Bamberg is a town in Upper Franconia, Germany, on the river Regnitz close to its confluence with the river Main. A large part of the town has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1993. During the post-Roman centuries of Germanic migration and settlement, the region afterwards included in the Diocese of Bamberg was inhabited for the most part by Slavs; the town, first mentioned in 902, grew up by the castle Babenberch which gave its name to the Babenberg family. On their extinction it passed to the Saxon house; the area was Christianized chiefly by the monks of the Benedictine Fulda Abbey, the land was under the spiritual authority of the Diocese of Würzburg. In 1007, Holy Roman Emperor Henry II made Bamberg a family inheritance, the seat of a separate diocese; the Emperor's purpose in this was to make the Diocese of Würzburg less unwieldy in size and to give Christianity a firmer footing in the districts of Franconia, east of Bamberg. In 1008, after long negotiations with the Bishops of Würzburg and Eichstätt, who were to cede portions of their dioceses, the boundaries of the new diocese were defined, Pope John XVIII granted the papal confirmation in the same year.
Henry II ordered the building of a new cathedral, consecrated 6 May 1012. The church was enriched with gifts from the pope, Henry had it dedicated in honor of him. In 1017 Henry founded Michaelsberg Abbey on the Michaelsberg, near Bamberg, a Benedictine abbey for the training of the clergy; the emperor and his wife Kunigunde gave large temporal possessions to the new diocese, it received many privileges out of which grew the secular power of the bishop. Pope Benedict VIII visited Bamberg in 1020 to meet Henry II for discussions concerning the Holy Roman Empire. While he was here he placed the diocese in direct dependence on the Holy See, he personally consecrated some of Bamberg's churches. For a short time Bamberg was the centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Henry and Kunigunde were both buried in the cathedral. From the middle of the 13th century onward the bishops were princes of the Empire and ruled Bamberg, overseeing the construction of monumental buildings. In 1248 and 1260 the see obtained large portions of the estates of the Counts of Meran through purchase and through the appropriation of extinguished fiefs.
The old Bishopric of Bamberg was composed of an unbroken territory extending from Schlüsselfeld in a northeasterly direction to the Franconian Forest, possessed in addition estates in the Duchies of Carinthia and Salzburg, in the Nordgau, in Thuringia, on the Danube. By the changes resulting from the Reformation, the territory of this see was reduced nearly one half in extent. Since 1279 the coat of arms of the city of Bamberg is known in form of a seal; the witch trials of the 17th century claimed about one thousand victims in Bamberg, reaching a climax between 1626 and 1631, under the rule of Prince-Bishop Johann Georg II Fuchs von Dornheim. The famous Drudenhaus, built in 1627, is no longer standing today. In 1647, the University of Bamberg was founded as Academia Bambergensis. Bambrzy are German Poles who are descended from settlers from the Bamberg area who settled in villages around Poznań in the years 1719–1753. In 1759, the possessions and jurisdictions of the diocese situated in Austria were sold to that state.
When the secularization of church lands took place the diocese covered 3,305 km2 and had a population of 207,000. Bamberg thus lost its independence in 1802, becoming part of Bavaria in 1803. Bamberg was first connected to the German rail system in 1844, an important part of its infrastructure since. After a communist uprising took control over Bavaria in the years following World War I, the state government fled to Bamberg and stayed there for two years before the Bavarian capital of Munich was retaken by Freikorps units; the first republican constitution of Bavaria was passed in Bamberg, becoming known as the Bamberger Verfassung. In February 1926 Bamberg served as the venue for the Bamberg Conference, convened by Adolf Hitler in his attempt to foster unity and to stifle dissent within the then-young Nazi party. Bamberg was chosen for its location in Upper Franconia, reasonably close to the residences of the members of the dissident northern Nazi faction but still within Bavaria. In 1973, the town celebrated the 1,000th anniversary of its founding.
Bamberg is located in Franconia, 63 km north of Nuremberg by railway and 101 km east of Würzburg by rail. It is situated on 3 km before it flows into the Main river, its geography is shaped by the Regnitz and by the foothills of the Steigerwald, part of the German uplands. From northeast to southwest, the town is divided into first the Regnitz plain one large and several small islands formed by two arms of the Regnitz, the part of town on the hills, the "Hill Town". Bamberg extends over seven hills, each crowned by a beautiful church; this has led to Bamberg being called the "Franconian Rome" — although a running joke among Bamberg's tour guides is to refer to Rome instead as the "Italian Bamberg". The hills are Cathedral Hill, Kaulberg/Obere Pfarre, Jakobsberg, Altenburger Hill and Abtsberg. Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, there is adequate rainfall year-round; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb", with a certain continental influence as indicated by average winter
Hanover or Hannover is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,061 inhabitants make it the thirteenth-largest city of Germany, as well as the third-largest city of Northern Germany after Hamburg and Bremen; the city lies at the confluence of the River Leine and its tributary Ihme, in the south of the North German Plain, is the largest city of the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region. It is the fifth-largest city in the Low German dialect area after Hamburg, Dortmund and Bremen. Before it became the capital of Lower Saxony in 1946, Hanover was the capital of the Principality of Calenberg, the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover, the Province of Hanover of the Kingdom of Prussia, the Province of Hanover of the Free State of Prussia, of the State of Hanover. From 1714 to 1837, Hanover was by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title of the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
The city is a major crossing point of railway lines and highways, connecting European main lines in both the east-west and north-south directions. Hannover Airport lies north of the city, in Langenhagen, is Germany's ninth-busiest airport; the city's most notable institutions of higher education are the Hannover Medical School with its university hospital, the University of Hanover. The Hanover fairground, due to numerous extensions for the Expo 2000, is the largest in the world. Hanover hosts annual commercial trade fairs such as the Hanover Fair and up to 2018 the CeBIT; the IAA Commercial Vehicles show takes place every two years. It is the world's leading trade show for transport and mobility; every year Hanover hosts the Schützenfest Hannover, the world's largest marksmen's festival, the Oktoberfest Hannover. "Hanover" is the traditional English spelling. The German spelling is becoming more popular in English; the English pronunciation, with stress on the first syllable, is applied to both the German and English spellings, different from German pronunciation, with stress on the second syllable and a long second vowel.
The traditional English spelling is still used in historical contexts when referring to the British House of Hanover. Hanover was founded in medieval times on the east bank of the River Leine, its original name Honovere may mean "high bank". Hanover was a small village of ferrymen and fishermen that became a comparatively large town in the 13th century, receiving town privileges in 1241, due to its position at a natural crossroads; as overland travel was difficult, its position on the upper navigable reaches of the river helped it to grow by increasing trade. It was connected to the Hanseatic League city of Bremen by the Leine, was situated near the southern edge of the wide North German Plain and north-west of the Harz mountains, so that east-west traffic such as mule trains passed through it. Hanover was thus a gateway to the Rhine and Saar river valleys, their industrial areas which grew up to the southwest and the plains regions to the east and north, for overland traffic skirting the Harz between the Low Countries and Saxony or Thuringia.
In the 14th century the main churches of Hanover were built, as well as a city wall with three city gates. The beginning of industrialization in Germany led to trade in iron and silver from the northern Harz Mountains, which increased the city's importance. In 1636 George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, ruler of the Brunswick-Lüneburg principality of Calenberg, moved his residence to Hanover; the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg was elevated by the Holy Roman Emperor to the rank of Prince-Elector in 1692, this elevation was confirmed by the Imperial Diet in 1708. Thus the principality was upgraded to the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg, colloquially known as the Electorate of Hanover after Calenberg's capital, its Electors become monarchs of Great Britain. The first of these was George I Louis, who acceded to the British throne in 1714; the last British monarch who reigned in Hanover was William IV. Semi-Salic law, which required succession by the male line if possible, forbade the accession of Queen Victoria in Hanover.
As a male-line descendant of George I, Queen Victoria was herself a member of the House of Hanover. Her descendants, bore her husband's titular name of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. Three kings of Great Britain, or the United Kingdom, were concurrently Electoral Princes of Hanover. During the time of the personal union of the crowns of the United Kingdom and Hanover, the monarchs visited the city. In fact, during the reigns of the final three joint rulers, there was only one short visit, by George IV in 1821. From 1816 to 1837 Viceroy Adolphus represented the monarch in Hanover. During the Seven Years' War, the Battle of Hastenbeck was fought near the city on 26 July 1757; the French army defeated the Hanoverian Army of Observation, leading to the city's occupation as part of the Invasion of Hanover. It was recaptured by Anglo-German forces led by Ferdinand of Brunswick the following year. After Napoleon imposed the Conv
The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries in Europe. The definition varies among countries. Lyceum is a Latin rendering of the Ancient Greek Λύκειον, the name of a gymnasium in Classical Athens dedicated to Apollo Lyceus; this original lyceum is remembered as the location of the peripatetic school of Aristotle. Some countries derive the name for their modern schools from the Latin but use the Greek name for the ancient school: for example, Dutch has Lykeion and Lyceum, both rendered "lyceum" in English; the name Lycée was retrieved and utilized by Napoleon in 1802 to name the main secondary education establishments. From France the name spread in many countries influenced by French culture. In Pakistan in a small city called Dera Ghazi Khan there is a school named Lyceum High School, it was established in 1993 by its principal Javaid Iqbal. It only offers classes till eighth, but its studies match the level of its name as it uses all the foreign methods of teaching and stands with a slogan of "Lyceum: a school of creative thoughts."
The Goa Lyceum in Panaji, Goa – established in 1854, following the Portuguese model – was the first public secondary school in the state a Portuguese territory. The Goa Lyceum received the official title of Liceu Nacional Afonso de Albuquerque; the Philippines follows its version of the K-12 system, where the term junior high school might be used instead of lyceum. However, there are schools. Lyceum of the Philippines University is a university in Manila established by former wartime president José P. Laurel. Among its notable alumni are current president Rodrigo Duterte, popular author Rene Villanueva, actor Cesar Montano. LPU has campuses in Makati, Laguna and Davao. There are other schools that call themselves "Lyceum" but are unaffiliated with LPU; the Turkish word for the latest part of pre-university education is lise, derived from the French word "lycée" and corresponds to "high school" in English. It lasts 4 to 5 years with respect to the type of the high school. At the end of their "lise" education, students take the YGS / LYS test, i.e. university entrance examination, to get the right to enroll in a public university or a private university.
Lyceums emerged in the former Soviet Union countries after they became independent. One typical example is Uzbekistan, where all high schools were replaced with lyceums, offering a three-year educational program with a certain major in a certain direction. Unlike Turkey, Uzbek lyceums do not hold University entrance examination, which gives students the right to enter a University, but they hold a kind of "mock examination", designed to test their eligibility for a certain University; the Albanian National Lyceum was a high school in the city of Korçë, that emphasized the French culture and the European values. The school functioned with a French culture emphasis from 1917 to 1939; the school was continued post World War II as the Raqi Qirinxhi High School. The Belarusian Humanities Lyceum is a private secondary school founded shortly after Belarus' independence from the USSR by intellectuals, such as Vincuk Viacorka and Uladzimir Kolas, with the stated aims of preserving and promoting native Belarusian culture, raising a new Belarusian elite.
It was shut down in 2003 by the Ministry of Education of Belarus for promoting enmity within Belarusian society and using the classroom as a political soapbox, indoctrinating students with biased views on history, politics and values. The lyceum switched to homeschooling with a limited number of underground home schoolers; the term lyceum refers to a type of secondary education consisting of anywhere from 4 years ended by graduation. It is a type between a technical high school. For example, the famous scientist Gerty Cori went to a "lyceum" school; the concept and name lyceum entered Finland through Sweden. Traditionally, lycea were schools to prepare students to enter universities, as opposed to the typical, more general education; some old schools continue to use the name lyceum. For example, Helsinki Normal Lyceum educates students in grades 7–12, while Oulu Lyceum enrolls students only in grades 10–12; the more used term for upper secondary school in Finland is lukio in Finnish, gymnasium in Swedish.
The French word for an upper secondary school, lycée, derives from Lyceum. The lyceum in Germany was known as an old term for Gymnasium for girls. In Bavaria it was a Hochschule to study theology and philosophy. Senior or Upper Secondary Education - Ages: 14 ~ 18 Ενιαίο Λύκειο -, Eniaio Lykeio, "Unified Lyceum" Τεχνικό Λύκειο -, Techniko Lykeio, "Technical Lyceum" Γενικό Λύκειο - ΓΕΛ, Geniko Lykeio, "General Lyceum" Eπαγγελματικό Λύκειο - ΕΠΑΛ, Epagelmatiko Lykeio, "Vocational Lyceum" Ενιαίο Πολυκλαδικό Λύκειο - ΕΠΛ, Eniaio Polykladiko Lykeio, "Unified Multisector Lyceum" Τεχνικό Επαγγελματικό Λύκειο - ΤΕΛ, Techniko Epagelmatiko Lykeio, "Technical Vocational Lyceum" Comparable to the last two or three years of United States High School classes in
Congregation of Jesus
The Congregation of Jesus is one of two congregations of Religious Sisters founded during the 17th-century through the work of the Venerable Mary Ward, dedicated to female education. The other congregation is the Sisters of Loreto, a name they shared until, spread around the world. In England their primary house is The Bar Convent in the oldest such community in the country. Members of the congregation add the postnominal initials of C. J. or CJ after their names. Mary Ward was a member of a Roman Catholic family during the period of persecution of Catholics in Tudor England. Attempting a life of contemplation in the Spanish Netherlands, she became convinced that she was called to serve in a more active way in her native country, she saw education as the best way for women to further their own gifts and was joined in this vision by a small band of other English women. Under her leadership, they established a religious community in Saint-Omer in 1609 which soon opened a school to educate the daughters of English Catholic families.
The community was founded in the spirit of the Society of Jesus, envisioning a life in which the Sisters would not confined to a cloister and would be free to meet the various needs of the people they served as needed. This, however met criticism and opposition from Church authorities; the Council of Trent had forbidden new religious congregations and confined religious women to enclosure. Ward's response was, "There is no such difference between men and women... as we have seen by example of many saints who have done great things." She founded houses and schools in Liège, Rome, Munich, Vienna and other places at the request of the local rulers and bishops, but papal approval eluded her. In 1631 Mary Ward’s Institute was suppressed by Pope Urban VIII. Summoned to Rome in 1632 Mary was forbidden to live in community. In 1637 for reasons of health Mary was allowed to travel to Spa and on to England, she died just outside York, during the English Civil War, on January 30, 1645. By the end of the 17th century the institute was well established in Bavaria in Munich, Burghausen.
It had a foothold in England in London and York. The congregation had no formal name for many years; the Sisters had been called the "English Ladies" in Europe, or the "Jesuitesses" or the "Galloping Girls" in England. By the start of the 18th they had begun to use the name Institute of Mary, they received approval as a religious institute by the Holy See in 1877. The different autonomous branches which had developed around the world adopted the name of Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary in 1900. Mother Frances Bedingfeld, was the leader of the community Ward had founded in London, leading a discrete community life since their establishment. In 1686 she received a request by a leader of the Catholic community in York, Sir Thomas Gascoigne to provide education for the daughters of their community there. A group of Sisters went there in 1686 and opened Bar Convent, where they operated a boarding school for girls; the Congregation of Jesus is an international congregation of just under 2,000 sisters in twenty-four countries spread over four continents.
The international centre is in Rome. The community of the Bar Convent continued to operate the school which they had founded when they became established in York until 1985, at which time they transferred its administration to the local diocese. In 2002 this congregation was allowed to adopt the Constitutions of the Society of Jesus, as had been envisioned by Ward. At that time they adopted the name. At present there are some 2,000 members of the congregation; the English Sisters of the congregation have communities in York and Cambridge. The congregation is present in Argentina, Brazil, China, the Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Korea, Nepal, Russia, Spain and Zimbabwe; the current Superior General is Sister Jane Livesey, CJ, from England
A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools. In its current meaning, it refers to secondary schools focused on preparing students to enter a university for advanced academic study. Before the 20th century, the system of gymnasiums was a widespread feature of educational system throughout many countries of central, north and south Europe; the word "γυμνάσιον" was first used in Ancient Greece, meaning a locality for both physical and intellectual education of young men. The latter meaning of a place of intellectual education persisted in many European languages, whereas in English the meaning of a place for physical education was retained instead, more familiarly in the shortened form gym; the gymnasium is a secondary school. They are thus meant for the more academically minded students, who are sifted out at about the age of 10–13.
In addition to the usual curriculum, students of a gymnasium study Latin and Ancient Greek. Some gymnasiums provide general education; the four traditional branches are: humanities education modern languages mathematical-scientific education economical and social-scientific education Curricula differ from school to school but include language, informatics, chemistry, geography, music, philosophy, civics/citizenship, social sciences, several foreign languages. Schools concentrate not only on academic subjects, but on producing well-rounded individuals, so physical education and religion or ethics are compulsory in non-denominational schools which are prevalent. For example, the German constitution guarantees the separation of church and state, so although religion or ethics classes are compulsory, students may choose to study a specific religion or none at all. Today, a number of other areas of specialization exist, such as gymnasiums specializing in economics, technology or domestic sciences.
In some countries, there is a notion of progymnasium, equivalent to beginning classes of the full gymnasium, with the rights to continue education in a gymnasium. Here, the prefix pro- is equivalent to pre-, indicating that this curriculum precedes normal gymnasium studies. In the German-speaking, the Central-European, the Nordic, the Benelux and the Baltic countries, this meaning for "gymnasium", a secondary school preparing the student for higher education at a university, has been the same at least since the Protestant Reformation in the 16th century; the term was derived from the classical Greek word "gymnasion", applied to an exercising ground in ancient Athens. Here teachers gathered and gave instruction between the hours devoted to physical exercises and sports, thus the term became associated with and came to mean an institution of learning; this use of the term did not prevail among the Romans, but was revived during the Renaissance in Italy, from there passed into the Netherlands and Germany during the 15th century.
In 1538, Johannes Sturm founded at Strasbourg the school which became the model of the modern German gymnasium. In 1812, a Prussian regulation ordered that all schools which had the right to send their students to the university should bear the name of gymnasia. By the 20th century, this practice was followed in the entire Austrian-Hungarian and Russian Empires. In the modern era, many countries which have gymnasiums were once part of these three empires. In Albania a gymnasium education takes three years following a compulsory nine-year elementary education and ending with a final aptitude test called Albanian: Matura Shtetërore; the final test is standardized at the state level and serves as an entrance qualification for universities. These can be either private; the subjects taught are mathematics, Albanian language, one to three foreign languages, geography, computer science, the natural sciences, history of art, philosophy, physical education and the social sciences. The gymnasium is viewed as a destination for the best performing students and as the type of school that serves to prepare students for university, while other students go to technical/vocational schools.
Therefore, gymnasiums base their admittance criteria on an entrance exam, elementary school grades or some combination of the two. In Austria the Gymnasium has two stages, from the age of 11 to 14, from 15 to 18, concluding with Matura. Three types existed; the Humanistisches Gymnasium focuses on Latin. The Neusprachliches Gymnasium puts its focus on spoken languages; the usual combination is English and Latin. The Realgymnasium puts its focus on science. In the last couple of decades more autonomy was granted to schools and various types were developed, focusing on sports, music or economics, for example. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, gymnázium is a typ
Papenburg is a city in the district of Emsland in Lower Saxony, situated at the river Ems. It is known for the Meyer-Werft, which specializes in building cruise liners. Papenburg is subdivided into 6 urban districts, Papenburg-Untenende, Papenburg-Obenende, Tunxdorf-Nenndorf and Bokel. In the Chronicle of the Frisians, written in the 16th century by the East-Frisian council Eggerik Benninga, the Papenburg is mentioned for the first time. In 1458, Hayo von Haren, called "von der Papenburch", confessed to be leaned with the Papenburg; the contract, made because of this is the earliest verifiably documented mention of Papenburg. On 2 December 1630, the district administrator Dietrich von Velen purchased the manor for 1500 Reichsthaler from Friedrich von Schwarzenberg in order to found a settlement in the fen-surrounded region. On 4 April 1631, Bishop Ferdinand von Münster leased the castle and manor Papenburg to Dietrich von Velen; this is considered to be the foundation of the city of Papenburg.
Matthias von Velen and his wife Margartha Anna, born von Galen, endowed the oldest church in Papenburg on 7 December 1680, dedicated to Anthony the Great, making him its patron saint. From 1933 to 1945 a series of 15 moorland labor, punitive and POWs-camps were active in the districts of Emsland and Bentheim; the central administration was set in Papenburg where now a memorial of these camps, the Dokumentations- und Informationszentrum Emslandlager, is located. 1998 - 33,671 1999 - 33,731 2000 - 34,096 2001 - 34,266 2002 - 34,403 2003 - 34,245 2004 - 34,440 2005 - 34,905 2006 - 34,797 2007 - 35,431 2012 - 37,532 Official website Short introduction to Papenburg