Death, due to its prominent place in human culture, is imagined as a personified force known as the Grim Reaper. In some mythologies, the Grim Reaper causes the victim's death by coming to collect that person. In turn, people in some stories try to hold on to life by avoiding Death's visit, or by fending Death off with bribery or tricks. Other beliefs hold that the Spectre of Death is only a psychopomp, serving to sever the last ties between the soul and the body, to guide the deceased to the afterlife, without having any control over when or how the victim dies. Death is most personified in male form, although in certain cultures Death is perceived as female. Mot was personified to Canaanites as a god of death, he was considered a son of the king of El. His contest with the storm god Baʿal forms part of the myth cycle discovered in the 1920s in the ruins of Ugarit. Lacunae obscure some of the details, but Mot consumes Baʿal before being split open and mutilated by that god's sister, the warrior'Anat.
After a time, both gods are restored and resume battle before the sun goddess Shapash prompts a truce by warning Mot that, if forced to, El would intervene on Baʿal's behalf. The Phoenicians worshipped death under the name Mot and a version of Mot became Maweth, the devil or angel of death in Judaism. In Ancient Greek religion and Greek mythology, death is one of the children of Nyx. Like her, he is portrayed directly, he sometimes appears in art as a bearded and winged man, less as a winged and beardless youth. He has a twin, the god of sleep. Together and Hypnos represent a gentle death. Thanatos, led by Hermes psychopompos, takes the shade of the deceased to the near shore of the river Styx, whence the boatman Charon, on payment of a small fee, conveys the shade to Hades, the realm of the dead. Homer's Iliad 16.681, the Euphronios Krater's depiction of the same episode, have Apollo instruct the removal of the heroic, semi-divine Sarpedon's body from the battlefield by Hypnos and Thanatos, conveyed thence to his homeland for proper funeral rites.
Among the other children of Nyx are Thanatos' sisters, the Keres, blood-drinking, vengeant spirits of violent or untimely death, portrayed as fanged and taloned, with bloody garments. Breton folklore shows the Ankou; the Ankou is the spirit of the last person that died within the community and appears as a tall, haggard figure with a wide hat and long white hair or a skeleton with a revolving head who sees everyone, everywhere. The Ankou drives a deathly cart with a creaking axle; the cart or wagon is piled high with corpses and a stop at a cabin means instant death for those inside. In Ireland there was a creature known as a dullahan, whose head would be tucked under his or her arm, the head was said to have large eyes and a smile that could reach the head's ears; the dullahan would ride a black horse or a carriage pulled by black horses, stop at the house of someone about to die, call their name, the person would die. The dullahan did not like being watched, it was believed that if a dullahan knew someone was watching them, they would lash that person's eyes with their whip, made from a spine.
In Ireland there is a female spirit known as Banshee, who heralds the death of a person by shrieking or keening. The banshee is described in Gaelic lore as wearing red or green with long, disheveled hair, she can appear in a variety of forms. Most she is seen as an ugly, frightful hag, but she can appear as young and beautiful if she chooses. In Ireland and parts of Scotland, a traditional part of mourning is the keening woman, who wails a lament – in Irish: Caoineadh, caoin meaning "to weep, to wail"; when several banshees appear at once, it indicates the death of someone holy. The tales sometimes recounted that the woman, though called a fairy, was a ghost of a specific murdered woman, or a mother who died in childbirth. In Scottish folklore there was a belief that a black, dark green or white dog known as a Cù Sìth took dying souls to the afterlife. In Welsh Folklore Gwyn ap Nudd is the escort of the grave, the personification of Death and Winter who leads the wild hunt to collect wayward souls and escort them to the Otherworld, sometimes it is Melwas, Arawn or Afallach in a similar position.
La Calavera Catrina is a character in Mexican art that symbolizes death. She is an icon of the Mexican Day of the Dead, a holiday that focuses on the remembrance of the dead. Our Lady of the Holy Death is a female deity or folk saint of Mexican folk religion, whose faith has been spreading in Mexico and the United States. In Spanish the word "muerte" is a female noun, so it is common in Spanish-speaking countries for death to be personified as female figures; this happens in other Romanic languages like French, Portuguese and Romanian. Since the pre-Columbian era Mexican culture has maintained a certain reverence towards death, which can be seen in the widespread commemoration of the Day of the Dead. Elements of that celebration include the use of skeletons to remind people of their mortality; the cult of Santa Muerte is indeed a continuation of the Aztec cult of the goddess of death Mictecacihuatl clad
The Bonn Minster is a Roman Catholic church in Bonn. It is one of Germany's oldest churches, having been built between the 13th centuries. At one point the church served as the cathedral for the Archbishopric of Cologne. However, the Minster is now a minor basilica; the Minster was the collegiate church of Saints Cassius and Florentius, who were Roman legionaries of the legendary all-Christian Theban Legion. The legion's garrison, according to legend, was in the Egyptian town of Thebes. Roman Emperor Maximianus Herculius ordered the legion to march to Gaul and assist in subduing rebels from Burgundy. At some point during their march, the legion refused to follow the emperor's orders either to kill fellow Christians or to worship Maximianus Herculius as a god; as a result, a large number of legionaries were martyred in Agaunum, now named Saint Maurice-en-Valais after Saint Maurice. According to legend, Saints Cassius and Florentius, who were under the command of Saint Gereon, were beheaded for their religious beliefs at the present location of the Bonn Minster.
List of basilica churches in Germany
Oise is a department in the north of France. It is named after the river Oise. Inhabitants of the department are called Oisiens or Isariens, after the Latin name for the river, Isara. Oise is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was created from part of the province of Picardy. After the coalition victory at Waterloo, the department was occupied by British troops between June 1815 and November 1818. Oise is situated 35 km north of Paris, it is surrounded by the departments of Somme, Seine-et-Marne, Val-d'Oise and Seine-Maritime. The major tourist attraction of the department is the Parc Astérix, which opened in 1989. Other interesting sites are Beauvais Cathedral, the Chateau de Pierrefonds, restored by Viollet-le-Duc, the art collection of the Château de Chantilly, one of the largest outside Paris. Oise is twinned with Bedfordshire. One of the villages along the river Oise is Auvers-sur-Oise, famous for having been visited by several impressionist artists.
This is where Vincent van Gogh spent his last 70 days and is his and his brother Theo's resting place. Arrondissements of the Oise department Cantons of the Oise department Communes of the Oise department Monument aux morts Prefecture website General Council website oise directory website Oise Tourist Board
A universal history is a work aiming at the presentation of the history of mankind as a whole, coherent unit. A universal chronicle or world chronicle traces history from the beginning of written information about the past up to the present. Universal history embraces the events of all times and nations in so far as scientific treatment of them is possible. Universal history in the Western tradition is divided into three parts, viz. ancient and modern time. The division on ancient and medieval periods is less sharp or absent in the Arabic and Asian historiographies. A synoptic view of universal history led some scholars, beginning with Karl Jaspers, to distinguish the Axial Age synchronous to "classical antiquity" of the Western tradition. Jaspers proposed a more universal periodization—prehistory and planetary history. All distinguished earlier periods belong to the second period, a brief transitory phase between two much longer periods; the roots of historiography in the 19th century are bound up with the concept that history written with a strong connection to the primary sources could be integrated with "the big picture", i.e. to a general, universal history.
For example, Leopold von Ranke the pre-eminent historian of the 19th century, founder of Rankean historical positivism, the classic mode of historiography that now stands against postmodernism, attempted to write a Universal History at the close of his career. The works of world historians Oswald Spengler and Arnold J. Toynbee are examples of attempts to integrate primary source-based history and Universal History. Spengler's work is more general. Both writers attempted to incorporate teleological theories into general presentations of the history. Toynbee found as the telos of universal history the emergence of a single World State. A project of Universal history may be seen in the Hebrew Bible, which from the point of view of its redactors in the 5th century BC presents a history of humankind from creation to the Flood, from there a history of the Israelites down to the present; the Seder Olam is a 2nd-century CE rabbinic interpretation of this chronology. In Greco-Roman antiquity, the first universal history was written by Ephorus.
This work has been lost, but its influence can be seen in the ambitions of Polybius and Diodorus to give comprehensive accounts of their worlds. Herodotus' History is the earliest surviving member of the Greco-Roman world-historical tradition, although under some definitions of universal history it does not qualify as universal because it reflects no attempt to describe an overall direction of history or a principle or set of principles governing or underlying it. Polybius was the first to attempt a universal history in this stricter sense of the term: For what gives my work its peculiar quality, what is most remarkable in the present age, is this: Fortune has gained all the affairs of the world in one direction and has forced to incline towards one and the same end. Metamorphoses by Ovid has been considered as a universal history because of its comprehensive chronology—from the creation of mankind to the death of Julius Caesar a year before the poet's birth. In Leipzig are preserved five fragments dating to the 2nd century AD and coming from a world chronicle.
Its author is unknown, but was a Christian. Universal history provided an influential lens on the rise of Christianity in the Roman Empire in such works as Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History, Augustine's City of God, Orosius' History Against the Pagans. During the Han Dynasty of China, Sima Qian was the first Chinese historian to attempt a universal history—from the earliest mythological origins of his civilization to his present day—in his Records of the Grand Historian. Although his generation was the first in China to discover the existence of kingdoms in Central Asia and India, his work did not attempt to cover the history of these regions; the universal chronicle traces history from the beginning of the world up to the present and was an popular genre of historiography in medieval Western Europe. The universal chronicle differs from the ordinary chronicle in its much broader chronological and geographical scope, giving, in principle, a continuous account of the progress of world history from the creation of the world up to the author's own times, but in practice narrowing down to a more limited geographical range as it approaches those times.
The Chronica of Eusebius of Caesarea is considered to be the starting point of this tradition. The second book of this work consisted of a set of concordance tables that for the first time synchronized the several concurrent chronologies in use with different peoples. Eusebius' chronicle became known to the Latin West through the translation by Jerome. Universal chronicles are sometimes organized around a central ideological theme, such as the Augustinian idea of the tension between the heavenly and the earthly state, as depicted in the City of God, which plays a major role in Otto von Freising's Historia de duabus civitatibus. Augustine's thesis depicts the history of the world as universal warfare between the Devil; this metaphysical war is not limited by time but only by geography as it takes place on planet Earth. In this war God moves those governments, political /ideological move
A sermon is an oration or lecture by a preacher. Sermons address a scriptural, religious, or moral topic expounding on a type of belief, law, or behavior within both past and present contexts. Elements of the sermon include exposition and practical application; the act of delivering a sermon is known as preaching. In Christian churches, a sermon is delivered in a place of worship, either from an elevated architectural feature, known as a pulpit or an ambo, or from behind a lectern; the word sermon comes from a Middle English word, derived from Old French, which in turn originates from the Latin word sermō meaning "discourse". A sermonette is a short sermon; the Bible contains many speeches without interlocution, which some take to be sermons: Moses in Deuteronomy 1-33. In modern language, the word sermon is used in secular terms, pejoratively, to describe a lengthy or tedious speech delivered with great passion, by any person, to an uninterested audience. In Christianity, a sermon is identified as an address or discourse delivered to an assembly of Christians containing theological or moral instruction.
The sermon by Christian orators was based on the tradition of public lectures by classical orators. Although it is called a homily, the original distinction between a sermon and a homily was that a sermon was delivered by a clergyman while a homily was read from a printed copy by a layman. In the 20th century the distinction has become one of the sermon being to be longer, have more structure, contain more theological content. Homilies are considered to be a type of sermon narrative or biographical, see sermon types below; the word "sermon" is used to describe many famous moments in Christian history. The most famous example is the Sermon on the Mount by Jesus of Nazareth; this address was given around 30 AD, is recounted in the Gospel of Matthew as being delivered on a mount on the north end of the Sea of Galilee, near Capernaum. It is contained in some of the other gospel narratives. During the history of Christianity, several figures became known for their addresses that became regarded as sermons.
Examples in the early church include Peter, Stephen and John Chrysostom. These addresses were used to spread Christianity across Europe and Asia Minor, as such are not sermons in the modern sense, but evangelistic messages; the sermon has been an important part of Christian services since Early Christianity, remains prominent in both Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. Lay preachers sometimes figure in these traditions of worship, for example the Methodist local preachers, but in general preaching has been a function of the clergy; the Dominican Order is known as the Order of Preachers. The Franciscans are another important preaching order. In 1448 the church authorities seated at Angers prohibited open-air preaching in France. In most denominations, modern preaching is kept below forty minutes, but historic preachers of all denominations could at times speak for several hours, use techniques of rhetoric and theatre that are today somewhat out of fashion in mainline churches. During the Middle Ages, sermons inspired the beginnings of new religious institutes.
Pope Urban II began the First Crusade in November 1095 at the Council of Clermont, when he exhorted French knights to retake the Holy Land. The academic study of sermons, the analysis and classification of their preparation and delivery, is called homiletics. A controversial issue that aroused strong feelings in Early Modern Britain was whether sermons should be read from a prepared text, or extemporized from some notes. Many sermons have been written down and published. Many clergymen recycled large chunks of published sermons in their own preaching; such sermons include John Wesley's 53 Standard Sermons, John Chrysostom's Homily on the Resurrection and Gregory Nazianzus' homily "On the Theophany, or Birthday of Christ". The 80 sermons in German of the Dominican Johannes Tauler were read for centuries after his death. Martin Luther published his sermons on the Sunday lessons for the edification of readers; this tradition was continued by Chemnitz and Arndt and others into the following centuries—for example CH Spurgeon's stenographed sermons, The Metropolitan Tabernacle Pulpit.
The widow of John Tillotson, Archbishop of Canterbury received £2,500 for the manuscripts of his sermons, a larg
Flight is the process by which an object moves through an atmosphere without contact with the surface. This can be achieved by generating aerodynamic lift associated with propulsive thrust, aerostatically using buoyancy, or by ballistic movement. Many things can fly, from natural aviators such as birds and insects, to human inventions like aircraft, including airplanes, helicopters and rockets which may carry spacecraft; the engineering aspects of flight are the purview of aerospace engineering, subdivided into aeronautics, the study of vehicles that travel through the air, astronautics, the study of vehicles that travel through space, in ballistics, the study of the flight of projectiles. Humans have managed to construct lighter than air vehicles that raise off the ground and fly, due to their buoyancy in air. An aerostat is a system that remains aloft through the use of buoyancy to give an aircraft the same overall density as air. Aerostats include free balloons and moored balloons. An aerostat's main structural component is its envelope, a lightweight skin that encloses a volume of lifting gas to provide buoyancy, to which other components are attached.
Aerostats are so named because they use "aerostatic" lift, a buoyant force that does not require lateral movement through the surrounding air mass to effect a lifting force. By contrast, aerodynes use aerodynamic lift, which requires the lateral movement of at least some part of the aircraft through the surrounding air mass; some things that fly do not generate propulsive thrust through the air, for example, the flying squirrel. This is termed gliding; some other things can exploit rising air to climb such as man-made sailplane gliders. This is termed soaring; however most other birds and all powered aircraft need a source of propulsion to climb. This is termed powered flight; the only groups of living things that use powered flight are birds and bats, while many groups have evolved gliding. The extinct Pterosaurs, an order of reptiles contemporaneous with the dinosaurs, were very successful flying animals; each of these groups' wings evolved independently. The wings of the flying vertebrate groups are all based on the forelimbs, but differ in structure.
Bats are the only mammals capable of sustaining level flight. However, there are several gliding mammals which are able to glide from tree to tree using fleshy membranes between their limbs. Flying frogs use enlarged webbed feet for a similar purpose, there are flying lizards which fold out their mobile ribs into a pair of flat gliding surfaces. "Flying" snakes use mobile ribs to flatten their body into an aerodynamic shape, with a back and forth motion much the same as they use on the ground. Flying fish can glide using enlarged wing-like fins, have been observed soaring for hundreds of meters, it is thought that this ability was chosen by natural selection because it was an effective means of escape from underwater predators. The longest recorded flight of a flying fish was 45 seconds. Most birds fly, with some exceptions; the largest birds, the ostrich and the emu, are earthbound, as were the now-extinct dodos and the Phorusrhacids, which were the dominant predators of South America in the Cenozoic era.
The non-flying penguins have wings adapted for use under water and use the same wing movements for swimming that most other birds use for flight. Most small flightless birds are native to small islands, lead a lifestyle where flight would offer little advantage. Among living animals that fly, the wandering albatross has up to 3.5 meters. Most species of insects can fly as adults. Insect flight makes use of either of two basic aerodynamic models: creating a leading edge vortex, found in most insects, using clap and fling, found in small insects such as thrips. Mechanical flight is the use of a machine to fly; these machines include aircraft such as airplanes, helicopters, airships, ornithopters as well as spacecraft. Gliders are capable of unpowered flight. Another form of mechanical flight is para-sailing. In an airplane, lift is created by the wings. There are different types of wings: tempered, semi-tempered, sweptback and elliptical. An aircraft wing is sometimes called an airfoil, a device that creates lift when air flows across it.
Supersonic flight is flight faster than the speed of sound. Supersonic flight is associated with the formation of shock waves that form a sonic boom that can be heard from the ground, is startling; this shockwave takes quite a lot of energy to create and this makes supersonic flight less efficient than subsonic flight at about 85% of the speed of sound. Hypersonic flight is high speed flight where the heat generated by the compression of the air due to the motion through the air causes chemical changes to the air. Hypersonic flight is achieved by reentering spacecraft such as Soyuz; some things generate little or no lift and move only or under the action of momentum, air drag and in some cases thrust. This is termed ballistic flight. Examples include balls, bullets, fireworks etc. An extreme form of ballistic flight, spaceflig
Saint Gereon of Cologne, who may have been a soldier, was martyred at Cologne by beheading in the early 4th century. According to his legend, Gereon was said to be a soldier of the Theban Legion. Gregory of Tours, writing in the 6th century, said that Gereon and his companions were a detachment of fifty men of the Theban Legion who were massacred at Agaunum by order of Emperor Maximian for refusing to sacrifice to pagan gods to obtain victory in battle; some of his companions' names are stated as being Cassius, Gregorius Maurus, Innocentius and Victor. Saint Bede mentions that their feast was included in the Sarum calendar, as well as the calendars of Barking and Durham. Medieval legends increased the number of Gereon's companions to 290 or 319, Saint Norbert of Xanten is said to have discovered, through a vision, the spot at Cologne where the relics of Saint Ursula and her companions, of Saint Gereon, of other martyrs lay hidden. Gereon became a popular military saint and is represented in art as a Roman soldier or medieval knight.
Along with other saints who were beheaded, he is invoked by those suffering from migraine headaches. Hélinand of Froidmont's Martyrium mentions Saint Gereon. St. Gereon's Basilica, in Cologne, is dedicated to him. Stefan Lochner painted a triptych in the 15th century which, in the centre piece, shows in life-size figures the worshipping of the Magi, the side panels of which represent St. Ursula with her companions, Gereon with his warriors. In 1810 the triptych was moved from the town hall to the choir chapel of the cathedral; the city of Saint-Géréon is a small town located in the department of Loire-Atlantique of the French region Pays de la Loire. The martyr is depicted on the 13th century seal of the Convent of Cologne. St. Gereon's Basilica, Germany Saint-Géréon, France Cloth of St Gereon, that hung in the choir area, the second oldest surviving European tapestry Patron Saints: Gereon Saint of the Day, October 10: Gereon and Companions at SaintPatrickDC.org