Hirairi or hirairi-zukuri is a Japanese traditional architectural structure, where the building has its main entrance on the side which runs parallel to the roof's ridge. The shinmei-zukuri, nagare-zukuri, hachiman-zukuri, hie-zukuri Shinto architectural styles belong to this type, it survives in religious settings. In residential buildings, the entrance side is the long one, but from the Edo period onward the opposite became more frequent
Hōjō Masako was a political leader, the eldest daughter of Hōjō Tokimasa by his wife Hōjō no Maki. She was the sister of Hōjō Yoshitoki, was married to Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shōgun of the Kamakura period, she was the mother of O-Hime, Minamoto no Yoriie and Minamoto no Sanetomo, the second and third shōguns. Hōjō Masako was born in 1156, daughter of Hōjō Tokimasa, leader of the influential Hōjō clan of Izu province, his wife, Hōjō no Maki. Masako's parents were still in their teens, she was raised by many ladies-in-waiting and nannies. Masako was born into a world of strife. In Kyoto, the capital of Japan, the Hōgen Rebellion was in full swing, where Cloistered Emperor Toba and Emperor Sutoku warred over who would be the next emperor; the Hōjō family wisely chose to stay out of the rebellion though the Hōjō family, Masako's lineage, was descended from the Taira clan and thus was related to the imperial family. During the Heiji Rebellion, fought in 1159, the Taira clan, under Taira no Kiyomori, with the support of Cloistered Emperor Go-Shirakawa defeated the Minamoto clan, under the leadership of Minamoto no Yoshitomo.
Yoshitomo was executed, while his daughters were either executed or sent to nunneries. Only three of his sons survived. Minamoto no Yoshitsune and Minamoto no Noriyori were forced into priesthood, while Minamoto no Yoritomo, at the age of thirteen, was spared and sent to exile in Izu, the domain of Hōjō Tokimasa. While this was happening, Masako was an infant; the Taira under Kiyomori now were in successful control of Japan. Masako had an elder brother Munetoki, in 1163 a younger brother, was born, she would have yet another brother, Hōjō Tokifusa, another sister, whose name is lost to history. Masako was instructed in horseback riding and fishing and she ate with men rather than with her mother and other women of the household. Masako married Yoritomo. In 1182, they had Ō-Hime. In the same year, a disillusioned Imperial Prince Mochihito, the son of Cloistered Emperor Go-Shirakawa and thought the Taira had denied him the throne to offer the throne to Emperor Antoku, half Taira himself, called the Minamoto members remaining in Japan to overthrow the Taira.
Yoritomo who considered himself the head of the Minamoto, responded. He had the full support of the Tokimasa, not to mention Masako; the Minamoto center was to the east of Izu in Sagami Province. Thus, the Genpei War, the final war between Minamoto and Taira had begun. In 1180, Masako's elder brother Munetoki was killed at Battle of Ishibashiyama and Yoshitoki became heir of Hōjō clan. In 1181, Taira no Kiyomori died, leaving the Taira in the hands of his son. In 1182, Masako's brother Yoshitoki married, that same year and Yoritomo had their first son, Minamoto no Yoriie, who would be the heir. In 1183, Minamoto no Yoshinaka, Yoritomo's rival and cousin, took Kyoto, driving the Taira to Shikoku. Emperor Go-Toba was installed by the Minamoto. Nonetheless, Minamoto no Yoshitsune and Minamoto no Noriyori, Yoritomo's half brothers who had joined Yoritomo drove Yoshinaka out and executed him, took Kyoto in the name of Yoritomo By 1185, the Taira were defeated at the Battle of Dan-no-ura. Munemori was executed, while the remaining Taira either were executed or drowned, including the young Emperor Antoku.
Minamoto no Yoritomo was now the undisputed leader of Japan. Hōjō Masako and her family had stood by Yoritomo through it all, she was never defeated in battle. His new allegiance to his wife's family and her dislike of her brothers-in-law as well as an internal power struggle brought up by the three brothers resulted in the arrest and execution of Yoshitsune and Noriyori. Yoritomo created new titles, such as shugo and jitō, which Hōjō Tokimasa received approval from Cloistered Emperor Go-Shirakawa in Kyoto; the capital remained in Kamakura, away from the court. In 1192, Yoritomo was named shōgun by Cloistered Emperor Go-Shirakawa, who died that year, he was now the most powerful man in Japan, gave that power over to Masako as well. The Hōjō clan shared in that power; that same year and Yoritomo had another son, Minamoto no Sanetomo. In 1199, Minamoto no Yoritomo died, he was succeeded as shōgun by Minamoto no Yoriie. Since he was only eighteen, Hōjō Tokimasa proclaimed himself regent for Yoriie. Masako had a strong position since her son was shōgun.
Since her husband was dead, she shaved her head and became a Buddhist nun, receiving a tonsure from the priest Gyōyū. However, she did not take up residence in a monastery or a nunnery, still involved herself in politics. She, her father Tokimasa, her brother Yoshitoki created a council of regents for the eighteen-year-old Yoriie, but the headstrong shōgun hated his mother's family and preferred his wife's family, the Hiki clan, his father-in-law, Hiki Yoshikazu. Hōjō Masako overheard a plot that Yoshikazu and Yoriie were hatching, turned in her own son to Tokimasa, who did not hurt Yoriie but had Yoshikazu executed in 1203. Now, Shōgun Yoriie was sick and retired to Izu Province, he was murdered in 1204, no doubt by Tokimasa's orders. Masako had not been aware of this. During the murders and purges of the Hiki clan, Minamoto no Ichiman, Yoriie's eldest son and heir and Masako's grandson, was executed since he was part Hiki himself. In 1203, Masako's other son by Yoritomo, Minamoto no Sanetomo, became the third shōgun with Tokimasa as regent.
Sanetomo was closer to his mother than his el
A stupa is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics, used as a place of meditation. A related architectural term is a chaitya, a prayer hall or temple containing a stupa. In Buddhism, circumambulation or pradakhshina has been an important ritual and devotional practice since the earliest times, stupas always have a pradakhshina path around them. Stupas may have originated as pre-Buddhist tumuli in which śramaṇas were buried in a seated position called chaitya; some authors have suggested that stupas were derived from a wider cultural tradition from the Mediterranean to the Indus valley, can be related to the conical mounds on circular bases from the 8th century BCE that can be found in Phrygia, Lydia, or in Phoenicia. Religious buildings in the form of the Buddhist stupa, a dome shaped monument, started to be used in India as commemorative monuments associated with storing sacred relics of the Buddha. After the parinirvana of the Buddha, his remains were cremated and the ashes divided and buried under eight mounds with two further mounds encasing the urn and the embers.
The relics of the Buddha were spread between eight stupas, in Rajagriha, Kapilavastu, Ramagrama, Pava and Vethapida. The Piprahwa stupa seems to have been one of the first to be built. Guard rails —consisting of posts, a coping— became a feature of safety surrounding a stupa; the Buddha had left instructions about how to pay homage to the stupas: "And whoever lays wreaths or puts sweet perfumes and colours there with a devout heart, will reap benefits for a long time". This practice would lead to the decoration of the stupas with stone sculptures of flower garlands in the Classical period. According to Buddhist tradition, Emperor Ashoka recovered the relics of the Buddha from the earlier stupas, erected 84.000 stupas to distribute the relics across India. In effect, many stupas are thought to date from the time of Ashoka, such as Sanchi or Kesariya, where he erected pillars with his inscriptions, Bharhut, Amaravati or Dharmarajika in Gandhara. Ashoka established the Pillars of Ashoka throughout his realm next to Buddhist stupas.
The first known appearance of the word "Stupa" is from an inscribed dedication by Ashoka on the Nigali Sagar pillar. Stupas were soon to be richly decorated with sculptural reliefs, following the first attempts at Sanchi Stupa No.2. Full-fledged sculptural decorations and scenes of the life of the Buddha would soon follow at Bharhut, Bodh Gaya, again at Sanchi for the elevation of the toranas and Amaravati; the decorative embellishment of stupas had a considerable development in the northwest in the area of Gandhara, with decorated stupas such as the Butkara Stupa or the Loriyan Tangai stupas. The stupa underwent major evolutions in the area of Gandhara. Since Buddhism spread to Central Asia and Korea and Japan through Gandhara, the stylistic evolution of the Gandharan stupa was influential in the development of the stupa in these areas; the Gandhara stupa followed several steps moving towards more and more elevation and addition of decorative element, leading to the development of the pagoda tower.
The main stupa type are, in choronological order: 1) The Dharmarajika Stupa with a near-Indian design of a semi-hemispheric stupa directly on the ground surface dated to the 3rd century BCE. Similar stupas are the Manikyala stupa or the Chakpat stupa. 2) The Saidu Sharif Stupa and quincunxial, with a flight of stairs to a dome elevated on a square platform. Many Gandhara minutiures represent this spectacular type. 3) The Loriyan Tangai Stupa, with a elongated shape and many narrative reliefs, in many way the Classical Gandharan stupa. 4) The near-pyramidal Jaulian stupa. 5) The cruciform type, as in the Bhamala Stupa, with flights of stairs in the four cardinal directions. 6) The towering design of the second Kanishka stupa. It is thought that the temple in the shape of a truncated pyramid may have derived from the design of the stepped stupas which developed in Gandhara; the Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh Gaya is one such example, formed of a succession of steps with niches containing Buddha images, alternating with Greco-Roman pillars.
The structure is crowned by the shape of an hemispherical stupa topped by finials, forming a logical elongation of the stepped Gandharan stupas such as those seen in Jaulian. Although the current structure of the Mahabdhodi Temple dates to the Gupta period, the "Plaque of Mahabhodi Temple", discovered in Kumrahar and dated to 150-200 CE based on its dated Kharoshthi inscriptions and combined finds of Huvishka coins, suggests that the pyramidal structure existed in the 2nd century CE; this is confirmed by archaeological excavations in Bodh Gaya. This truncated pyramid design marked the evolution from the aniconic stupa dedicated to the cult of relics, to the iconic temple with multiple images of the Buddha and Bodhisattvas; this design was influential in the development of Hindu temples. Stupa architecture was adopted in Southeast and East Asia, where it became prominent as a Buddh
Pagodas in Japan are called tō, sometimes buttō or tōba and derive from the Chinese pagoda, itself an interpretation of the Indian stupa. Like the stupa, pagodas were used as reliquaries but in many cases they ended up losing this function. Pagodas are quintessentially Buddhist and an important component of Japanese Buddhist temple compounds but, because until the Kami and Buddhas Separation Act of 1868, a Shinto shrine was also a Buddhist temple and vice versa, they are not rare at shrines either; the famous Itsukushima Shrine, for example, has one. After the Meiji Restoration the word tō, once used in a religious context, came to mean "tower" in the western sense, as for example in Eiffel tower. Of the Japanese pagoda's many forms, some are built in wood and are collectively known as mokutō, but most are carved out of stone (sekitō. Wood pagodas are an odd number of stories. Extant wood pagodas with more than two storeys have always either three stories or five (and are called gojū-no-tō. Stone pagodas are nearly always small well below 3 metres, as a rule offer no usable space.
If they have more than one story, pagodas are called tasōtō or tajūtō. A pagoda's size is measured in ken, where a ken is the interval between two pillars of a traditional-style building. A tahōtō for example can be 3x3 ken; the word is translated in English as "bay" and is better understood as an indication of proportions than as a unit of measurement. The stupa was a simple mound containing the Buddha's ashes which in time became more elaborate, while its finial grew proportionally larger. After reaching China, the stupa met the Chinese watchtower and evolved into the pagoda, a tower with an odd number of storeys, its use spread to Korea and, from there, to Japan. Following its arrival in Japan together with Buddhism in the 6th century, the pagoda became one of the focal points of the early Japanese garan. In Japan it evolved in shape and function losing its original role as a reliquary, it became common, while on the Asian continent it is rare. With the birth of new sects in centuries, the pagoda lost importance and was relegated to the margins of the garan.
Temples of the Jōdo sects have a pagoda. During the Kamakura period the Zen sect arrived in Japan and their temples do not include a pagoda. Pagodas were reliquaries and did not contain sacred images, but in Japan many, for example Hōryū-ji's five-storied pagoda, enshrine statues of various deities. To allow the opening of a room at the ground floor and therefore create some usable space, the pagoda's central shaft, which reached the ground, was shortened to the upper stories, where it rested on supporting beams. In that room are enshrined statues of the temple's main objects of worship. Inside Shingon pagodas there can be paintings of deities called Shingon Hasso; the edge of a pagoda's eaves forms a straight line, with each following edge being shorter than the other. The more difference in length between stories, the secure the pagoda seems to be. Both teigen and the finial are greater in older pagodas, giving them a sense of solidity. Vice versa, recent pagodas tend to be steeper and have shorter finials, creating svelter silhouettes.
From the structural point of view, old pagodas had a stone base over. Around it would be erected the first story's supporting pillars the beams supporting the eaves and so on; the other stories would be built over the completed one, on top of the main pillar would at last be inserted the finial. In eras, all of the supporting structures would be erected at once, to them were fixed parts of more cosmetic function. Early pagodas had a central pillar. With the evolution of architectural techniques, it was first put to rest on a base stone at ground level it was shortened and put to rest on beams at the second story to allow the opening of a room, their role within the temple declined while they were being functionally replaced by main halls. The centerpiece of the Shingon and Tendai garan, they were moved to its edges and abandoned, in particular by the Zen sects, the last to appear in Japan; because of the relics they contained, wooden pagodas used to be the centerpiece of the garan, the seven edifices considered indispensable for a temple.
They lost importance and were replaced by the kondō, because of the magic powers believed to lie within the images the building housed. This loss of status was so complete that Zen schools, which arrived late in Japan from China do not have any pagoda in their garan; the layout of four early temples illustrates this trend: they are in chronological order Asuka-dera, Shitennō-ji, Hōryū-ji, Yakushi-ji. In the first, the pagoda was at the center of the garan surrounded by three small kondō. In the second, a single kondō is at the center of the temple and the pagoda lies in front of it. At Hōryū-ji, they are one next to the other. Yakushi-ji has a single, large ko
A dharani is a Buddhist chant, mnemonic code, incantation, or recitation a mantra consisting of Sanskrit or Pali phrases. Believed to be protective and with powers to generate merit for the Buddhist devotee, they constitute a major part of historic Buddhist literature; these chants have roots in Vedic Sanskrit literature, many are written in Sanskrit scripts such as the Siddham as well as transliterated into Chinese, Korean and other regional scripts. Dharani are found in the ancient texts of all major traditions of Buddhism, they are a major part of the Pali canon preserved by the Theravada tradition. Mahayana sutras -- such as the the Heart Sutra -- include or conclude with dharani; some Buddhist texts, such as Pancaraksa found in the homes of many Buddhist tantra tradition followers, are dedicated to dharani. They are a part of their ritual prayers as well as considered to be an amulet and charm in themselves, whose recitation believed to allay bad luck, diseases or other calamity, they were an essential part of the monastic training in Buddhism's history in East Asia.
In some Buddhist regions, they served as texts upon which the Buddhist witness would swear to tell the truth. The dharani-genre of literature became popular in East Asia in the 1st millennium CE, with Chinese records suggesting their profusion by the early centuries of the common era; these migrated from China to Japan. The demand for printed dharani among the Buddhist lay devotees may have led to the development of textual printing innovations; the dharani records of East Asia are the oldest known "authenticated printed texts in the world", state Robert Sewell and other scholars. The early-8th-century dharani texts discovered in the Pulguksa temple of Gyeongju, Korea are considered as the oldest known printed texts in the world. Dharani recitation for the purposes of healing and protection is referred to as Paritta in some Buddhist regions in Theravada communities; the dharani-genre ideas inspired the Japanese Koshiki texts, chanting practices called Daimoku, Nianfo or Yombul. They are a significant part of the historic Chinese dazangjing and the Korean daejanggyeong – the East Asian compilations of the Buddhist canon between the 5th and 10th centuries.
The word dhāraṇī derives from a Sanskrit root √dhṛ meaning "to hold or maintain". This root is derived from the Vedic religion of ancient India where chants and melodious sounds were believed to have innate spiritual and healing powers if the sound cannot be translated and has no meaning; the same root gives dhamma. According to the East Asian Buddhism studies scholar Paul Copp, some Buddhist communities outside India sometimes refer to dharanis with alternate terms such as "mantra, hṛdaya, raksha, gutti, or vidyā" though these terms have other contextual meanings in Buddhism. According to the traditional belief in Tibetan texts, states Jose Cabezon – the Dalai Lama professor of Tibetan Buddhism studies, there were three councils and the term dharani was recorded and became the norm after the third council; the first council, according to this belief, compiled the Sutranta, the Vinaya and the Abhidhamma in Vimalabhada to the south of Rajagriha in India. The first council was held in the year Buddha died, but the compiled dhamma consisted of spoken words that were not written down.
The second council occurred about 200 years after the death of the Buddha in a grove provided by Ashoka, where the knowledge was compiled again, but it too did not write anything down. The third council gathered in Kashmir a century according to the Tibetan tradition, the teachings were put down in writing for those "who had not obtained the power of not-forgetting" because people were reciting corrupted forms of the teachings of the Buddha. In this context, dharani were acknowledged in the Buddhist tradition by about 2nd-century BCE, they were a memory aid to ground and remember the dhamma teachings; the term dharani as used in the history of Mahayana and tantric Buddhism, its interpretation has been problematic since the mid-19th-century, states Ronald Davidson. It was understood as "magical formula or phrase", but studies such as by Lamotte and Berhard interpreted them to be "memory", while Davidson proposes that some dharani are "codes". Eugène Burnouf, the 19th-century French Indologist and a scholar of Buddhism, dharanis are magical formulas that to Buddhist devotees are the most important parts of their books.
Burnouf, states Davidson, was the first scholar to realise how important and widespread dharani had been in Buddhism sutras and Mahayana texts. The Indologist Moriz Winternitz concurred in early 20th-century that dharanis constituted a "large and important" part of Mahayana Buddhism, that they were magic formulae and "protective spells" as well as amulets. According to Winternitz, a dharani resembles the incantations found in the Atharvaveda and Yajurveda of Hinduism; the dharani-genre of Buddhist literature includes mantra, states Étienne Lamotte, but they were a "memory aid" to memorize and chant Buddha's teachings. This practice was linked to concentration and believed to have magical virtues and a means to both spiritual and material karma-related merit making. According to Braarvig, the dharanis are "seemingly meaningless strings of syllables". While they may once have been "memory aids", the dharanis that have survived into the modern era do not match with any text. In practice, the dharanis were "hardly employed as summaries of doctrine, but were employed as aids to concentration and magical protection benefits".
According to Jan Nattier
. Kibitsu-zukuri, kibi-zukuri or hiyoku irimoya-zukuri is a traditional Japanese Shinto architectural style characterized by four dormer gables, two per lateral side, on the roof of a large honden; the gables are set at a right angle to the main roof ridge, the honden is part of a single complex including a haiden. Kibitsu Shrine in Okayama, Okayama Prefecture, Japan is the sole example of the style, although the Soshi-dō of Hokekyō-ji in Chiba prefecture is believed to have been modeled on it; the T-shaped shrine is composed of two buildings: the haiden or prayer hall, in the front, the honden or sanctuary, in the back, both under the same roof and joined by a short stairway. Both buildings show the clear influence of Buddhist architecture, as they include features of all major styles, Daibutsuyō, Zenshūyō and Wayō; the honden, which shows strong daibutsuyō influences, is large, measuring 14.64 x 17.99 m, or 5 x 8 x 7 bays, with bays of a different length according to their position. The honden's interior has a complex structure, being divided in six separate sections joined by six different stairways.
At the center of the honden are two sanctuaries, the nai-naijin which measures 3 x 2 bays, the naijin, which measures 3 x 1 bays. The two sanctuaries are surrounded on all sides by two corridors called the gejin. Between the chūjin and the gejin lies a 5 x 1 bay space called kōhai-no-ma called ake-no-dan; the closer one gets to the higher the floor and the ceiling. The ceiling's structure itself changes, as most of the chūjin and the entire gejin have no ceiling, the roof is therefore exposed, whereas other sections have ceilings of different types; the nainaijin for example lies below the gables. The whole area is decorated with black lacquer; the honden is connected in the front to the haiden by a short stairway. The haiden's core is just 3 x 1 bays, but it is surrounded on three sides by a 1-bay wide mokoshi, bringing the building's external dimensions to 4 x 4 bays. Both entrances to the haiden are on the gabled side. Together with the outsize honden, the most visible feature of the shrine are the twin gables on both sides of the roof.
This style of roof, called hiyoku irimoya-zukuri, or "paired wing, hip-and-gable roof style", consists of two ridges at a right angle to the main roof which end in two dormer gables
Japanese architecture has traditionally been typified by wooden structures, elevated off the ground, with tiled or thatched roofs. Sliding doors were used in place of walls, allowing the internal configuration of a space to be customized for different occasions. People sat on cushions or otherwise on the floor, traditionally. Since the 19th century, Japan has incorporated much of Western and post-modern architecture into construction and design, is today a leader in cutting-edge architectural design and technology; the earliest Japanese architecture was seen in prehistoric times in simple pit-houses and stores adapted to the needs of a hunter-gatherer population. Influence from Han Dynasty China via Korea saw the introduction of more complex grain stores and ceremonial burial chambers; the introduction of Buddhism in Japan during the sixth century was a catalyst for large-scale temple building using complicated techniques in wood. Influence from the Chinese Tang and Sui Dynasties led to the foundation of the first permanent capital in Nara.
Its checkerboard street layout used the Chinese capital of Chang'an as a template for its design. A gradual increase in the size of buildings led to standard units of measurement as well as refinements in layout and garden design; the introduction of the tea ceremony emphasised simplicity and modest design as a counterpoint to the excesses of the aristocracy. During the Meiji Restoration of 1868 the history of Japanese architecture was radically changed by two important events; the first was the Kami and Buddhas Separation Act of 1868, which formally separated Buddhism from Shinto and Buddhist temples from Shinto shrines, breaking an association between the two which had lasted well over a thousand years. Second, it was that Japan underwent a period of intense Westernization in order to compete with other developed countries. Architects and styles from abroad were imported to Japan but the country taught its own architects and began to express its own style. Architects returning from study with western architects introduced the International Style of modernism into Japan.
However, it was not until after the Second World War that Japanese architects made an impression on the international scene, firstly with the work of architects like Kenzo Tange and with theoretical movements like Metabolism. Much in the traditional architecture of Japan is not native, but was imported from China and other Asian cultures over the centuries. Japanese traditional architecture and its history are as a consequence dominated by Chinese and Asian techniques and styles on one side, by Japanese original variations on those themes on the other. Due to the variety of climates in Japan and the millennium encompassed between the first cultural import and the last, the result is heterogeneous, but several universal features can nonetheless be found. First of all is the choice of materials, always wood in various forms for all structures. Unlike both Western and some Chinese architecture, the use of stone is avoided except for certain specific uses, for example temple podia and pagoda foundations.
The general structure is always the same: posts and lintels support a large and curved roof, while the walls are paper-thin movable and never load-bearing. Arches and barrel roofs are absent. Gable and eave curves are gentler than in columnar entasis limited; the roof is the most visually impressive component constituting half the size of the whole edifice. The curved eaves extend far beyond the walls, covering verandas, their weight must therefore be supported by complex bracket systems called tokyō, in the case of temples and shrines. Simpler solutions are adopted in domestic structures; the oversize eaves give the interior a characteristic dimness, which contributes to the building's atmosphere. The interior of the building consists of a single room at the center called moya, from which depart any other less important spaces. Inner space divisions are fluid, room size can be modified through the use of screens or movable paper walls; the large, single space offered by the main hall can therefore be divided according to the need.
For example, some walls can be removed and different rooms joined temporarily to make space for some more guests. The separation between inside and outside is itself in some measure not absolute as entire walls can be removed, opening a residence or temple to visitors. Verandas appear to be part of the building to an outsider, but part of the external world to those in the building. Structures are therefore made to a certain extent part of their environment. Care is taken to blend the edifice into the surrounding natural environment; the use of construction modules keeps proportions between different parts of the edifice constant, preserving its overall harmony.. In cases as that of Nikkō Tōshō-gū, where every available space is decorated, ornamentation tends to follow, therefore emphasize, rather than hide, basic structures. Being shared by both sacred and profane architecture, these features made it easy converting a lay building into a temple or vice versa; this happened for example at Hōryū-ji, where a noblewoman's mansion was transformed into a religious building.
The prehistoric period includes the Jōmon and Kofun periods stretching from 5000 BCE to the beginning of the eighth century CE. During the three phases of the Jōmon