Calligraphy is a visual art related to writing. It is the design and execution of lettering with a broad tip instrument, brush, a contemporary calligraphic practice can be defined as, the art of giving form to signs in an expressive and skillful manner. Modern calligraphy ranges from functional inscriptions and designs to fine-art pieces where the letters may or may not be readable, classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may practice both. It is used for props and moving images for film and television, testimonials and death certificates, the principal tools for a calligrapher are the pen and the brush. Calligraphy pens write with nibs that may be flat, for some decorative purposes, multi-nibbed pens—steel brushes—can be used. However, works have created with felt-tip and ballpoint pens. There are some styles of calligraphy, like Gothic script, which require a stub nib pen, Writing ink is usually water-based and is much less viscous than the oil-based inks used in printing.
Normally, light boxes and templates are used to achieve straight lines without pencil markings detracting from the work, ruled paper, either for a light box or direct use, is most often ruled every quarter or half inch, although inch spaces are occasionally used. This is the case with litterea unciales, and college-ruled paper often acts as a guideline well, common calligraphy pens and brushes are, Quill Dip pen Ink brush Qalam Fountain pen Western calligraphy is recognizable by the use of the Latin script. The Latin alphabet appeared about 600 BC, in Rome, and by the first century developed into Roman imperial capitals carved on stones, Rustic capitals painted on walls, in the second and third centuries the uncial lettering style developed. As writing withdrew to monasteries, uncial script was more suitable for copying the Bible. It was the monasteries which preserved calligraphic traditions during the fourth and fifth centuries, at the height of the Empire, its power reached as far as Great Britain, when the empire fell, its literary influence remained.
The Semi-uncial generated the Irish Semi-uncial, the small Anglo-Saxon, each region developed its own standards following the main monastery of the region, which are mostly cursive and hardly readable. Christian churches promoted the development of writing through the copying of the Bible, particularly the New Testament. Two distinct styles of writing known as uncial and half-uncial developed from a variety of Roman bookhands, the 7th-9th centuries in northern Europe were the heyday of Celtic illuminated manuscripts, such as the Book of Durrow, Lindisfarne Gospels and the Book of Kells. Charlemagnes devotion to improved scholarship resulted in the recruiting of a crowd of scribes, according to Alcuin, Alcuin developed the style known as the Caroline or Carolingian minuscule. The first manuscript in hand was the Godescalc Evangelistary — a Gospel book written by the scribe Godescalc. Carolingian remains the one hand from which modern booktype descends
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country on the Iberian Peninsula in Southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost country of mainland Europe, to the west and south it is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and to the east and north by Spain. The Portugal–Spain border is 1,214 kilometres long and considered the longest uninterrupted border within the European Union, the republic includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. The territory of modern Portugal has been settled, invaded. The Pre-Celts, Celts and the Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigothic, in 711 the Iberian Peninsula was invaded by the Moors, making Portugal part of Muslim Al Andalus. Portugal was born as result of the Christian Reconquista, and in 1139, Afonso Henriques was proclaimed King of Portugal, in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the worlds major economic and military powers.
Portugal monopolized the trade during this time, and the Portuguese Empire expanded with military campaigns led in Asia. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established, democracy was restored after the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to almost all its overseas territories, Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe and a legacy of over 250 million Portuguese speakers today. Portugal is a country with a high-income advanced economy and a high living standard. It is the 5th most peaceful country in the world, maintaining a unitary semi-presidential republican form of government and it has the 18th highest Social Progress in the world, putting it ahead of other Western European countries like France and Italy. Portugal is a pioneer when it comes to drug decriminalization, as the nation decriminalized the possession of all drugs for use in 2001.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe, the name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale. Other influences include some 5th-century vestiges of Alan settlements, which were found in Alenquer, the region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula. These were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing. Chief among these tribes were the Calaicians or Gallaeci of Northern Portugal, the Lusitanians of central Portugal, the Celtici of Alentejo, a few small, semi-permanent, commercial coastal settlements were founded in the Algarve region by Phoenicians-Carthaginians. Romans first invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 219 BC, during the last days of Julius Caesar, almost the entire peninsula had been annexed to the Roman Republic.
The Carthaginians, Romes adversary in the Punic Wars, were expelled from their coastal colonies and it suffered a severe setback in 150 BC, when a rebellion began in the north
Types and methods of notation have varied between cultures and throughout history, and much information about ancient music notation is fragmentary. Although many ancient cultures used symbols to represent melodies and rhythms, none of them were particularly comprehensive, the seeds of what would eventually become modern western notation were sown in medieval Europe, starting with the Catholic churchs goal for ecclesiastical uniformity. The church began notating plainchant melodies so that the same chants could be used throughout the church, Music notation developed in the Renaissance and Baroque music eras. The introduction of figured bass notation in the Baroque era marked the beginning of the first compositions based around chord progressions, in the classical period and the Romantic music era, notation continued to develop as new musical instrument technologies were developed. Music notation has been adapted to many kinds of music, including music, popular music. The earliest form of notation can be found in a cuneiform tablet that was created at Nippur, in Sumer.
The tablet represents fragmentary instructions for performing music, that the music was composed in harmonies of thirds, a tablet from about 1250 BC shows a more developed form of notation. Although the interpretation of the system is still controversial, it is clear that the notation indicates the names of strings on a lyre. Although they are fragmentary, these represent the earliest notated melodies found anywhere in the world. The notation consists of symbols placed above text syllables, an example of a complete composition is the Seikilos epitaph, which has been variously dated between the 2nd century BC to the 1st century AD. Three hymns by Mesomedes of Crete exist in manuscript, the Delphic Hymns, dated to the 2nd century BC, use this notation, but they are not completely preserved. Ancient Greek notation appears to have out of use around the time of the Decline of the Roman Empire. Byzantine music has survived as music for court ceremonies, including vocal religious music. It is not known if it is based on the monodic modal singing, unlike Western notation Byzantine neumes always indicate modal steps in relation to a clef or modal key.
These step symbols themselves, or better phonic neumes, resemble brush strokes and are colloquially called gántzoi in Modern Greek, Notes as pitch classes or modal keys are represented in written form only between these neumes. In modern notation they simply serve as a reminder and modal and tempo directions have been added. In Papadic notation medial signatures usually meant a change into another echos. With exception of vú and zō they do correspond to Western solmization syllables as re, mi, fa, sol, la, si
Adrien Taunay the Younger
Adrien Taunay the Younger was a French painter and draftsman. He was born in Paris in 1803, the son of history, Adrien moved to Rio de Janeiro in 1816, accompanying his father, who was a member of the French Artistic Mission. Adrien was the junior draftsman aboard the French vessel of exploration Uranie, during the ships 22-day stay in Hawaii in 1819, Adrien Taunay working with the official artist Jacques Arago, produced many portraits and natural history drawings. They depicted the people and landscape at a time when Hawaii was becoming a whaling center. After completion of voyage, Adrien returned to Rio de Janeiro in 1820. After traveling for two years, they arrived in Cuiabá, where remained for approximately a year. Langsdorff decided to split the expedition into two groups, after following different routes, would meet in the city of Belém do Pará, the group consisting of Adrien Taunay and the botanist Ludwig Riedel had the task of following the rivers Guaporé and Madeira. On this journey, they reached Vila Bela de Mato Grosso, after a number of trips around the settlements and having separated from Riedel, Adrien Taunay got lost in the forest.
He finally managed to locate the bank of the Guaporé river, the Honolulu Museum of Art and the National Library of Australia are among the public collections holding works of Adrien Taunay the Younger. European and American voyages of scientific exploration Forbes, David W. Encounters with Paradise, Views of Hawaii and its People, 1778-1941, Honolulu Academy of Arts,1992, 25-73
Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a stone or a plate with a smooth surface. It was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder as a method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or other suitable material, Lithography originally used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate. The stone was treated with a mixture of acid and gum arabic, when the stone was subsequently moistened, these etched areas retained water, an oil-based ink could be applied and would be repelled by the water, sticking only to the original drawing. The ink would finally be transferred to a paper sheet. This traditional technique is used in some fine art printmaking applications. In modern lithography, the image is made of a coating applied to a flexible aluminum plate. The image can be printed directly from the plate, or it can be offset, by transferring the image onto a sheet for printing.
In fact, photolithography is used synonymously with offset printing, the technique as well as the term were introduced in Europe in the 1850s. Beginning in the 1960s, photolithography has played an important role in the fabrication, Lithography uses simple chemical processes to create an image. For instance, the part of an image is a water-repelling substance. Thus, when the plate is introduced to a printing ink and water mixture, the ink will adhere to the positive image. This allows a flat print plate to be used, enabling much longer, Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1796. In the early days of lithography, a piece of limestone was used. After the oil-based image was put on the surface, a solution of gum arabic in water was applied, during printing, water adhered to the gum arabic surfaces and was repelled by the oily parts, while the oily ink used for printing did the opposite. Lithography works because of the repulsion of oil and water. The image is drawn on the surface of the print plate with a fat or oil-based medium such as a wax crayon, which may be pigmented to make the drawing visible
Alfredo d'Escragnolle Taunay, Viscount of Taunay
Alfredo Maria Adriano dEscragnolle Taunay, Viscount of Taunay, was a French Brazilian writer, professor, military engineer, politician and nobleman. He is famous for the Regionalist novel Inocência, considered a forerunner of Naturalism in Brazil, and for A Retirada da Laguna. The Brazilianist Leslie Bethell has described it as the one undoubted literary masterpiece produced by the Paraguayan War and he founded and occupied the 13th chair of the Brazilian Academy of Letters from 1897 until his death in 1899. Taunay was born in Rio de Janeiro, in 1843, growing up in a cultured environment, Taunay studied Literature and Humanities at the Colégio Pedro II, graduating in 1858. He would study Physics and Mathematics in what is now the Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras. From his experiences at the war, he wrote the memoir Cenas de Viagem in 1868, Taunay wrote and published his first romance, Mocidade de Trajano, in 1871, under the pen name Sílvio Dinarte. In 1885, he would ask for his demission of the Major post, Taunay married Cristina Teixeira Leite, daughter of Francisco José Teixeira Leite, granddaughter of Francisco José Teixeira and grandniece of Custódio Ferreira Leite.
They would have one son, future historian Afonso dEscragnolle Taunay, Taunay was a member of the Conservative Party, but when the party fell, in 1878, he travelled to Europe, returning only in 1880. From 1881 to 1884, he was the deputy of Santa Catarina and he candidated himself to the post of deputy of Rio de Janeiro, but was defeated in the elections. From 1885 to 1886, he was the governor of Paraná, one of Taunays most famous deeds as governor of Paraná was the inauguration of the famous Passeio Público in the capital Curitiba, in 1886. In 1889, Emperor Pedro II gave him the title of Viscount of Taunay, when Brazil became a Republic, the nobility ranks were all abolished. Taunay, abandoned his career, since he was a monarchist. He died in 1899, due to diabetes
Bird vocalization includes both bird calls and bird songs. In non-technical use, bird songs are the sounds that are melodious to the human ear. In ornithology and birding, songs are distinguished by function from calls, the distinction between songs and calls is based upon complexity and context. Songs are longer and more complex and are associated with courtship and mating, still others require song to have syllabic diversity and temporal regularity akin to the repetitive and transformative patterns that define music. It is generally agreed upon in birding and ornithology which sounds are songs and which are calls, Bird song is best developed in the order Passeriformes. Some groups are nearly voiceless, producing only percussive and rhythmic sounds, such as the storks, in some manakins, the males have evolved several mechanisms for mechanical sound production, including mechanisms for stridulation not unlike those found in some insects. Song is usually delivered from prominent perches, although some species may sing when flying, the production of sounds by mechanical means as opposed to the use of the syrinx has been termed variously instrumental music by Charles Darwin, mechanical sounds and more recently sonation.
With aseasonal irregular breeding, both sexes must be brought into breeding condition and vocalisation, especially duetting, serves this purpose, the high frequency of female vocalisations in the tropics and Southern Africa may relate to very low mortality rates producing much stronger pair-bonding and territoriality. The avian vocal organ is called the syrinx, it is a structure at the bottom of the trachea. The syrinx and sometimes a surrounding air sac resonate to sound waves that are made by membranes past which the bird forces air, the bird controls the pitch by changing the tension on the membranes and controls both pitch and volume by changing the force of exhalation. It can control the two sides of the trachea independently, which is how some species can produce two notes at once, scientists hypothesize that bird song has evolved through sexual selection, and experiments suggest that the quality of bird song may be a good indicator of fitness. Experiments suggest that parasites and diseases may directly affect song characteristics such as song rate, the song repertoire appears to indicate fitness in some species.
The ability of birds to hold and advertise territories using song demonstrates their fitness. Communication through bird calls can be individuals of the same species or even across species. Mobbing calls are used to recruit individuals in an area where an owl or other predator may be present, the alarm calls of most species, on the other hand, are characteristically high-pitched, making the caller difficult to locate. Individual birds may be enough to identify each other through their calls. Many birds that nest in colonies can locate their chicks using their calls, calls are sometimes distinctive enough for individual identification even by human researchers in ecological studies. Many birds engage in duet calls, in some cases, the duets are so perfectly timed as to appear almost as one call
Campinas is a Brazilian municipality in São Paulo State, part of the countrys Southeast Region. According to the 2010 Census, the population is 1,080,999, making it the fourteenth most populous Brazilian city. The citys metropolitan area, Metropolitan Region of Campinas, contains twenty municipalities with a population of 2,976,433 people. The city was founded on July 14,1774, by Barreto Leme and it was initially a simple outpost on the way to Minas Gerais and Goiás serving the Bandeirantes who were in search of precious minerals and Indian slaves. In the first half of the 19th century, Campinas became a population center, with many coffee, cotton. The construction of a railway linking the city of São Paulo to Santos seaport, in the second half of the 19th century, with the abolition of slavery and industrialization attracted many foreign immigrants to replace the lost manpower, mainly from Italy. Coffee became an important export and the city became wealthy, and the Casa de Saúde de Campinas, and the most important Brazilian research center in agricultural sciences, the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, which was founded by Emperor Pedro II.
Campinas was the birthplace of opera composer Carlos Gomes and of the President of the Republic Campos Salles and it was home for 49 years to Hércules Florence, reputed as one of the early inventors of photography and the mimeograph. It is located at 22°54′21″S, 47°03′39″W and is at a distance of 96 kilometres northwest of São Paulo. Its neighboring cities are Paulínia, Jaguariúna and Pedreira, Morungaba and Valinhos in the east, Itupeva and Monte Mor, most of the original vegetation of the city was devastated. There are several projects to combat the destruction of riparian forests located on the river london. This is the now second largest urban forest of Brazil, behind only the Tijuca Forest, the city has large forests, such as Jequitibás Wood, Forest Grove and the Germans of Guarantees. If it were not for the effects of the citys altitude its climate would be truly tropical. Winters are generally dry and mild, and summers rainy with warm to hot temperatures, the warmest month is February, with an average temperature of 24 °C, an average maximum of 29.1 °C and average minimum of 19.0 °C.
The coldest month, sees respective temperatures of 17.8 °C, fall and spring are transitional seasons. The average annual rainfall is 1424.5 mm and the driest month in August, in January, the rainiest month, the average is 280.3 mm. In recent years, the hot, dry days during the winter have been frequent, often surpassing 30 °C. In August 2010, for example, the rainfall in Campinas was only 0 mm, the lowest temperature recorded in the city was −1.5 °C on June 25,1918
Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre was a French artist and photographer, recognized for his invention of the daguerreotype process of photography. He became known as one of the fathers of photography, though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. Louis Daguerre was born in Cormeilles-en-Parisis, Val-dOise, France and he was apprenticed in architecture, theatre design, and panoramic painting to Pierre Prévost, the first French panorama painter. Exceedingly adept at his skill of theatrical illusion, he became a designer for the theatre, and came to invent the diorama. In 1829, Daguerre partnered with Nicéphore Niépce, an inventor who had produced the worlds first heliograph in 1822, Niépce died suddenly in 1833, but Daguerre continued experimenting, and evolved the process which would subsequently be known as the daguerreotype. After efforts to interest private investors proved fruitless, Daguerre went public with his invention in 1839, under assurances of strict confidentiality, Daguerre explained and demonstrated the process only to the Academys perpetual secretary François Arago, who proved to be an invaluable advocate.
Members of the Academy and other individuals were allowed to examine specimens at Daguerres studio. The images were enthusiastically praised as nearly miraculous, and news of the daguerreotype quickly spread, in 1839, he was elected to the National Academy of Design as an Honorary Academician. Daguerre died on 10 July 1851 in Bry-sur-Marne,12 km from Paris, a monument marks his grave there. Daguerres name is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel tower, in the mid-1820s, prior to his association with Daguerre, Niépce used a coating of bitumen of Judea to make the first permanent camera photographs. The bitumen was hardened where it was exposed to light and the portion was removed with a solvent. A camera exposure lasting for hours or days was required, Niépce and Daguerre refined this process, but unacceptably long exposures were still needed. After the death of Niépce in 1833, Daguerre concentrated his attention on the properties of silver salts. The plate was exposed in the camera. Upon seeing the image, the contents of which are unknown, Daguerre said, the latent image on a daguerreotype plate was developed by subjecting it to the vapor given off by mercury heated to 75 °C.
The resulting visible image was fixed by removing the silver iodide with concentrated and heated salt water. Later, a solution of the more effective hypo was used instead, the resultant plate produced an exact reproduction of the scene. The image was laterally reversed—as images in mirrors are—unless a mirror or inverting prism was used during exposure to flip the image, daguerreotypes were usually portraits, the rarer landscape views and other unusual subjects are now much sought-after by collectors and sell for much higher prices than ordinary portraits