Topography is the study of the shape and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description. Topography is a field of geoscience and planetary science and is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief but natural and artificial features, local history and culture; this meaning is less common in the United States, where topographic maps with elevation contours have made "topography" synonymous with relief. Topography in a narrow sense involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the surface, the identification of specific landforms; this is known as geomorphometry. In modern usage, this involves generation of elevation data in digital form, it is considered to include the graphic representation of the landform on a map by a variety of techniques, including contour lines, hypsometric tints, relief shading. The term topography originated in ancient Greece and continued in ancient Rome, as the detailed description of a place.
The word comes from the Greek τόπος and -γραφία. In classical literature this refers to writing about a place or places, what is now called'local history'. In Britain and in Europe in general, the word topography is still sometimes used in its original sense. Detailed military surveys in Britain were called Ordnance Surveys, this term was used into the 20th century as generic for topographic surveys and maps; the earliest scientific surveys in France were called the Cassini maps after the family who produced them over four generations. The term "topographic surveys" appears to be American in origin; the earliest detailed surveys in the United States were made by the “Topographical Bureau of the Army,” formed during the War of 1812, which became the Corps of Topographical Engineers in 1838. After the work of national mapping was assumed by the U. S. Geological Survey in 1878, the term topographical remained as a general term for detailed surveys and mapping programs, has been adopted by most other nations as standard.
In the 20th century, the term topography started to be used to describe surface description in other fields where mapping in a broader sense is used in medical fields such as neurology. An objective of topography is to determine the position of any feature or more any point in terms of both a horizontal coordinate system such as latitude and altitude. Identifying features, recognizing typical landform patterns are part of the field. A topographic study may be made for a variety of reasons: military planning and geological exploration have been primary motivators to start survey programs, but detailed information about terrain and surface features is essential for the planning and construction of any major civil engineering, public works, or reclamation projects. There are a variety of approaches to studying topography. Which method to use depend on the scale and size of the area under study, its accessibility, the quality of existing surveys. Surveying helps determine the terrestrial or three-dimensional space position of points and the distances and angles between them using leveling instruments such as theodolites, dumpy levels and clinometers.
Work on one of the first topographic maps was begun in France by Giovanni Domenico Cassini, the great Italian astronomer. Though remote sensing has sped up the process of gathering information, has allowed greater accuracy control over long distances, the direct survey still provides the basic control points and framework for all topographic work, whether manual or GIS-based. In areas where there has been an extensive direct survey and mapping program, the compiled data forms the basis of basic digital elevation datasets such as USGS DEM data; this data must be "cleaned" to eliminate discrepancies between surveys, but it still forms a valuable set of information for large-scale analysis. The original American topographic surveys involved not only recording of relief, but identification of landmark features and vegetative land cover. Remote sensing is a general term for geodata collection at a distance from the subject area. Besides their role in photogrammetry and satellite imagery can be used to identify and delineate terrain features and more general land-cover features.
They have become more and more a part of geovisualization, whether maps or GIS systems. False-color and non-visible spectra imaging can help determine the lie of the land by delineating vegetation and other land-use information more clearly. Images can be in other spectrum. Photogrammetry is a measurement technique for which the co-ordinates of the points in 3D of an object are determined by the measurements made in two photographic images taken starting from different positions from different passes of an aerial photography flight. In this technique, the common points are identified on each image. A line of sight can be built from the camera location to the point on the object, it is the intersection of its rays which determines the relative three-dimensional position of the point. Known control points can be used to give these relative positions absolute values. More sophisticated algorithms can exploit other information on the scene known a priori. Satellite RADAR mapping is one of the major techniques of generating Digital E
Dobruja or Dobrudja is a historical region in Eastern Europe, divided since the 19th century between the territories of Bulgaria and Romania. It is situated between the lower Danube River and the Black Sea, includes the Danube Delta, Romanian coast, the northernmost part of the Bulgarian coast; the territory of Dobruja is made up of Northern Dobruja, part of Romania, Southern Dobruja, which belongs to Bulgaria. The territory of the Romanian region Dobrogea is organised as the counties of Constanța and Tulcea, with a combined area of 15,500 km2 and a population of less than 900 thousand, its main cities are Constanța, Tulcea and Mangalia. Dobrogea is represented by dolphins in the coat of arms of Romania; the Bulgarian region Dobrudzha is divided among the administrative regions of Silistra. This section has a total area of 7,565 km2, with a combined population of some 310,000 people, the main towns being Dobrich and Silistra. With the exception of the Danube Delta, a marshy region located in its northeastern corner, Dobruja is hilly, with an average altitude of about 200–300 metres.
The highest point is the Țuțuiatu Peak in the Măcin Mountains, having a height of 467 m. The Dobrogea Plateau covers most of the Romanian part of Dobruja; the Ludogorie Plateau is found in Bulgaria. Lake Razelm is one of the most important lakes in Northern Dobruja. Dobruja lies in the temperate continental climatic area. Dobruja's level terrain and its bare location facilitate the influx of humid, warm air in the spring and autumn from the northwest, as well as that of northern and northeastern polar air in the winter; the Black Sea exerts an influence over the region's climate within 40–60 kilometres from the coast. The average annual temperatures range from 11 °C inland and along the Danube, to 11.8 °C on the coast and less than 10 °C in the higher parts of the plateau. The coastal region of Southern Dobruja is the most arid part of Bulgaria, with an annual precipitation of 450 millimetres. Dobruja is a windy region once known for its windmills. There is wind during about 85–90% of all days; the average wind speed is about twice higher than the average in Bulgaria.
Due to the limited precipitation and the proximity to the sea, rivers in Dobruja are short and with low discharge. The region has a number of shallow seaside lakes with brackish water; the most widespread opinion among scholars is that the origin of the term Dobruja is to be found in the Turkish rendition of the name of a 14th‑century Bulgarian ruler, despot Dobrotitsa. It was common for the Turks to name countries after one of their early rulers. Other etymologies never gained widespread acceptance. Abdolonyme Ubicini believed the name meant "good lands", derived from Slavic dobro, an opinion, adopted by several 19th‑century scholars; this derivation appears to contrast with the usual 19th‑century description of Dobruja as a dry barren land. I. A. Nazarettean combines the Slavic word with the Tatar budjak, thus proposing the etymology "good corner". A version matching contemporaneous descriptions was suggested by Kanitz, who associated the name with the Bulgarian dobrice. According to Gheorghe I.
Brătianu, the name is a Slavic derivation from the Turkic word Bordjan or Brudjars, which referred to the Turkic Proto-Bulgarians. One of the earliest documented uses of the name can be found in the Turkish Oghuz-name narrative, dated to the 15th century, where it appears as Dobruja-éli; the possessive suffix el-i indicated. The loss of the final particle is not unusual in the Turkish world, a similar evolution being observed in the name of Aydın Aydın-éli. Another early use is in the 16th‑century Latin translation of Laonicus Chalcondyles' Histories, where the term Dobroditia is used for the original Greek "Dobrotitsa's country". In the 17th century, the region was referred to in more accounts, with renditions such as Dobrucia, Dobrus, Dobroudja and others being used by foreign authors; the name meant just the steppe of the southern region, between the forests around Babadag in the north and the Silistra–Dobrich–Balchik line in the south. The term was extended to include the northern part and the Danube Delta.
In the 19th century, some authors used the name to refer just to the territory between the southernmost branch of the Danube in the north and the Karasu Valley in the south. The territory of Dobruja has been inhabited by humans since Middle and Upper Palaeolithic, as the remains at Babadag, Slava Rusă and Enisala demonstrate. Paleolithic people made tools of silex and ate fruits and other hunted animals. In this period fire was discovered, at its end the bow with arrows and the boat scul
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union. The Russian Empire collapsed with the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917. Alongside it arose grassroots community assemblies which contended for authority. In the second revolution that October, the Provisional Government was toppled and all power was given to the Soviets; the February Revolution was a revolution focused around Petrograd, the capital of Russia at that time. In the chaos, members of the Imperial parliament assumed control of the country, forming the Russian Provisional Government, dominated by the interests of large capitalists and the noble aristocracy; the army leadership felt they did not have the means to suppress the revolution, resulting in Tsar Nicholas's abdication. The Soviets, which were dominated by soldiers and the urban industrial working class permitted the Provisional Government to rule, but insisted on a prerogative to influence the government and control various militias.
The February Revolution took place in the context of heavy military setbacks during the First World War, which left much of the Russian Army in a state of mutiny. A period of dual power ensued, during which the Provisional Government held state power while the national network of Soviets, led by socialists, had the allegiance of the lower classes and the left-leaning urban middle class. During this chaotic period there were frequent mutinies and many strikes. Many socialist political organizations were engaged in daily struggle and vied for influence within the Duma and the Soviets, central among which were the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin who campaigned for an immediate end to the war, land to the peasants, bread to the workers; when the Provisional Government chose to continue fighting the war with Germany, the Bolsheviks and other socialist factions were able to exploit universal disdain towards the war effort as justification to advance the revolution further. The Bolsheviks turned workers' militias under their control into the Red Guards over which they exerted substantial control.
In the October Revolution, the Bolsheviks led an armed insurrection by workers and soldiers in Petrograd that overthrew the Provisional Government, transferring all its authority to the Soviets with the capital being relocated to Moscow shortly thereafter. The Bolsheviks had secured a strong base of support within the Soviets and, as the now supreme governing party, established a federal government dedicated to reorganizing the former empire into the world's first socialist republic, practicing Soviet democracy on a national and international scale; the promise to end Russia's participation in the First World War was honored promptly with the Bolshevik leaders signing the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany in March 1918. To further secure the new state, the Cheka was established which functioned as a revolutionary security service that sought to weed out and punish those considered to be "enemies of the people" in campaigns consciously modeled on similar events during the French Revolution.
Soon after, civil war erupted among the "Reds", the "Whites", the independence movements and the non-Bolshevik socialists. It continued for several years, during which the Bolsheviks defeated both the Whites and all rival socialists and thereafter reconstituted themselves as the Communist Party. In this way, the Revolution paved the way for the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922. While many notable historical events occurred in Moscow and Petrograd, there was a visible movement in cities throughout the state, among national minorities throughout the empire and in the rural areas, where peasants took over and redistributed land; the Russian Revolution of 1905 was said to be a major factor contributing to the cause of the Revolutions of 1917. The events of Bloody Sunday triggered nationwide protests and soldier mutinies. A council of workers called. While the 1905 Revolution was crushed, the leaders of the St. Petersburg Soviet were arrested, this laid the groundwork for the Petrograd Soviet and other revolutionary movements during the lead up to 1917.
The 1905 Revolution led to the creation of a Duma, that would form the Provisional Government following February 1917. The outbreak of World War I prompted general outcry directed at Tsar Nicholas II and the Romanov family. While the nation was engaged in a wave of nationalism, increasing numbers of defeats and poor conditions soon flipped the nation's opinion; the Tsar attempted to remedy the situation by taking personal control of the army in 1915. This proved to be disadvantageous for the Tsar, as he was now held responsible for Russia's continuing defeats and losses. In addition, Tsarina Alexandra, left to rule in while the Tsar commanded at the front, was German born, leading to suspicion of collusion, only to be exacerbated by rumors relating to her relationship with the controversial mystic Grigori Rasputin. Rasputin's influence led to disastrous ministerial appointments and corruption, resulting in a worsening of conditions within Russia; this led to general dissatisfaction with the Romanov family, was a major factor contributing to the retaliation of the Russian Communists against th
Kiliya is a small city in Odessa Oblast of southwestern Ukraine. It is the administrative center of Kiliya Raion, is located in the Danube Delta, in the Bessarabian historic district of Budjak; the Chilia branch of the Danube river, which separates Ukraine from Romania, is named after Kiliya. Population: 20,311 A town on the Romanian side of the Chilia branch of the Danube, known as Chilia Veche or "Older Chilia", was founded by the Byzantines - κελλία, kellia being the equivalent of "granaries", a name first recorded in 1241, in the works of the Persian chronicler Rashid-al-Din Hamadani. Kiliya is therefore sometimes referred to as Nova Kiliya, or "New Kiliya", it was founded by Stephen the Great of Moldavia, in order to counteract the Ottoman Empire which had taken control over Chilia Veche in the 15th century. It was a major Moldavian port. However, it was conquered by the Ottomans in 1484, who kept it until 1790, when it was taken by Russian army under the command of the general Ivan Gudovich during Russo-Turkish War.
The Times of London reported that "35,000 of the inhabitants were involved in a general massacre," an incident that had "been celebrated in prose and poetry." The city was given back to the Ottomans in 1792, but retaken by the Russians in 1806 and awarded to them in 1812. After being bombarded by the Anglo-French fleet in July 1854 during the Crimean War, it was given to Romania in the Treaty of Paris. In 1878, Kiliya was transferred back to Russia together with Budjak. Between 1918 and 1940 it was again part of Romania integrated in the Soviet Union and the Ukrainian SSR, passed on to independent Ukraine after the Soviet downfall; the oldest building in Kiliya is the semi-subterranean church of St. Nicholas, which may go back to 1485, although an old inscription in the church claims that it was founded on 10 May 1647
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize or perform ministries of service, such as education, social justice, health care, economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem, meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send"; the word was used in light of its biblical usage. The term is most used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology. A Christian missionary can be defined as "one, to witness across cultures"; the Lausanne Congress of 1974, defined the term, related to Christian mission as, "to form a viable indigenous church-planting movement". Missionaries can be found in many countries around the world. In the Bible, Jesus is recorded as instructing the apostles to make disciples of all nations; this verse is referred to by Christian missionaries as the Great Commission and inspires missionary work. The Christian Church expanded throughout the Roman Empire in New Testament times and is said by tradition to have reached further, to Persia and to India.
During the Middle Ages, the Christian monasteries and missionaries such as Saint Patrick, Adalbert of Prague propagated learning and religion beyond the European boundaries of the old Roman Empire. In 596, Pope Gregory the Great sent the Gregorian Mission into England. In their turn, Christians from Ireland and from Britain became prominent in converting the inhabitants of central Europe. During the Age of Discovery, the Catholic Church established a number of missions in the Americas and in other Western colonies through the Augustinians and Dominicans to spread Christianity in the New World and to convert the Native Americans and other indigenous people. About the same time, missionaries such as Francis Xavier as well as other Jesuits, Augustinians and Dominicans reached Asia and the Far East, the Portuguese sent missions into Africa. Emblematic in many respects is Matteo Ricci's Jesuit mission to China from 1582, peaceful and non-violent; these missionary movements should be distinguished from others, such as the Baltic Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries, which were arguably compromised in their motivation by designs of military conquest.
Much contemporary Catholic missionary work has undergone profound change since the Second Vatican Council of 1962-1965, with an increased push for indigenization and inculturation, along with social justice issues as a constitutive part of preaching the Gospel. As the Catholic Church organizes itself along territorial lines and had the human and material resources, religious orders, some specializing in it, undertook most missionary work in the era after the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West. Over time, the Holy See established a normalized Church structure in the mission areas starting with special jurisdictions known as apostolic prefectures and apostolic vicariates. At a stage of development these foundations are raised to regular diocesan status with a local bishops appointed. On a global front, these processes were accelerated in the 1960s, in part accompanying political decolonization. In some regions, they are still in course. Just as the Bishop of Rome had jurisdiction in territories considered to be in the Eastern sphere, so the missionary efforts of the two 9th-century saints Cyril and Methodius were conducted in relation to the West rather than the East, though the field of activity was central Europe.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, under the Orthodox Church of Constantinople undertook vigorous missionary work under the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire. This had lasting effects and in some sense is at the origin of the present relations of Constantinople with some sixteen Orthodox national churches including the Romanian Orthodox Church, the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church, the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, the Bulgarian Orthodox Church; the Byzantines expanded their missionary work in Ukraine after the mass baptism in Kiev in 988. The Serbian Orthodox Church had its origins in the conversion by Byzantine missionaries of the Serb tribes when they arrived in the Balkans in the 7th century. Orthodox missionaries worked among the Estonians from the 10th to the 12th centuries, founding the Estonian Orthodox Church. Under the Russian Empire of the 19th century, missionaries such as Nicholas Ilminsky moved into the subject lands and propagated Orthodoxy, including through Belarus, Moldova, Estonia and China.
The Russian St. Nicholas of Japan took Eastern Orthodoxy to Japan in the 19th century; the Russian Orthodox Church sent missionaries to Alaska beginning in the 18th century, including Saint Herman of Alaska, to minister to the Native Americans. The Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia continued missionary work outside Russia after the 1917 Russian Revolution, resulting in the establishment of many new dioceses in the diaspora, from which numerous converts have been made in Eastern Europe, North America, Oceania. Early Protestant missionaries included John Eliot and contemporary ministers
A cemetery or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are buried or otherwise interred. The word cemetery implies that the land is designated as a burial ground and applied to the Roman catacombs; the term graveyard is used interchangeably with cemetery, but a graveyard refers to a burial ground within a churchyard. The intact or cremated remains of people may be interred in a grave referred to as burial, or in a tomb, an "above-ground grave", a mausoleum, niche, or other edifice. In Western cultures, funeral ceremonies are observed in cemeteries; these ceremonies or rites of passage differ according to religious beliefs. Modern cemeteries include crematoria, some grounds used for both, continue as crematoria as a principal use long after the interment areas have been filled. Taforalt cave in Morocco is the oldest known cemetery in the world, it was the resting place of at least 34 Iberomaurusian individuals, the bulk of which have been dated to 15,100 to 14,000 years ago. Neolithic cemeteries are sometimes referred to by the term "grave field".
They are one of the chief sources of information on ancient and prehistoric cultures, numerous archaeological cultures are defined by their burial customs, such as the Urnfield culture of the European Bronze Age. From about the 7th century, in Europe a burial was under the control of the Church and could only take place on consecrated church ground. Practices varied, but in continental Europe, bodies were buried in a mass grave until they had decomposed; the bones were exhumed and stored in ossuaries, either along the arcaded bounding walls of the cemetery or within the church under floor slabs and behind walls. In most cultures those who were vastly rich, had important professions, were part of the nobility or were of any other high social status were buried in individual crypts inside or beneath the relevant place of worship with an indication of their name, date of death and other biographical data. In Europe, this was accompanied by a depiction of their coat of arms. Most others were buried in graveyards again divided by social status.
Mourners who could afford the work of a stonemason had a headstone engraved with a name, dates of birth and death and sometimes other biographical data, set up over the place of burial. The more writing and symbols carved on the headstone, the more expensive it was; as with most other human property such as houses and means of transport, richer families used to compete for the artistic value of their family headstone in comparison to others around it, sometimes adding a statue on the top of the grave. Those who could not pay for a headstone at all had some religious symbol made from wood on the place of burial such as a Christian cross; some families hired a blacksmith and had large crosses made from various metals put on the place of burial. Starting in the early 19th century, the burial of the dead in graveyards began to be discontinued, due to rapid population growth in the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, continued outbreaks of infectious disease near graveyards and the limited space in graveyards for new interment.
In many European states, burial in graveyards was outlawed altogether through government legislation. Instead of graveyards new places of burial were established away from populated areas and outside of old towns and city centers. Many new cemeteries became municipally owned or were run by their own corporations, thus independent from churches and their churchyards. In some cases, skeletons were moved into ossuaries or catacombs. A large action of this type occurred in 18th century Paris when human remains were transferred from graveyards all over the city to the Catacombs of Paris; the bones of an estimated 6 million people are to be found there. An early example of a landscape-style cemetery is Père Lachaise in Paris; this embodied the idea of state- rather than church-controlled burial, a concept that spread through the continent of Europe with the Napoleonic invasions. This could include the opening of cemeteries by joint stock companies; the shift to municipal cemeteries or those established by private companies was accompanied by the establishing of landscaped burial grounds outside the city.
In Britain the movement was driven by public health concerns. The Rosary Cemetery in Norwich was opened in 1819 as a burial ground for all religious backgrounds. Similar private non-denominational cemeteries were established near industrialising towns with growing populations, such as Manchester and Liverpool; each cemetery required a separate Act of Parliament for authorisation, although the capital was raised through the formation of joint-stock companies. In the first 50 years of the 19th century the population of London more than doubled from 1 million to 2.3 million. The small parish churchyards were becoming dangerously overcrowded, decaying matter infiltrating the water supply was causing epidemics; the issue became acute after the cholera epidemic of 1831, which killed 52,000 people in Britain alone, putting unprecedented pressure on the country's burial capacity. Concerns were raised about the potential public health hazard arising from the inhalation of gases generated from human putrefaction under the prevailing miasma theory of disease.
Legislative action was slow in coming, but in 1832 Parliament acknowledged the need for the establishment of large municipal cemeter
Ciuciuleni is a village in Hîncești District, Moldova. Grigore Scafaru Valentina Sturza