light aircraft designed and built by Avro in the 1920s and 1930s. While the various versions of the Avian were sound aircraft, they were comprehensively outsold by the de Havilland Moth and its descendants; the Avro 581 Avian prototype was designed and built to compete in the Lympne light aircraft trials at Lympne Aerodrome in September 1926. Its wooden fuselage was based on that of the Avro 576 autogyro, but it was fitted with conventional biplane wings and powered by a 70 hp Armstrong Siddeley Genet engine, it was eliminated due to engine failure. In early 1927 it was re-engined with an 85 hp ADC Cirrus engine as the Type 581A and sold to Bert Hinkler. Production aircraft were designated Type 594 and were built in a number of versions powered by Cirrus engines. A version with a welded steel tube fuselage was produced in 1929 as the Avro 616 Avian IVM to meet overseas requirements for an easier-to-repair structure; this version was built in the largest numbers, with 190 built.
The Avian was produced under licence in Canada, by Ottawa Car Manufacturing Company in Ottawa, Ontario. While outsold by the de Havilland Moth and its derivatives -- which first flew more than a year earlier than the Avian -- the Avian was used extensively as a civil tourer or trainer, with many being sold overseas. Avians were assembled by the Whittesley Manufacturing Co. Bridgeport, Connecticut, USA, the Ottawa Car Manufacturing Company, Canada, as well as by Avro itself. After further modifications to wings and undercarriage as the Avro 581E, Hinkler used this aircraft for a series of long-distance flights, culminating in a 15½-day solo flight from Croydon, UK to Darwin, Australia. In 1998 Lang Kidby recreated this flight in a 1927 Type 594 Avian VH-UFZ Avro Avian 594 Avian III was owned by Lady Mary Heath and Amelia Earhart. Earhart's Avian had an 84 hp Cirrus Mk II engine, it was registered to Lady Heath on 29 October 1927 and given the UK aircraft marking G-EBUG. When Earhart brought it to the United States it was assigned "unlicensed aircraft identification mark" 7083.
Avian 7083 was used on Earhart's first long solo flight, which occurred just as Amelia was coming into the national spotlight. By making the trip in August 1928, she became the first woman to fly solo across the North American continent and back. In 2001 Carlene Mendita recreated this flight in Greg Herrick's Type 594 Avian which he had purchased from Lang Kidby. At the time Herrick purchased the Avian from Kidby, two years prior, it was the oldest flying aircraft in Australia, it is now based in Minnesota. Wilfrid R. "Wop" May used a 594 to make his famous January 1929 mercy flight with diphtheria antitoxin from Edmonton to Fort Vermilion, Alberta. An Avian was used by Bill Lancaster on a successful long distance flight to Australia, another on his final record attempt to South Africa in 1933. In July 1930, Winifred Brown won the King's Cup Race flying Cirrus III Avian. One Avian, piloted by Sydney Thorn, took part in the Challenge International de Tourisme 1930 with moderate success. On 7 January 1931, Guy Menzies flew an Avian, the Southern Cross Junior, from Australia to New Zealand.
He was the first person to fly solo across the Tasman Sea. A single Genet-powered Avian II was bought by the Royal Air Force, while Avians were bought by the South African Air Force, the Chinese Naval Air Service, the Estonian Air Force and the Royal Canadian Air Force. Famed aviator Beryl Markham used an Avian extensively in East Africa in the 1930s. Avro 581 Avian First prototype, one 70 hp Armstrong Siddeley Genet. Avro 581A Modified one 85 hp ADC Cirrus and reduced span wings. Avro 581E Further modified Avro 581A for long distance flights, with new wings and modified fuselage. Avro 594 Avian I Preproduction aircraft, two built. Avro 594 Avian II Initial production, 85 hp Cirrus II engine, nine built. Avro 594 Avian III Modified engine mount and tubular steel struts, 33 built. Avro 594 Avian IIIA 95 hp Cirrus III engine, 58 built. Avro 594 Avian IV Revised undercarriage and ailerons, 90 built. Avro 605 Avian Two Avro 594 Avian IIIs were converted into floatplanes. Avro 616 Avian IVM Steel tube fuselage.
Powered by 105 hp Cirrus Hermes I or 100 hp Armstrong Siddeley Genet Major 190 built. Avro 616 Sports Avian Version for racing with reduced drag, 16 built. Avro 616 Avian IVA modified one-off long range version for Charles Kingsford Smith, Southern Cross Junior, 120 hp de Havilland Gipsy II engine, with additional fuel tank and revised 30 ft span wings. Avro 616 Avian V Long range single-seater again built for Charles Kingsford Smith, Southern Cross Minor. Bill Lancaster would attempt to fly solo from England to South Africa in this aircraft, die in the attempt. Avro 625 Avian Monoplane Low-wing monoplane two built. CanadaRoyal Canadian Air Force ChinaChinese Nationalist Air Force Chinese Naval Air Service EstoniaEstonian Air Force South AfricaSouth African Air Force SpainSpanish Republican Air Force SpainSpanish Air Force United KingdomRoyal Air Force 5116 – 581 on display at the Queensland Museum in Brisbane, Queensland, it is the prototype Avro Avian flown by Bert Hinkler on some of his record-breaking flights.
R3/AV/127 – Avian IV airworthy at the Golden Wings Flying Museum in Blaine, Minnesota. It was once the oldest flying aircraft in Australia and has been converted from an Avian II configuration, it is painted to represent G-EBUG, an aircraft Amelia Earhart flew across the United S
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The Société des Avions Caudron was a French aircraft company founded in 1909 by brothers Gaston Caudron and René Caudron. It was one of the earliest aircraft manufacturers in France and produced planes for the military in both World War I and World War II. Born in Favières, Somme to parents who farmed nearby in Romiotte, the Caudron brothers were educated at a college in Abbeville. Gaston, as Alphonse was always known, intended to become an engineer but his education was cut short by health problems. After military service in a artillery regiment they returned to work on the farm, they began to build their first aircraft, a large biplane, in August 1908. Unable to obtain an engine, they flew it as a glider, towed by a horse and tested it through the summer. In September 1909 they flew it under power. By April 1910 they were able to make a return flight of 10 km to Forest-Montiers. Gaston Caudron died in an aircraft accident on 15 December 1915 at the airfield at Bron. René continued in the aircraft business until the fall of France at the start of World War II.
He died in 1959. Needing a more convenient base than the farm, the brothers established their factory in nearby Le Crotoy, on the eastern side of the Somme estuary about 16 km from Abbeville and with a broad, firm, south facing beach ideal for flying, they set up a flying school there, functioning by 19 May 1910. This activity flourished and by early 1913 a second school had been set up at Juvisy with a combined capacity of 100-250; the War Ministry sent about 30 student pilots there in 1913. By the company was based at Rue, Somme. Designers of many aircraft like the two-seater Caudron G.3 that landed on Mont Blanc in 1921, Caudron produced the trainers in which thousands of pilots got their first flying licence. The Caudron factory at Lyon produced nearly 4,000 airplanes during World War 1, before being acquired by Renault in 1933. Aviation Pioneers: An Anthology - Gaston & René Caudron Caudron C.460 at air-racing-history.com Aviafrance list of Caudron aircraft La société des Frères Caudron
Orly is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 12.7 km from the center of Paris. The name of Orly came from Latin Aureliacum, "the villa of Aurelius". Orly Airport lies on the territory of the commune of Orly, which gave its name to the airport. Orly is served by Orly -- Ville. Schools in Orly: Preschools: Cité Jardins, Jean Moulin, Joliot-Curie, Marcel Cachin, Noyer-Grenot, Paul Eluard, Romain Rolland Elementary schools: Cité Jardins, Jean Moulin, Joliot-Curie, Marcel Cachin A and B, Paul Eluard A and B, Romain Rolland A and B Junior high schools: Collège Dorval and Collège Desnos One senior high school/sixth-form college: Lycée des métiers Armand GuillauminLycée Guillaume Apollinaire, a senior high/sixth-form in Thiais. Kery James, rapper Dry, rapper Communes of the Val-de-Marne department Mayors of Essonne Association Orly city council website