Arts et Métiers (Paris Métro)
Arts et Métiers is a station of the Paris Métro, serving Line 3 and Line 11. It takes its name from the Musée des Arts et Métiers, served by the station, it opened on 19 October 1904 as part of the first section of line 3 opened between Père Lachaise and Villiers. The line 11 platforms opened as part of the original section of the line from Châtelet to Porte des Lilas on 28 April 1935. To mark the bicentenary of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers in 1994, the station was redesigned by Belgian comics artist François Schuiten in a steampunk style reminiscent of the science fiction works of Jules Verne. Roland, Gérard. Stations de métro. D’Abbesses à Wagram. Éditions Bonneton. Station information and photographs at the Musée des Artes et Métiers website
Henri de Guénégaud
Henri du Plessis-Guénégaud, Lord of the Plessis-Belleville, Marquis de La Garnache was a French scholar, Secretary of State of the royal household, Naval Minister. He supported Anne d'Autriche during the Fronde and was made Garde des Sceaux in 1656, but was disgraced in 1669, when he was succeeded as Secretary of State by Jean-Baptiste Colbert. Dubuisson Aubenay, who wrote a history of the Fronde, became his secretary in 1645. In 1646 Henri de Guénégaud purchased the old Hôtel de Nevers on the quai de Nevers, commissioned the architect François Mansart to transform it into the Hôtel de Guénégaud in 1648–1652, he was the elder son of Gabriel Guénégaud, Lord of the Plessis-Belleville, Marie La Croix, Dame du Plessis-Belleville. In 1642 he married daughter of the Maréchal Charles de Choiseul, Marquis de Praslin, their children included: Gabriel 1643 Caesar Phoebus + Roger 1645 Claire Bénédicte 1646–1675 Henry 1647–1722 Emmanuel Elisabeth AngeliqueHe was the brother of Claude's treasurer, brother-in-law of César d'Albret who married his sister Madeleine.
Secretary of State for the Royal Household in 1643 to 1669 under Louis XIV State Secretary of the Navy 23 March 1643 to 1662 under Louis XIII and Louis XIV Keeper of the Seals of the Order of the Holy Spirit Advisor to the King and treasurer of his savings Braham, Allan. François Mansart. London: A. Zwemmer. ISBN 9780302022511
A townhouse, townhome, or town house as used in North America, Australia, South Africa and parts of Europe, is a type of terraced housing. A modern town house is one with a small footprint on multiple floors. In British usage, the term referred to the city residence of someone whose main or largest residence was a country house. A townhouse was the city residence of a noble or wealthy family, who would own one or more country houses in which they lived for much of the year. From the 18th century and their servants would move to a townhouse during the social season. In the United Kingdom, most townhouses are terraced. Only a small minority of them the largest, were detached, but aristocrats whose country houses had grounds of hundreds or thousands of acres lived in terraced houses in town. For example, the Duke of Norfolk owned Arundel Castle in the country, while his London house, Norfolk House, was a terraced house in St James's Square over 100 feet wide. In the United States and Canada, a townhouse has two connotations.
The older predates the automobile and denotes a house on a small footprint in a city, but because of its multiple floors, it has a large living space with servants' quarters. The small footprint of the townhouse allows it to be within walking or mass-transit distance of business and industrial areas of the city, yet luxurious enough for wealthy residents of the city. Townhouses are expensive where detached single-family houses are uncommon, such as in New York City, Boston, Toronto, Washington, DC, San Francisco. Rowhouses are similar and consist of several adjacent, uniform units found in older, pre-automobile urban areas such as Baltimore, Charleston and New Orleans, but now found in lower-cost housing developments in suburbs as well. A townhouse is where there is a continuous roof and foundation, a single wall divides adjacent townhouses, but some have a double wall with inches-wide air space in between on a common foundation. A rowhouse will be smaller and less luxurious than a dwelling called a townhouse.
The name townhouse or townhome was used to describe non-uniform units in suburban areas that are designed to mimic detached or semi-detached homes. Today, the term, townhouse, is used to describe units mimicking a detached home that are attached in a multi-unit complex; the distinction between living units called apartments and those called townhouses is that townhouses consist of multiple floors and have their own outside door as opposed to having only one level and/or having access via an interior hallway or via an exterior balcony-style walkway. Another distinction is that in most areas of the US outside of the largest cities, apartment refers to rental housing, townhouse refers to an individually owned dwelling, although the term townhouse-style apartment is heard. Townhouses can be "stacked"; such homes have multiple units vertically each with its own private entrance from the street or at least from the outside. They can be side by side in a row of three or more, in which case they are sometimes referred to as rowhouses.
A townhouse in a group of two could be referred to as a townhouse, but in Canada and the US, it is called a semi-detached home and in some areas of western Canada, a half-duplex. In Canada, single-family dwellings, be they any type, such as single-family detached homes, mobile homes, or townhouses, for example, are split into two categories of ownership: Condominium, where one owns the interior of the unit and a specified share of the undivided interest of the remainder of the building and land known as common elements. Freehold, where one owns the land and the dwelling without any condominium aspects; these may share the foundation as well but have narrow air spaces between and still referred to as a townhouse. Condominium townhouses, just like condominium apartments, are referred to as condos, thus referring to the type of ownership rather than to the type of dwelling. Since apartment style condos are the most common, when someone refers to a condo, many erroneously assume that it must be an apartment-style dwelling and conversely that only apartment-style dwellings can be condos.
All types of dwellings can be condos, this is therefore true of townhouses. A brownstone townhouse is a particular variety found in New York. In Asia and South Africa, the usage of the term follows the North American sense. Townhouses are found in complexes. Large complexes have high security, resort facilities such as swimming pools, gyms and playground equipment. A townhouse has a Strata Title. In population-dense Asian cities dominated by high-rise residential apartment blocks, such as Hong Kong, townhouses in private housing developments remain exclusively populated by the wealthy due to the rarity and large sizes of the units. Prominent examples in Hong Kong include Severn 8, in which a 5,067-square-foot townhouse sold for HK$285 million in 2008, or HK$57,000 per square foot, a record in Asia, The Beverly Hills, which consists of multiple rows of townhouses with some units as large as 11,000 square feet. In the suburbs of major cities, an old house on a large block of land is demolished and repl
Salle de la Bouteille
The Salle de la Bouteille or Salle du Jeu de Paume de la Bouteille known as the Hôtel Guénégaud or Guénégaud Theatre, was a 1671 theatre located in Paris, between the rue de Seine and the rue des Fossés de Nesle across from the rue Guénégaud. It was the first home of the Paris Opera and in 1680 became the first theatre of the Comédie-Française. A former tennis court converted into a theatre, it was inaugurated in 1671 as the first home of Pierre Perrin's Académie d'Opéra; the first French opera, Robert Cambert's Pomone with a libretto by Perrin, premiered there on 3 March of that year. A second lyric work, Les peines et les plaisirs de l'amour, with a libretto by Gabriel Gilbert and music by Cambert, was performed in 1672. On 13 March 1672 the surintendant of the king's music, Jean-Baptiste Lully, acquired Perrin's rights to perform opera and named his company the Académie Royale de Musique, although it continued to be called the Opéra; because of legal difficulties Lully could not use the Salle de la Bouteille, moved the Opéra to a theatre built by Carlo Vigarani in the Bel-Air tennis court on the Rue de Vaugirard.
In 1673, after the death of Molière, the Salle de la Bouteille became the home of the Guénégaud Theatre, a company formed from the remnants of the troupe of Molière and players from the Théâtre du Marais. In 1680, after merging with the troupe from the Hôtel de Bourgogne, the company became known as the Comédie-Française and continued to perform in the Guénégaud until 1689, when it moved to the Jeu de Paume de l'Étoile on the rue des Fossés-Saint-Germain-des-Prés. Bashford, Christina. "Cambert, Robert", vol. 4, pp. 696–698, in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, 4 volumes, edited by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan. ISBN 9781561592289. Chappuzeau, Samuel. Le théâtre français, edited by G. Monval. Paris: Bonnassies, 1875. Clarke, Jan; the Guénégaud Theatre in Paris. Volume One: Founding and Production. Lewiston, New York: The Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 9780773483927. Forman, Edward. Historical Dictionary of French Theater. Lanham: The Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810849396. Harris-Warrick, Rebecca. "Paris. 2. 1669–1725", vol.
3, pp. 856–858, in The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, 4 volumes, edited by Stanley Sadie. London: Macmillan. ISBN 9781561592289. Howarth, William D. ed.. French Theatre in the Neo-Classical Era 1550–1789. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521100878. La Salle, Albert de. Les Treize Salles de l'Opéra. Paris: Librairie Sartorius. Copy at Google Books. Notice bibliographique at the BnF. Lecomte, Louis-Henry. Histoire des théâtres 1402–1904. Notice préliminaire. Paris: Daragon. View at Google Books. Nuitter, Charles. Les Origines de l'Opéra français. Paris: E. Plon, Nourrit et Cie. Copies 1 and 2 at Google Books. Powell, John S.. Music and Theatre in France 1600–1680. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198165996. Sadler, Graham. "Robert Cambert", p. 150, in The New Penguin Opera Guide, edited by Amanda Holden. New York: Penguin Putnam. ISBN 9780140514759. Wiley, W. L.. The Early Public Theatre in France. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. OCLC 331219. Greenwood Press reprint: ISBN 9780837164496
The Hôtel Tubeuf or Hôtel Duret-de-Chevry is a hôtel particulier located at 8 Rue des Petits Champs in the 2nd arrondissement of Paris. It was built in 1635 to the designs of the French architect Jean Thiriot for Charles Duret de Chevry, president of the Chambre des Comptes, it was unfinished, when in 1641 it was purchased by the financier Jacques Tubeuf, who sold it to Cardinal Mazarin in 1649. The latter expanded it and combined it with adjacent hôtels, creating the Palais Mazarin, which in 1721 became the Bibliothèque du Roi; the Hôtel Tubeuf is now part of the complex of buildings forming the Richelieu site of the Bibliothèque nationale de France and was declared a monument historique in 1983. The Hôtel Tubeuf is a typical hôtel particulier with a central corps de logis set between an entrance courtyard and a garden; the entrance courtyard is on the south side and was enclosed on all sides. The street entrance seen today was constructed in the 18th century; the street facade as it existed in the 17th century can be seen in an engraving by Jean Marot.
The Hôtel Tubeuf is one of the last and most splendid examples in Paris of brick-and-stone architecture. Brick-and-stone had gone out of style at the time this hôtel was built, but was used at the request of Duret; the building reflects the architect's fondness for elaborate rustication, stone chaines and quoins, uncommonly shaped pediments decorated in low-relief. The Louisiana Purchase Treaty was signed at the Hôtel Tubeuf on 30 April 1803, it now hosts the departments of prints and photographs and of maps and plans of the French National Library. Ayers, Andrew; the Architecture of Paris. Stuttgart. ISBN 9783930698967. Babelon, Jean-Pierre. "Thiriot, Jean", vol. 30, p. 734–735, in The Dictionary of Art, edited by Jane Turner. New York: Grove. ISBN 9781884446009. Blunt, Anthony. Art and Architecture in France, 1500–1700, 5th edition. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300077483. Braham, Allan. François Mansart, 2 volumes. London: A. Zwemmer. ISBN 9780302022511. Chappet, Alain. Le guide de Napoleon: 4000 lieux de mémoire pour revivre l'épopée.
Paris: Tallandier. ISBN 9782847342468. Deutsch, Kristina. Jean Marot: Un graveur d'architecture à l'époque de Louis XIV. Berlin: De Gruyter. ISBN 9783110375954
François Mansart was a French architect credited with introducing classicism into Baroque architecture of France. The Encyclopædia Britannica cites him as the most accomplished of 17th-century French architects whose works "are renowned for their high degree of refinement and elegance". Mansart, as he is known, made extensive use of a four-sided, double slope gambrel roof punctuated with windows on the steeper lower slope, creating additional habitable space in the garrets that became named after him—the mansard roof. François Mansart was born to a master carpenter in Paris, he was not trained as an architect. He is thought to have learned the skills of architect in the studio of Salomon de Brosse, the most popular architect of Henry IV's reign. Mansart was recognized from the 1620s onward for his style and skill as an architect, but he was viewed as a stubborn and difficult perfectionist, tearing down his structures in order to start building them over again. Only the richest could afford to have him work for them, as Mansart's constructions cost "more money than the Great Turk himself possesses".
The only surviving example of his early work is the Château de Balleroy, commissioned by a chancellor to Gaston, Duke of Orléans, started in 1626. The duke himself was so pleased with the result that he invited Mansart to renovate his Château de Blois; the architect intended to rebuild this former royal residence but his design was stymied and only the north wing was reconstructed to Mansart's design, cleverly using classical orders. In 1632, Mansart designed the Church of St. Mary of the Angels using the Pantheon as an inspiration. Most of Mansart's buildings were subsequently demolished; the best preserved example of his mature style is the Château de Maisons, which uniquely retains the original interior decoration, including a magnificent staircase. The structure is symmetrical, with much attention given to relief, it is thought to have inspired the 18th-century Neoclassicism. In the 1640s, Mansart worked on the convent and church of the Val-de-Grâce in Paris, a much coveted commission from Anne of Austria.
His alleged profligacy led to his being replaced with a more tractable architect, who followed Mansart's design. In the 1650s, Mansart was targeted by political enemies of the prime minister Cardinal Mazarin, for whom Mansart worked. In 1651, they published "La Mansarade", a pamphlet accusing the architect of wild extravagance and machinations. After Louis XIV's accession to the throne, Mansart lost many of his commissions to other architects, his designs for the remodeling of Louvre and for the royal mausoleum at Saint-Denis were never executed, in the case of the Louvre because he would not submit detailed plans. Some of his plans were subsequently reused by Jules Hardouin Mansart. Mansart died in Paris in 1666. Perrault, Charles, "François Mansart", Les hommes illustres qui ont paru en France pendant ce siècle - avec leur portraits au naturel, 1, Paris, pp. 87–88