Otto Fritz Meyerhof
Otto Fritz Meyerhof was a German physician and biochemist who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 1922. Otto Fritz Meyerhof was born at Theaterplatz 16A, the son of wealthy Jewish parents. In 1888, his family moved to Berlin, where Otto spent most of his childhood, where he started his study of medicine, he continued these studies in Strasbourg and Heidelberg, from which he graduated in 1909, with a work titled "Contributions to the Psychological Theory of Mental Illness". In Heidelberg, he met Hedwig Schallenberg, they married in 1914 and became parents of a daughter and two sons, Gottfried as well as Walter. In 1912, Otto Meyerhof moved to the University of Kiel, where he received a professorship in 1918. In 1922, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine, with Archibald Vivian Hill, for his work on muscle metabolism, including glycolysis. In 1929 he became one of the directors of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Medical Research, a position he held until 1938. Escaping the Nazi regime, he emigrated to Paris in 1938.
He moved to the United States in 1940, where he was appointed a guest professorship at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. In recognition of his contributions to the study of glycolysis, the common series of reactions for the pathway in Eukaryotes is known as the Embden–Meyerhof–Parnas Pathway. Meyerhof died in Philadelphia at the age of 67. List of Jewish Nobel laureates Meyerhof Curriculum Vitae and Obituary National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran
Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran was a French physician who won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1907 for his discoveries of parasitic protozoans as causative agents of infectious diseases such as malaria and trypanosomiasis. Following his father, Louis Théodore Laveran, he took up military medicine as his profession, he obtained his medical degree from University of Strasbourg in 1867. At the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War in 1870, he joined the French Army. At the age of 29 he became Chair of Military Epidemics at the École de Val-de-Grâce. At the end of his tenure in 1878 he worked in Algeria, he discovered that the protozoan parasite Plasmodium was responsible for malaria, that Trypanosoma caused trypanosomiasis or African sleeping sickness. In 1894 he returned to France to serve in various military health services. In 1896 he joined Pasteur Institute as Chief of the Honorary Service, from where he received the Nobel Prize, he donated half of his Nobel prize money to establish the Laboratory of Tropical Medicine at the Pasteur Institute.
In 1908, he founded the Société de Pathologie Exotique. Laveran was elected to French Academy of Sciences in 1893, was conferred Commander of the National Order of the Legion of Honour in 1912. Alphonse Laveran was born at Boulevard Saint-Michel in Paris, to parents Louis Théodore Laveran and Marie-Louise Anselme Guénard de la Tour Laveran, he was an only son with one sister. His family was in a military environment, his father was a Professor of military medicine at the École de Val-de-Grâce. His mother was the daughter of an army commander. At a young age his family went to Algeria to accompany his father's service, he was educated in Paris, completed his higher education from Collège Saint Barbe and from the Lycée Louis-le-Grand. Following his father he chose military medicine and entered the Public Health School at Strasbourg in 1863. In 1866 he became a resident medical student in the Strasbourg civil hospitals. In 1867 he submitted a thesis on the regeneration of nerves and earned his medical degree from the University of Strasbourg.
Laveran was Medical Assistant-Major of the French Army at the time of Franco-Prussian War. He was posted to Metz, where the French were defeated and the place occupied by Germans, he was sent to work at Lille hospital and to the St Martin Hospital in Paris. In 1874 he qualified a competitive examination by which he was appointed to the Chair of Military Diseases and Epidemics at the École de Val-de-Grâce, a position his father had occupied, his tenure ended in 1878 and he was sent to Algeria, where he remained until 1883. From 1884 to 1889 he was Professor of Military Hygiene at the École de Val-de-Grâce. In 1894 he was appointed Chief Medical Officer of the military hospital at Lille and Director of Health Services of the 11th Army Corps at Nantes. By he was promoted to the rank of Principal Medical Officer of the First Class. In 1896 he entered the Pasteur Institute as Chief of the Honorary Service to pursue a full-time research on tropical diseases. In 1880, while working in the military hospital in Constantine, Algeria, he discovered that the cause of malaria is a protozoan, after observing the parasites in a blood smear taken from a patient who had just died of malaria.
He found the causative organism to be a protozoan which he named Oscillaria malariae, but renamed Plasmodium. This was the first time; the discovery was therefore a validation of the germ theory of diseases. Laveran worked on the trypanosomes sleeping sickness, showed once again that protozoans were responsible for the disease. Laveran was awarded the Bréant Prize of the French Academy of Sciences in 1889 and the Edward Jenner Medal of the Royal Society of Medicine in 1902 for his discovery of the malarial parasite, he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1907. He gave half the Prize for foundation of the Laboratory of Tropical Medicine at the Pasteur Institute. In 1908 he founded the Société de pathologie exotique, he was elected to membership in the French Academy of Sciences in 1893, was conferred Commander of the National Order of the Legion of Honour in 1912. He was Honorary Director of the Pasteur Institute in 1915 on his 70th birthday, he was elected President of the French Academy of Medicine in 1920.
His work was commemorated philatelically on a stamp issued by Algeria in 1954. Laveran married Sophie Marie Pidancet in 1885, they had no children. In 1922 he died in Paris, he is interred in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris. He was an atheist. Laveran's name features on the Frieze of the London School of Tropical Medicine. Twenty-three names of public health and tropical medicine pioneers were chosen to feature on the School building in Keppel Street when it was constructed in 1926. Laveran was a solitary but dedicated researcher and he wrote more than 600 scientific communications; some of his major books are: Nature parasitaire des accidents de l'impaludisme, description d'un nouveau parasite trouvé dans le sang des malades atteints de fièvre palustre. Paris 1881 Traité des fièvres palustres avec la description des microbes du paludisme. Paris 1884 Traité des maladies et épidémies des armées. Paris 1875 Trypanosomes et Trypanosomiases. Masson, Paris 1904 Digital edition by the University and State Library Düsseldorf Nobel Lecture CDC profile Encyclopædia Britannica Faqs.org profile Biography at NNDB Encyclopedia of World Biography Timeline of Laveran at Pasteur Institute
Otto Wilhelm Madelung
Otto Wilhelm Madelung was a German surgeon, a native of Gotha. His son, physicist Erwin Madelung, discovered the Madelung constant. In 1869 he received his medical doctorate from the University of Tübingen, afterwards being assigned to a military hospital during the Franco-Prussian War, he served as a surgical assistant in Bonn, in 1873–74 worked as an assistant at the pathological clinic of Georg Eduard von Rindfleisch. In 1874 he visited the United States. In 1881 he became an assistant professor of surgery at the University of Bonn, followed by professorships at Rostock and Strasbourg. After the French takeover of Strasbourg following World War I, Madelung was relieved of his duties, he subsequently retired to Göttingen. Otto Madelung is remembered for his work with an orthopedic disorder known as Madelung's deformity, defined as a progressive curvature of the radius bone in the forearm; the condition was earlier mentioned by Guillaume Dupuytren in 1834, Auguste Nélaton in 1847, Joseph-François Malgaigne in 1855, however Madelung was the first physician to provide a comprehensive, clinical description.
Madelung described a benign form of lipomatosis, characterized by symmetrical deposits of adipose tissue in the area of the neck, shoulder girdle and upper trunk of the body. Today, this disorder goes by several names, including "benign symmetric lipomatosis", "Madelung's syndrome", "multiple symmetric lipomatosis". If the condition is confined to the neck, it is sometimes referred to by the eponym "Madelung's neck". Madelung specialized in abdominal surgery, is known for his pioneer work with intestinal anastomoses and laparotomy. Die spontane Subluxation der Hand nach Vorne. Verhandlungen der deutschen Gesellschaft für Chirurgie, Berlin, 1878. Madelung's deformity explained. Zur Erleichterung der Sehnennaht. Centralblatt für Chirurgie, Leipzig, 1882. Das Stadt-Krankenhaus in Rostock. In: Julius Uffelmann: Hygienische Topographie der Stadt Rostock. Rostock, 1889. Seyed Behrooz Mostofi. Who's who in orthopedics. Springer. ISBN 1-85233-786-9. Article on Madelung's Disease Otto Wilhelm Madelung @ Who Named It
Bernhard Naunyn was German pathologist born in Berlin. After receiving his degree at the University of Berlin in 1863, he became an assistant to pathologist Friedrich Theodor von Frerichs. Afterwards he was the head of medical clinics in Dorpat, Bern, Königsberg, Strasbourg, where he taught at the Imperial University. Naunyn is remembered for his work in experimental pathology metabolic pathology, it was during the time he spent working at Frerich's clinic in Berlin that he became interested in the metabolic pathology regarding the liver and other internal organs. In his studies of the fermentation processes of the stomach, he noticed the "contra-fermentation" properties of benzene, he discovered. With physician Otto Schultzen he discovered that benzene-derived hydrocarbons in the body had the ability to perform chemistry, not possible for chemists to achieve in a conventional laboratory. Naunyn made contributions in his research of diabetes and cholelithiasis, he published an important treatise on diabetes titled Der Diabetes Melitus, his Klinik der Cholelithiasis was translated into English by Archibald Garrod as "A treatise on cholelithiasis".
With Oskar Minkowski, he theorized that bile pigment formation was a function of liver cells alone, however this theory was disproved by John William McNee in 1913. With pharmacologist Oswald Schmiedeberg and pathologist Edwin Klebs he founded Archiv für experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, in 1896 with surgeon Jan Mikulicz-Radecki he founded Mitteilungen aus dem Grenzgebieten der Medizin und Chirurgie. A famous student of Naunyn's was Otto Loewi, the winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1936, his grave is preserved in the Protestant Friedhof II der Jerusalems- und Neuen Kirchengemeinde in Berlin-Kreuzberg, south of Hallesches Tor. ISSX, Biography ISSX, Oxidation
Ludwig Karl Martin Leonhard Albrecht Kossel was a German biochemist and pioneer in the study of genetics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1910 for his work in determining the chemical composition of nucleic acids, the genetic substance of biological cells. Kossel isolated and described the five organic compounds that are present in nucleic acid: adenine, guanine and uracil; these compounds were shown to be nucleobases, are key in the formation of DNA and RNA, the genetic material found in all living cells. Kossel was an important influence on and collaborator with other important researchers in biochemistry, including Henry Drysdale Dakin, Friedrich Miescher, Edwin B. Hart, his professor and mentor, Felix Hoppe-Seyler. Kossel was editor of the Zeitschrift für Physiologische Chemie from 1895 until his death. Kossel conducted important research into the composition of protein, his research predicted the discovery of the polypeptide nature of the protein molecule; the Albrecht Kossel Institute for Neuroregeneration at the University of Rostock is named in his honor.
Kossel was born in Rostock, Germany as the son of the merchant and Prussian consul Albrecht Karl Ludwig Enoch Kossel and his wife Clara Jeppe Kossel. As a youth, Kossel attended the Gymnasium at Rostock, where he evidenced substantial interest in chemistry and botany. In 1872, Kossel attended the University of Strassburg to study medicine, he studied under Felix Hoppe-Seyler, head of the department of biochemistry, the only such institution in Germany at the time. He attended lectures by Anton de Bary, August Kundt, Baeyer, he completed his studies at University of Rostock, passed his German medical license exam in 1877. After completing his university studies, Kossel returned to the University of Strassburg as research assistant to Felix Hoppe-Seyler. At the time, Hoppe-Seyler was intensely interested in research concerning an acidic substance that had first been chemically isolated from pus cells by one of his former students, Friedrich Miescher, in 1869. Unlike protein, the substance contained considerable amounts of phosphorus, but with its high acidity, it was unlike any cellular substance that had yet been observed.
Kossel showed that the substance, called "nuclein", consisted of a protein component and a non-protein component. Kossel further described the non-protein component; this substance has become known as nucleic acid, which contains the genetic information found in all living cells. In 1883, Kossel left Strassburg to become Director of the Chemistry Division of the Physiological Institute at the University of Berlin. In this post, he worked under the supervision of Emil du Bois-Reymond. Kossel continued his previous work on the nucleic acids. During the period 1885 to 1901, he was able to isolate and name its five constituent organic compounds: adenine, guanine and uracil; these compounds are now known collectively as nucleobases, they provide the molecular structure necessary in the formation of stable DNA and RNA molecules. In 1895, Kossel was professor of physiology as well as director of the Physiological Institute at the University of Marburg. Around this time, he began investigations into the chemical composition of proteins, the alterations in proteins during transformation into peptone, the peptide components of cells, other investigations.
In 1896, Kossel discovered histidine worked out the classical method for the quantitative separation of the "hexone bases". He was the first to isolate theophylline, a therapeutic drug found in tea and cocoa beans. In 1901, Kossel was named to a similar post at Heidelberg University, became director of the Heidelberg Institute for Protein Investigation, his research predicted the discovery of the polypeptide nature of the protein molecule. The processes of life are like a drama, I am studying the actors, not the plot. There are many actors, it is their characters which make this drama. I seek to understand their peculiarities. Kossel was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1910 for his research in cell biology, the chemical composition of the cell nucleus, for his work in isolating and describing nucleic acids; the award was presented on 10 December 1910. In the autumn of 1911, Kossel was invited to the United States to deliver the Herter Lecture at Johns Hopkins. Traveling with his wife Luise and daughter Gertrude, he took the opportunity to travel and to visit acquaintances, one of, Eugene W. Hilgard, professor emeritus of agricultural chemistry at the University of California at Berkeley, his wife's cousin.
He visited and delivered lectures at several other universities, including the University of Chicago. On the occasion of his visit to New York City, Kossel was interviewed by a reporter from The New York Times. Kossel's English was very good, his self-effacing modesty is voluminously mentioned in the reporter's account, his Herter lecture at Johns Hopkins was titled, "The Proteins". This was the only time Kossel visited the United States. With his distinguished English pupil Henry Drysdale Dakin, Kossel investigated arginase, the ferment which hydrolyses arginine into urea and ornithine, he discovered agmatine in herring roe and devised a method for preparing it. Another of Kossel's students was American biochemist Edwin B. Hart, who would return to the United States to participate in the "Single-grain experiment" and be part of research teams that would determine the nutritive causes of anemia and goiter. Another was Otto Folin, an American che
Adolph Kussmaul was a German physician and a leading clinician of his time. He was born as the son and grandson of physicians at Graben near Karlsruhe and studied at Heidelberg, he spent two years as an army surgeon. This was followed by a period as a general practitioner before he went to Würzburg to study for his doctorate under Virchow, he was subsequently Professor of Medicine at Heidelberg, Erlangen and Strassburg. Beyond his medical skills he was active in literature, he is regarded as one of the creators of the term Biedermeier. He died in Heidelberg, his name continues to be used in eponyms. He described two medical signs and one disease which have eponymous names that remain in use: Kussmaul breathing - Very deep and labored breathing with normal, rapid or reduced frequency seen in severe Diabetic ketoacidosis. Kussmaul's sign - Paradoxical rise in the Jugular venous pressure on inhalation in Constrictive pericarditis or Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Kussmaul disease - Polyarteritis nodosa.
Named with Rudolf Robert Maier. The following eponymous terms are considered archaic: Kussmaul's coma - diabetic coma due to ketoacidosis. Kussmaul's aphasia - selective mutism. First to describe dyslexia in 1877. First to describe polyarteritis nodosa. First to describe progressive bulbar paralysis. First to diagnose mesenteric embolism. First to perform pleural gastric lavage. First to attempt oesophagoscopy and gastroscopy. First to describe the emotional symptoms of mercury exposure as a first stage preceding the physical effects. Adolf Kussmaul, biography from Who Named It
Joseph von Mering
Josef, Baron von Mering was a German physician. Working at the University of Strasbourg, Mering was the first person to discover that one of the pancreatic functions is the production of insulin, a hormone which controls blood sugar levels. Mering was curious about the pancreas, a comma shaped organ, situated between the stomach and the small intestine. In an effort to discover its function, he removed the organ from a dog; the dog was noticed urinating on the floor, although it was house trained. Mering realised that this was a symptom of diabetes and tested the urine, found to be high in sugar, confirming his suspicion. Josef von Mering helped to discover barbiturates, a class of sedative drugs used for insomnia, epilepsy and anesthesia. In 1903, he published observations. In 1904, he helped to launch barbital under the brand name Veronal. Veronal was the first commercially available barbiturate sedative in any country. Von Mering collaborated with the chemist Emil Fischer, involved in the discovery of barbital.
Joseph von Mering at Encyclopædia Britannica The History of Barbiturates