Revival Lê dynasty
The Later Lê Restoration is a distinction current in Vietnamese historiography. This period marked the ending of first Lê dynasty which had flourished for 100 years from 1427 to 1527 until the high-ranking mandarin Mạc Đăng Dung stole the throne of emperor Lê Cung Hoàng in 1527 and established the Mạc dynasty, ruling the whole territory of Đại Việt; the Lê royalists escaped to the Kingdom of Lan Xang. The Right Commander-General of the Five Armies and Marquess of An Thanh Nguyễn Kim started to summon the people who were still royal to the Lê emperor to form the new army and to organize a revolution against Mạc Đăng Dung. Nguyễn Kim led the six-year civil war. However, The new-born Mạc dynasty failed to resist the forces of Lê royalist so they decided to retreat to the north and established the new capital at Cao Bằng Province and agreed the alliance with Ming dynasty of China as the tributary nation to against the Later Lê dynasty; the Revival Lê dynasty claimed back 3/4 territory of kingdom of Đại Việt while Mạc was ruling the north so this period be known as the Northern and Southern dynasty.
After capturing the capital Đông Kinh, Nguyễn Kim took the son of former emperor Lê Chiêu Tông, as the emperor of Đại Việt but this title was restored as figureheads whereas Nguyễn Kim is the de facto who held the real power of whole kingdom. Revival Lê dynasty kept continuing the war with Mạc dynasty and Nguyễn Kim was poisoned by the surrendered general of Mạc dynasty and the power of royal court was succeed to his son-in- law Trịnh Kiểm, the founder of Trịnh lords; the first son of Nguyễn Kim was assassinated by Trịnh Kiểm. The second son, The Marquis of Hạ khê as well as the founder of Nguyễn lords moved to the south and become the Viceroy of Thuận Hoá province,then started to revolt the reign of Trịnh lords over Emperor's power. Therefore, this leaded the long division of Đại Việt in 232 years and Both two lords fought each other in the Trịnh–Nguyễn Civil War; this conflict just ended until the establishment of Tây Sơn dynasty led by 3 brothers whom are against the civil war and conquered the whole kingdom in 1789 and the last emperor of Lê dynasty Lê Chiêu Thống fled to exile in Qing dynasty, China.
The dynasty was collapsed in 1789. In 1533, the Nguyễn-Trịnh alliance captured the Dongkinh of Việt Nam and crowned Lê Trang Tông as the next Lê emperor. In official Vietnamese history, this date marks the end of the Mạc dynasty though the reality was quite different. Mạc Đăng Dung ruled in Hanoi till his death in 1541 and his descendants ruled in Hanoi until 1592; the country was divided into two portions though the Trịnh-Nguyen alliance took over more and more of the country from the Mạc. In 1592, with the conquest of Dongkinh, Vietnamese emperor Lê Thế Tông, was installed in the ancient capital; the Lê emperors sat as figurehead rulers in Hanoi until the Tây Sơn Revolt swept the Trịnh and the Le out of power. The following is the official list of Lê emperors from 1533 until 1789: Lê Trang Tông – A son of Prince Ý named Ninh. Crowned Emperor at the "Winter palace" in 1533. Recognized as the King by a Ming delegation in 1536. An attack on the Mac forces led by the Le general Nguyễn Kim resulted in the partition of Vietnam in 1545, with the Nguyễn family seizing control of the southern part of the country as far north as what is now Thanh Hóa Province.
The Nguyễn, who took the hereditary title chúa, continued to profess loyalty to the Lê dynasty. Lê Trung Tông – During his reign, the war with the Mạc continued. Lê Anh Tông – In 1572, the Royal army under Trịnh Tùng captured Hanoi, but a year the Trịnh army was thrown out of Hanoi. The Emperor took advantage of the chaos to flee to Nghệ An Province to escape the control of Trịnh Tùng. However, Trịnh Tùng appointed a new Emperor and had Lê Anh Tông assassinated. Lê Thế Tông – By the late sixteenth century the Trinh family had ousted the Mac family and had begun to rule the northern half of the country in the name of the Lê dynasty; when Hanoi was captured for the second time in 1592, the Court moved back to the old capital. The Emperor gave Trịnh Tùng the title Pacifying Prince in recognition of his great victory over the Mạc; the Trinh, like the Nguyễn, took the title chúa, spent most of the seventeenth century attempting to depose the Nguyễn. Lê Kính Tông – At the start of his reign, Nguyễn Hoàng, one of the Nguyễn Lords refused to accept imperial edicts from Le Kinh Tong.
After 19 years as a figurehead, Le Kinh Tong was involved in a conspiracy to kill Trịnh Tùng and take power. He was executed and a new Emperor appointed. Lê Thần Tông – At the start of his rule, Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên, leader of the Nguyễn Lords, refused to acknowledge the new Emperor. After seven years of increasing tension, the great war between the Trịnh and the Nguyễn started. Le Thần Tong saw the death of the rule by Trịnh Tráng. In 1643 he abdicated the throne in favor of his son. In order to repulse invading Trinh forces, the Nguyễn in 1631 completed the building of two great walls, six meters high and eighteen kilometers long, on their northern frontier; the Trinh, with 100,000 troops, 500 elephants, 500 large junks, were numerically far superior to their southern foe. The Nguyễn, were better equipped, having by this time acquired Portuguese weapons and gunpowder, and, as the defendi
The Triệu dynasty ruled the kingdom of Nányuè / Nam Việt, which consisted of parts of southern China as well as northern Vietnam. Its capital was Panyu, in modern Guangzhou; the founder of the dynasty, called Triệu Đà or Zhao Tuo, was a military governor for the Qin Empire. He asserted his independence in 207 BC; the ruling elite included both ethnic Chinese and native Yue, with intermarriage and assimilation encouraged. Triệu Đà conquered the Vietnamese state of Âu Lạc and led a coalition of Yuè states in a war against the Han Empire, expanding southward. Subsequent rulers were less successful in asserting their independence and the Han conquered the kingdom in 111 BC; the scholar Huang Zuo produced the first detailed published history of Nam Việt in the fifteenth century. Chinese historians have denounced the Triệu as separatists from the Han Dynasty, but have praised them as a civilizing force. A strident denunciation was produced by poet Qu Dajun in 1696. Qu praised Qin Shi Huang as a model of how to uphold the purity of Chinese culture, compared Triệu Đà unfavorably to the emperor.
A more positive view of Triệu multiculturalism was presented by Liang Tíngnan in Nányuè Wŭ Wáng Chuán in 1833. Cantonese refer to themselves as the Cantonese pronunciation of Yuè/Việt. In modern times, the character 粵 refers to Cantonese, but these two characters were interchangeable. Meanwhile, Vietnamese historians have struggled with the issue of whether to regard the Triệu heroically as founders of Vietnam, or to denounce them as foreign invaders. For centuries afterward, Triệu Đà was a folk hero among the Viets, was remembered for standing up to the Han Empire. After Lý Bí drove the Chinese out of northern Vietnam, he proclaimed himself "emperor of Nam Việt" in 544, thus identifying his state as a revival of the Trieu, despite obvious differences in terms of location and ethnic makeup. In the thirteenth century, Lê Văn Hưu wrote a history of Vietnam that used the Triệu as its starting point, with Triệu Đà receiving glowing praise as Vietnam's first emperor. In the 18th century, Ngô Thì Sĩ reevaluated Triệu Đà as a foreign invader.
Under the Nguyễn Dynasty, Triệu Đà continued to receive high praise, although it was acknowledged that the original Nam Việt was not in fact a Vietnamese state. The current Communist government of Vietnam portrays Triệu Đà negatively as a foreign invader who vanquished Vietnam's heroic King An Dương despite there is a campaign to reconsider the role of Zhao Tuo due to tensions rising between Vietnam and China. Modern Vietnamese are descended from the ancient Yue of northern Vietnam and western Guangdong, according to Peter Bellwood. Triệu Đà, the founder of the dynasty, was an ethnic Chinese born in the Kingdom of Zhao, now Hebei province, he became military governor of Nanhai upon the death of Governor Ren Xiao in 208 BC, just as the Qin Empire was collapsing. The Qin Governor of Canton advised Triệu to found his own independent kingdom since the area was remote and there were many Chinese settlers in the area, he asserted Nanhai's independence declared himself the king of Nam Việt in 204 BC, established in the area of Lingnan, the modern provinces of comprises Guangdong, south Hunan, south Jiangxi and other nearby areas.
He ruled Nam Việt and committed acts of defiance against Emperor Gaozu of Han and he severed all ties with China, killed many Chinese employees appointed by the central government and favored local customs. Being a talented general and cunning diplomat, he sought a peaceful relationship with China, both with the Qin Empire and the succeeding Han Empire. In 196 BC, Emperor Gaozu sent the scholar Lu Jia to the court of Triệu Đà. On this occasion, Triệu Đà wore his hair in a bun, in the Yuè manner. "You are a Chinese and your forefathers and kin lie buried in Zhending in the land of Zhao", Lu told the king. "Yet now you turn against that nature which heaven has given you at birth, cast aside the dress of your native land and, with this tiny, far-off land of Yue, think to set yourself up as a rival to the Son of Heaven and an enemy state.... It is proper under such circumstances that you should advance as far as the suburbs to greet me and bow to the north and refer to yourself as a'subject'." After Lu threatened a Han military attack on Nam Việt, Triệu Đà apologized.
Lu stayed at Panyu for several months and Triệu Đà delighted in his company. "There is no one in all Yue worth talking to", said the king, "Now that you have come, everyday I hear something I have never heard before!" Lǔ recognized Triệu Đà as "king of Yue". An agreement was reached that allowed legal trade between the Han Empire and Nam Việt, as the people of Nam Việt were anxious to purchase iron vessels from China; when Lǔ returned to Chang'an, Emperor Gaozu was much pleased by this result. Lü Zhi, the Han dowager empress, banned trade with Nam Việt in 185 BC. "Emperor Gaozu set me up as a feudal lord and sent his envoy giving me permission to carry on trade," said Triệu Đà. "But now Empress Lu... treating me like one of the barbarians and breaking off our trade in iron vessels and goods." Triệu Đà responded by attacking some border towns. His imperial status was recognized by the Minyue, Western Ou, the Luolou; the army sent against Nam Việt by Empress Lǚ was ravaged by a cholera epidemic. When Triệu Đà was reconciled with the Han Empire in 180 BC, he sent a message to Emperor Wu of Han in which he described himself as, "Your aged subject Tuo, a barbarian chief".
Triệu Đà agreed to recognize the Han ruler as the only emperor. P
The Hồ dynasty was a short-lived six-year reign of two emperors, Hồ Quý Ly in 1400–01 and his second son, Hồ Hán Thương, who reigned from 1401 to 1406. The practice of bequeathing the throne to a designated son was similar to what had happened in the previous Trần dynasty and was meant to avoid sibling rivalry. Hồ Quý Ly's eldest son, Hồ Nguyên Trừng, played his part as the dynasty's military general. In 2011, UNESCO declared the Citadel of the Hồ Dynasty in Thanh Hóa Province a world heritage site. China's province of Zhejiang around the 940s was the origin of the Chinese Hồ/Hú family. Which was in the midst of the Five Dynasties struggle; the Hồ claimed descent from the ancient Chinese Emperor Shun. From Zhejiang, the family under Hồ Liêm 胡廉 migrated south until they established themselves in northern Vietnam. Hồ Liêm, Hồ Quý Ly's great-great-grandfather, moved further south and settled in the province of Thanh Hóa; some historians bring attention to the fact that Hồ Quý Ly is known as Lê Quý Ly.
In his childhood, Hồ Quý Ly was adopted by Lê Huan. He did not change this Lê last name to Hồ until after he had deposed the last king of the Trần dynasty; because of the short span of the Hồ dynasty and the tragic circumstances he brought upon the country, the family name "Hồ" was disgraced thereafter. However, historians have attributed to Hồ family quite a few notable scholars and government officials under both the Lý dynasty and Trần dynasty; the Trần dynasty's authority and power in the 1370s and 1380s declined after Trần Nghệ Tông's reign. He had ceded the throne in favor of his son Trần Duệ Tông, his grandson Trần Phế Đế, Trần Thuận Tông, one of his younger sons; the Trần dynasty became known for emperors who reigned for only a few years before relinquishing the throne to a favorite son, becoming Thái Thượng Hoàng Đế, the first dynasty to take the name of Father of "Hoàng Đế" emperor title. These types of short-lived and short-sighted emperors encouraged the arrival and ascension of strong and sly politicians.
Hồ Quý Ly was such a politician. He was known for his cunning and boldness, had distinguished himself in a successful campaign against the Chams of Champa. Through his scheming and shrewd marriage alliances, Hồ Quý Ly made himself a court fixture in the position of the emperors' indispensable advisor. In less than 20 years, while many others involved in court intrigues were being assassinated all around him, Hồ Quý Ly attained the highest post of General/Protector/Regent of the country in 1399. To facilitate his takeover, Hồ Quý Ly first had a new capital built, called Tây Đô. In 1399, he invited Trần Thuận Tông, to visit this new capital. After coaxing the emperor into relinquishing the throne to Prince An he had Trần Thuận Tông imprisoned in a pagoda and executed. Prince An "reigned" for one year until Hồ Quý Ly deposed him in 1400 and declared himself to be the new emperor. Hồ Quý Ly changed the country's name from Đại Việt to Đại Ngu, which might have been inspired by Hồ Quý Ly's claims that the Hồ family were descendants of Shun of Yu through Gui Man, the Duke Hu of Chen.
Taking a page from the ruling book of his Trần predecessors, Hồ Quý Ly reigned less than a year before relinquishing the throne to his second son, Hồ Hán Thương. He became known as the Emperor's Highest Father. Vernacular Vietnamese language written in the Chữ nôm script was promoted by the Hồ over Classical Chinese. In 1402 the army of the Hồ dynasty under general Đỗ Mãn made significant inroads against Champa, prompting the Champa king to cede large territory to Vietnam. Stable relations with the Ming dynasty were Hồ Quý Ly's foremost concern; this matter proved impossible for the Hồ to pursue by that time of civil unrest. The descendants of the deposed Trần dynasty had begun agitating against the "usurper" Hồ Quý Ly; this internal disquiet kept the country in chaos and allowed an opportunity for the Ming to conquer Đại Việt with the help of the Trần sympathizers. From 1400 through 1405, the Hồ tried in vain to regain China's goodwill, they sent emissaries and diplomats with offerings to Beijing but the gifts were each time refused or belittled.
Hồ Quý Ly realized that this stubborn attitude indicated that sooner or the Ming would invade his country and obligate him to defend it. In May 1403, Hồ Quý Ly's requested the recognition of his son from the Ming court on the account that the Trần lineage had died out and that his son was a royal nephew. Unaware of Hồ's coup, the Yongle Emperor granted him this request. In October 1404, a Trần Thiên Bính arrived at the Ming court in Nanjing, claiming to be a Trần prince, appealed to the Yongle Emperor to press his claim to the throne. However, in the 1395 Ancestral injunctions, the Yongle Emperor's father, the Hongwu Emperor ordered that China should never attack Annam – the Yongle Emperor thus took no action until early 1405, when a Vietnamese envoy confirmed the pretender's story, whereupon he issued an edict reprimanding Hồ Quý Ly and demanding that the Trần be restored. Hồ Quý Ly had doubts about the pretender's claims, but agreed to receive the pretender as king. Thus, Trần Thiên Bính was escorted back by a military convoy, accompanied by a Ming ambassad
First Chinese domination of Vietnam
The first Chinese domination is a period in Vietnamese history during which Vietnam was under Chinese rule from the north. It is the first of four periods of Chinese domination of Vietnam, the first three of which are continuous and referred to as Bắc thuộc. In 111 BC, the powerful Chinese Han dynasty conquered the Nam Việt kingdom during its expansion southward and incorporated what is now northern Vietnam, together with much of modern Guangdong and Guangxi, into the expanding Han empire. Vietnamese resistance to Han rule culminated in the rebellion of the Trưng Sisters, who expelled the Han in 40 AD and ruled Vietnam until being defeated by the returning Han Chinese army in 43 AD. In 111 BC, the Han dynasty defeated the successors of Zhao Tuo and annexed Nam Việt and the former Âu Lạc into the Han empire. Following annexation, the name of Jiaozhi was established, dividing the former kingdom into nine commanderies with the last three used in modern Vietnamese history books: Nanhai Hepu Cangwu Yulin Zhuya Dan'er, Jiaozhi Jiuzhen Rinan All nine districts were administered from Long Biên, near modern Hanoi.
During the next several hundred years of Chinese colonization and domination, sinification of the newly conquered Nanyue was brought about by a combination of Han imperial military power, regular settlement and an influx of Han Chinese refugees and garrisons, scholars, bureaucrats and prisoners of war. At the same time, Chinese officials were interested in exploiting the region's natural resources and trade potential. In addition, Han Chinese officials seized fertile land conquered from Vietnamese nobles for newly settled Han Chinese immigrants. Han rule and government administration brought new influences to the indigenous Vietnamese and the rule of Vietnam as a Chinese province operated as a frontier outpost of the Han Empire; the Han dynasty was desperate to extend their control over the fertile Red River Delta, in part as the geographical terrain served as a convenient supply point and trading post for Han ships engaged in the growing maritime trade with various South and Southeast Asian Kingdoms as well as establishing it as a prominent trading post with Ancient India and the Roman Empire.
During the first century of Chinese rule, Vietnam was governed leniently and indirect with no immediate change in indigenous policies. The practice of indigenous Vietnamese was governed at the local level but was ruled out in favor of replacing indigenous Vietnamese local officials with newly settled Han Chinese officials. Han imperial bureaucrats pursued a policy of peaceful relations with the indigenous population, focusing their administrative roles in the prefectural headquarters and garrisons, maintaining secure river routes for trade. By the first century AD, the Han dynasty intensified its efforts to assimilate its new territories by raising taxes and instituting marriage and land inheritance reforms aimed at turning Vietnam into a patriarchal society more amenable to political authority; the Vietnamese paid heavy tributes and imperial taxes to the Han mandarins to maintain the local administration and the military. The Chinese vigorously tried to assimilate the Vietnamese peacefully either through forced sinicization or through brute Chinese political domination.
The Han dynasty sought to assimilate the Vietnamese as the Chinese wanted to maintain a unified cohesive empire through a "civilizing mission" as what the Chinese regarded the Vietnamese as uncultured and backward barbarians and regarded their "Celestial Empire" as the supreme centre of the universe. Under Chinese rule, Han dynasty officials imposed much of Chinese culture, including Chinese Buddhism and Confucianism, its imperial examination system, mandarin bureaucracy. However, implementation of a foreign administrative system and sinification was not easy as frequent uprisings and rebellions were indicative of Vietnamese resistance to these changes; some Vietnamese welcomed the chance to assimilate as what they considered Chinese culture, to be a more civilized and superior culture. Though the Vietnamese incorporated advanced and technical elements they thought would be beneficial to themselves, the unwillingness to be dominated by outsiders, the desire to maintain political autonomy and the drive to regain Vietnamese independence signified Vietnamese resistance and hostility to Chinese aggression, political domination and imperialism on Vietnamese society.
Han Chinese bureaucrats sought to impose much of Chinese high culture onto the indigenous Vietnamese including bureaucratic Legalist techniques and Confucian ethics, art and language. The conquered and subjugated Vietnamese had to adopt the Chinese foreign writing system, veneration of the Chinese emperor at the detriment of the loss of their native spoken language, culture and national identity. Professor Liam Kelley wrote on how the 17th century Vietnamese historians li
The Đinh dynasty was the imperial dynasty of Vietnam starting in 968 when Đinh Tiên Hoàng vanquished the upheavals of Twelve warlords and ended as the son of Đinh Tiên Hoàng, Đinh Phế Đế, ceded the throne to Lê Hoàn in 980. Since the rule of Đinh Tiên Hoàng, the country had been referred to as "Đại Cồ Việt"; the term "Việt" is cognate with the Chinese word "Yue", a name applied in ancient times to various non-Chinese groups who lived in what is now southern China and northern Vietnam. Đinh Bộ Lĩnh's father was a general under the reigns of Ngô Quyền and Ngô Xương Văn. Đinh Công Trứ died while Bộ Lĩnh was still young. His mother took him back to her village to live with her family. There Đinh Bộ Lĩnh attended the village school and in his free time rode atop water buffaloes and played games with other children; when he reached adulthood he joined Trần Minh Công, one of the Twelve Warlords, who made him a general due to his skills and talents. One by one, Đinh Bộ Lĩnh defeated or subdued the other 11 lords.
His multitude victories over other lords earned him the title Vạn Thắng Vương, which means "King of Ten Thousand Victories." After unifying the country in 968 and bringing peace back to the land, he proclaimed himself Đinh Tiên Hoàng Đế. He renamed the country "Đại Cồ Việt." Worried that his country was still weak, he sought to strengthen the government by appointing military men to important positions. Among his top generals were Nguyễn Bạc, his oldest son Đinh Liễn, Lê Hoàn, etc; the latter became a major figure for the Đinh Dynasty succession and the rise of the Anterior Lê Dynasty. The end of Đinh Tien Hoàng's reign was marked by the following successive events, he removed his oldest son Đinh Liễn from the throne as he had decided to have his second son, Đinh Hang Lăng, succeed him. His infant son, Đinh Tuệ, would be next in line. One night in 980, as Đinh Tiên Hoàng and his son Đinh Liễn were having a party, a mandarin official sneaked into the palace and killed both father and son, thus fate decreed that the infant son Đinh Tuệ would inherit the kingdom.
When Đinh Tuệ became emperor, because of his age, his mother the Dowager Empress Dương Vân Nga assumed the role of regent. The turmoil of succession of Đinh Tiên Hoàng in their southern border gave Song China a pretext to meddle and interfere into the matters of the Vietnamese, to invade the country and subjugate it again to their rule. Appalled by this new threat, the Dowager Empress Dương Vân Nga threw her support to Lê Hoàn, now commander-in-chief of the army. To confront the Song army who had arrived at the border, the Empress Dowager agreed to recognize Lê Hoàn and let him step up to the throne as a new king. With the crowning of Lê Hoàn, the Anterior Lê Dynasty was founded; as Lê Hoàn was being crowned Emperor, the Song army approached the boundary of the two countries
An Dương Vương
An Dương Vương is the title of Thục Phán, who ruled over the kingdom of Âu Lạc from 257 to 207 BC. As the leader of the Âu Việt tribes, he defeated and seized the throne from the last Hùng king of the state of Văn Lang and united its people–known as the Lạc Việt—with the Âu Việt. In 208 BC, the capital Cổ Loa was attacked and the imperial citadel ransacked. An Dương Vương committed suicide. According to Đại Việt sử ký toàn thư and Khâm định Việt sử Thông giám cương mục, Thục Phán was a prince of the state of Shu, sent by his father first to explore what are now the southern Chinese provinces of Guangxi and Yunnan and second to move their people to modern-day northern Vietnam during the invasion of the Qin dynasty. However, this story is illogical, as Shu was conquered in 316BC and Thục Phán lived between 257-207BC; some modern Vietnamese believe. Thục Phán assembled an army and defeated the 18th dynasty of the Hùng king, the last line of rulers of the Hồng Bàng dynasty of Văn Lang, around 257 BC.
He proclaimed himself An Dương Vương and renamed Văn Lang as Âu Lạc after the names of the conquering and conquered peoples. He established his fortress and new capital on a rise above the Red River valley at Co Loa in present-day Hanoi's Dong Anh district, about 16 kilometers northeast of downtown. There is not much written about how the new Âu Lạc was administered and organized. Nonetheless, based on legendary records, he is assumed to have been an astute and significant figure, he was a talented general who knew how to exploit the confusion and turmoil in China during that period, not only to grab a piece of land for himself but to secure his state's prosperity and survival. Around that same time, various states were fighting for control of China; the Qin state rose to power and unified China under Emperor Qin Shi Huang. While Qin Shi Huang ordered the construction of the Great Wall, An Dương Vương had begun the construction of a spiral fortress called Cổ Loa Citadel to defend against invasions.
After Thục Phán defeated the last Hùng king and ascended to the throne as An Dương Vương, he renamed Văn Lang to Âu Lạc and established Cổ Loa Citadel as the new capital. He saw the geographic importance of Cổ Loa. On two of its sides, Cổ Loa was surrounded by impenetrable forests. There was a river flowing by. No one knows why An Dương Vương favored the spiral, shell-like shape of Cổ Loa Citadel, but legend has it that its construction was tough and difficult to complete; each time it seemed near completion, it was undone at night by a horde of evil spirits. An Dương Vương burnt incense, made offerings, evoked the gods to help him. One night, in a dream, an old and frail man with long, white hair came to him and told him the only person who could help him build his citadel was a golden turtle that lived somewhere around Cổ Loa. A few days while sitting in a boat on the river and thinking about the meaning of his dream, a giant golden turtle emerged from the water; the golden turtle told An Dương Vương that he would need one of its claws in order to accomplish his plan.
Pulling out one of its claws and throwing it to An Dương Vương, the turtle vanished. An Dương Vương had Cao Lỗ, his weaponry engineer, build a crossbow incorporating this claw which could shoot thousands of arrows at once. Indeed, right after obtaining this claw, An Dương Vương saw his fortunes change, his capital started taking shape. His kingdom soon was coveted by neighboring states. Among one of those who coveted his territory was Zhao Tuo, a Qin general who refused to surrender to the newly established Han Dynasty. For a period of ten years around 217 to 207 BC, Triệu Đà attempted many invasions to conquer Âu Lạc but failed each time due to An Dương Vương's military skills and defense tactics. Triệu Đà, having been beaten several times, devised a new plan, he negotiated a peace treaty with Âu Lạc. He determined to find out, he went so far as to propose marriage between An Dương Vương’s daughter, Princess Mỵ Châu and his son Trọng Thủy. In time Triệu Đà found out through his daughter-in-law Mỵ Châu that An Dương Vương had a magic crossbow that made him invincible.
Triệu Đà he told his son Trọng Thủy to sneak into his father-in-law's palace and steal this "magic crossbow", replacing it with a fake. Triệu Đà, with the magic crossbow in his hands, launched a new attack on his foe and in-law An Dương Vương; this time, Cổ Loa fortress fell into Triệu Đà's hands. An Dương Vương grabbed Mỵ Châu, his only daughter, fled the scene of the battle, he rode to the river and encountered the giant golden turtle, which told An Dương Vương, “The enemy is sitting right behind you!” Angered by his own daughter's betrayal, the king slew his daughter. He jumped into the river with the giant golden turtle. Trọng Thủy, searching for his beloved wife, arrived a few minutes at the scene; the body of his beloved wife was lying in a pool of blood and his father-in-law was nowhere to be seen. In accordance with conjugal fidelity and devotion, he drew his sword and killed himself as well, in order to be with his wife forever in eternity. In another version Trọng Thủy after discovering Mị Châu's body, he took her home.
When Trọng Thủy had Âu Lạc, he couldn't feel happy and missed Mị C
History of Vietnam
Vietnam's recorded history dates back to the mid-to-late 3rd century BC, when Âu Lạc and Nanyue were established. Northern Vietnam was since the late third millennium BC populated by early farming communities, that had expanded from the original centers of rice and millet domestication in the Yangzi and Yellow River valleys; the Red River valley formed a natural geographic and economic unit, bounded to the north and west by mountains and jungles, to the east by the sea and to the south by the Red River Delta. According to legends, the first Vietnamese state was founded in 2879 BC, but archaeological studies suggest development towards chiefdoms during the late Bronze Age Đông Sơn culture. Vietnam's peculiar geography made it a difficult country to attack, why Vietnam under the Hùng kings was for so long an independent and self-contained state. Once Vietnam did succumb to foreign rule, however, it proved unable to escape from it, for 1,000 years, Vietnam was successively governed by a series of Chinese dynasties: the Han, Eastern Wu, Liu Song, Southern Qi, Sui and Southern Han.
At certain periods during these 1,000 years, Vietnam was independently governed under the Triệus, Trưng Sisters, Early Lýs, Khúcs and Dương Đình Nghệ—although their triumphs and reigns were temporary. During the Chinese domination of northern Vietnam, several civilizations flourished in what is today central and south Vietnam the Funanese and Cham; the founders and rulers of these governments, were not native to Vietnam. From the 10th century onwards, the Vietnamese, emerging in their heartland of the Red River Delta, began to conquer these civilizations; when Ngô Quyền restored sovereign power in the country, the next millennium was advanced by the accomplishments of successive dynasties: Ngôs, Đinhs, Early Lês, Lýs, Trầns, Hồs, Later Trầns, Later Lês, Mạcs, Trịnhs, Nguyễns, Tây Sơns and again Nguyễns. At various points during the imperial dynasties, Vietnam was ravaged and divided by civil wars and witnessed interventions by the Songs, Mongol Yuans, Mings, Manchus, French; the Ming Empire conquered the Red River valley for a while before native Vietnamese regained control and the French Empire reduced Vietnam to a French dependency for nearly a century, followed by an occupation by the Japanese Empire.
Political upheaval and Communist insurrection put an end to the monarchy after World War II, the country was proclaimed a republic. The various people arrived on territory, that constitutes the modern state of Vietnam in many stages separated by thousands of years. Australo-Melanesians were the first to settle in numbers during the Paleolithic and by around 30,000 years ago are present in all regions of Southeast Asia. In most lands they were displaced from the coastal lowlands and pushed to the uplands and hinterlands by immigrants; the indigenous hill tribes of Vietnam and Indochina however, are not known to owe their presence to the Australoids. They all have lingual and cultural ties to the Neolithic Austroasiatic, Kra-Dai and Hmong-Mien settler groups. Austroasiatic Mon-Khmer people have migrated around 5,000 BP via land routes from Burma and northeastern India. Since 5,500 BP Austronesian seafarers first and colonized insular Southeast Asia. Kra-Dai and Hmong-Mien people came over the course of many centuries.
The territories of modern central and southern Vietnam not belonging to the Vietnamese kingdom were only conquered between the 14th and 18th centuries. The indigenous peoples of those lands had developed a distinct culture from the ancient Vietnamese in the Red River Delta region; the ancient Sa Huỳnh culture of present-day central Vietnam is known for the quantities of iron objects and decorative items made from glass, semi-precious and precious stones such as agate, rock crystal and nephrite. The Sa Huỳnh, who maintained an extensive trade network were most the predecessors of the Cham people; the Cham people, who for over one thousand years settled in, controlled and civilized central and southern coastal Vietnam from around the 2nd century CE are of Austronesian origin. The southernmost sector of modern Vietnam, the Mekong Delta and its surroundings was until the 18th century an integral part, yet of shifting significance of the Austroasiatic Proto-Khmer - and Khmer principalities, like Funan, the Khmer Empire and the Khmer kingdom.
The classic core population, the Lạc Việt of the rice-farming Phung Nguyen culture and future nation builders, who had found themselves in the Red River basin are predominantly descendants of agricultural communities of the Yangzi and Yellow River valleys in southern and central China, who have arrived in Indochina around 2000 years BC. The avarge genome of a Vietnamese nowadays can be analyzed to be from an admixture of 30-40% proto-Hmong, 20-30% proto-Sino-Tibetan, 20% proto-Austronesian and 20% proto-Austroasiatic. Fishing and hunting supplemented the main rice crop. Arrowheads and spears were dipped in poison to kill larger animals such as elephants. Betel nuts were chewed and the lower classes wore clothing more substantial than a loincloth; every spring, a fertility festival was held which featured sexual abandon. Religion consisted of primitive animistic cults. Since around 2000 BC, stone hand tools and weapons improved extraordinarily in both quantity and variety. Pottery reached a higher level of technique a