Ford Five Hundred
The Ford Five Hundred is a full-size automobile, manufactured and marketed by Ford from 2005 to 2007. Deriving its nameplate from the Custom 500, Fairlane 500 and Galaxie 500 of the 1950s to 1970s, the Five Hundred was the larger of two model lines intended as the replacement of the Ford Taurus model range. Within the Ford model line, the Five Hundred was slotted between the Crown Victoria. Marking the debut of the Ford D3 platform, the Five Hundred marked several firsts for full-size Ford vehicles, including the first front-wheel drive layout, first all-wheel drive option, first unibody chassis, the first version sold without a V8 engine. Along with the first new full-size chassis since 1979, the 2005 Five Hundred introduced two distinct full-size model lines to Ford; the Five Hundred was produced as a four-door sedan, with the role of the Ford Taurus station wagon adopted by the Ford Freestyle. The Five Hundred was marketed by Lincoln-Mercury under the revived Mercury Montego nameplate, slotted between the Mercury Milan and Mercury Grand Marquis.
For the 2008 model year, for a mid-cycle revision, the Five Hundred was re-christened as the Ford Taurus. Outside of North America and South Korea, the Five Hundred name remained in use through 2009; the Five Hundred was assembled by Ford at its Chicago Assembly facility alongside the Freestyle and Montego. Excluding export sales, 241,402 Ford Five Hundreds were produced; as part of the 1999 acquisition of Volvo Cars and its addition to Premier Automotive Group, Ford Motor Company expanded on its vehicle safety technology capabilities and began development of a D186 Taurus replacement. In 2000, the Ford Prodigy concept car was shown. A 72MPG diesel-electric hybrid designed as part of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, the Prodigy would introduce much of the exterior styling of the Five Hundred; the Ford Five Hundred entered production on July 12, 2004 at Chicago Assembly, became available to the public in September 2004. The Ford Five Hundred/Mercury Montego were engineered with a quality control system named Total Vehicle Geometry.
Designed by Volvo, TVG is computer-based, allowing for designers and suppliers access for all data and results related to prototypes at all stages of the design process. With improved participation and access and finish increased on prototype parts, decreasing the time needed for preliminary production vehicles, so called pilot vehicles. Noted for its simple, straight-forward styling, large interior cabin, prominent greenhouse and high H-point seating, the Five Hundred was designed by George Bucher, Chief Designer, under the direction of Ford Vice President of Design, J Mays; the Ford Five Hundred is based on the Ford D3 platform, shared with the Mercury Montego and Ford Freestyle. An evolution of the Volvo P2 platform, the platform marked the shift to front-wheel drive in full-size Ford sedans. Along with Haldex AWD, several Volvo design features were incorporated into the structure of the Five Hundred, including a modified version of Side Impact Protection System from Volvo, channeling impact forces around the passenger compartment.
Alongside standard dual front airbags, the Five Hundred was available with both side airbags and curtain airbags as an option. For the first time in a full-size Ford sedan, the Ford Five Hundred featured independent suspension for both front and rear axles, with MacPherson strut front suspension and a multi-link rear axle with coilover shocks; as with the Ford Crown Victoria, the Five Hundred was configured with four-wheel anti-lock disc brakes. The Ford Five Hundred/Mercury Montego were powered by a single engine, shared with the Ford Taurus: a 203 hp 3.0L Duratec V6, paired with a 6-speed Aisin automatic transmission or a ZF CVT. A distinguishing feature of the Ford Five Hundred is its tall exterior height. A key feature driving the use of the tall body design was the upward movement of the H-point; as with the first-generation Ford Focus, the seats of the Five Hundred were positioned high from the floor, providing an upright seating position and improved visibility and egress. In addition, the rear seat was positioned higher than the front seats.
The Ford Five Hundred was the first full-size Ford sedan to feature a folding rear seat to supplement the 21 cubic foot trunk. With the option of a folding front passenger seat, a Five Hundred was able to carry objects up to ten feet long inside the vehicle. While visibility was one factor behind the higher seating position, safety was another as well. Derived from the Volvo Side Impact Protection System, a hydroformed cross-car steel beam underneath the front seats was welded between the B-pillars. George Bucher, Ford's chief designer said "it was a challenge to sculpt a Ford-styled body around a Volvo c
Stadium seating or theater seating is a characteristic seating arrangement, most associated with performing-arts venues, derives its name from stadiums, which use this arrangement. In stadium seating, most or all seats are placed higher than the seats in front of them so that the occupants of further-back seats have less of their views blocked by those further forward; this is necessary in stadiums where the subject matter is best observed from above, rather than in-line or from below. In addition to sports venues and performing arts venues, many other venues that require clear audience views of a single area use stadium seating, including religious institutions, lecture halls, movie theaters. An alternative to stadium seating is to place the focal area at a higher level than the audience, so that the audience may look above those people in front of them to see, avoiding blocked sight-lines. One example of this is floor seating of a music venue; because the increased angle of stadium seating, seats are installed on a stepped floor surface which functions as a staircase in the aisles.
This is as opposed to the common usage of a flat slightly sloped, floor used in many standard seating venues. There has been some criticism of stadium seating because, due to the stepped layout, it is not possible for disabled people in wheelchairs to move about. Venues with stadium seating place handicapped seating among the row, at the level of the concourse which feeds the seating area, leaving more space than rows above or below it, leaving chair-less space for wheelchairs; the trains on some roller coasters are configured in tiers. Three prominent examples of roller coasters whose trains use this type of seating are Millennium Force at Cedar Point, which opened in 2000, SheiKra at Busch Gardens Tampa Bay, which opened in 2005, Griffon at Busch Gardens Williamsburg, which opened in 2007. Converting sloped-floor theaters to stadium seating requires raising the ceiling and adding risers, so owners of movie theaters judge conversion as not cost effective. Festival seating
The Fiat 500L is a five-door, five passenger, front-engine, front-wheel drive, high-roof B-segment MPV manufactured in Kragujevac, Serbia by FCA Srbija and marketed globally since its debut at the 2012 Geneva Motor Show. Based on a variant of the FCA Small US Wide platform, the 500L uses Fiat's Multiair variable valve timing engine technology and monovolume cab forward architecture: a packaging concept that prioritizes passenger and cargo volume; the 500L is noted for its high H-point seating, high roof, tall greenhouse, double A pillar, wide field of visibility — and its reconfigurable interior system marketed as Cargo Magic Space. In 2013, Fiat began marketing the 500L Living, in Europe. For model year 2018, the 500L received an intermediate facelift, with revised front and rear fascias along with In-car entertainment updates and interior revisions. By early 2018, production reached 500,000 units; the 500L derives its name from Fiat's known 500 models, including the original 1957 Fiat 500 and the current Fiat 500, introduced in 2007.
Underscoring its increased length and overall size over other 500 variants, the suffix L denotes "large." In April 2010, when Fiat released its 2010-2014 product development plan, the 500L was identified as a replacement for the Fiat Idea and its rebadged variant, the Lancia Musa — and was given the internal designation L0 or Ellezero. Two variants were projected and seven passenger, the latter targeted at North America but only marketed in Europe; the 500L platform was based on Fiat's "Small" platform, first used with the Fiat Grande Punto and further developed since its launch in 2005. With the 500L, the platform is both longer and wider to accommodate the 500L's cab forward architecture, prioritizing interior volume and reducing of the volume of mechanical systems; the packaging design follows the Lancia Megagamma concept, which Fiat had commissioned from Italdesign in 1979, for a 4-meter, high roof, high h-point, monospace design. Designers of the 500L said its overall architecture was inspired by Villa Savoye, the modernist house designed in the 1930s by Le Corbusier located in Poissy, France.
Fabrizio Vacca, senior interior designer with Fiat's Centro Stile in Turin described a "layered" theme with a base, a middle with expansive visibility and above that an available large, dual-pane panoramic sunroof. At the 500L's introduction, Fiat presented a 96-page, multi-language PDF vade mecum titled 500L A Design Approach, tracing the design of the vehicle. In 2014, Lifan Motors introduced the Lifan 330, a knockoff derivative of the Mini Cooper and Fiat 500L, at the Auto China 2014, the Beijing Auto Show; as a five-door, five passenger, two-box, high-roof B-segment MPV, the 500L is based on a variant of the GM Fiat Small Platform and uses Fiat's Multiair engines, a hydraulically-actuated variable valve timing engine technology enabling "cylinder by cylinder, stroke by stroke" control of intake air directly via a gasoline engine's inlet valves. The 500L's cab forward architecture provides a total passenger and cargo volume of 121.1 cubic feet, features high H-point seating, tall roof and greenhouse, split front glass pillar and polycarbonate rear pillar — making the Fiat 500L the first production vehicle to use polycarbonate window glazing.
The split A-pillar and tall greenhouse contribute to the interior's wide field of visibility. Bodywork features a reconfigurable interior system marketed as Cargo Magic Space — which includes a three-level rear cargo floor panel, fold-flat front passenger seat as well as rear seating that can recline for passenger comfort, slide for/aft to reprioritize cargo and passenger volume, fold and tumble forward to store the second row seating and maximize interior cargo volume; the 500L's structural architecture uses 74% high strength steel and complies with international safety standards. With three front-end load dissipation paths the design has wide rear door openings. Bodywork has a frontal area of 2.54 m2 and an aerodynamic coefficient of drag of.30 — rear spoiler, underbody engine and rear suspension shields, integral rear side window nolder profiles to decrease pressure behind the bodywork and reduce mud and debris build up on the rear window. The 500L uses shock absorbers designed to filter out high-frequency suspension inputs from uneven road surfaces while maintaining ride control — in a mechanical rather than electronic system.
The 500L's sunroof is the largest in its class. An optional Beats Audio system has a total power of 520 watts with two 80 watt mid-woofer speakers low in the front door panels, two 40 watt speakers high in the front door panels, two 60 watt speakers in the rear door panels, an 80+80 watt subwoofer in the rear cargo area and an amplifier with DSP and 8 channels and a built-in advanced equalisation algorithm. In 2012, the 500L debuted formally at the Geneva Auto Show — followed by a media introduction at the Officine Grandi Riparazioni, the former Grand Repair Workshops of the Italian Railway, now a cultural center located at Corso Castelfidardo 22 in Turin — on 4 July, the day of the year when Fiat has introduced its 500 models; the introduction presentation was built around the 500L themes of Large and Loft. FCA Serbia inaugurated its reconstructed and renovated facilities in Kragujevac in April 2011 — with production commencing 26 May 2012; the 500L went on sale in Italy in September 2012, with sales begin
Anthropometry refers to the measurement of the human individual. An early tool of physical anthropology, it has been used for identification, for the purposes of understanding human physical variation, in paleoanthropology and in various attempts to correlate physical with racial and psychological traits. Anthropometry involves the systematic measurement of the physical properties of the human body dimensional descriptors of body size and shape. Today, anthropometry plays an important role in industrial design, clothing design and architecture where statistical data about the distribution of body dimensions in the population are used to optimize products. Changes in lifestyles and ethnic composition of populations lead to changes in the distribution of body dimensions and require regular updating of anthropometric data collections; the history of anthropometry includes and spans various concepts, both scientific and pseudoscientific, such as craniometry, paleoanthropology, biological anthropology, physiognomy, criminology, human origins, cranio-facial description, as well as correlations between various anthropometrics and personal identity, mental typology, cranial vault and brain size, other factors.
At various times in history, applications of anthropometry have ranged vastly—from accurate scientific description and epidemiological analysis to rationales for eugenics and overtly racist social movements—and its points of concern have been numerous and sometimes unexpected. Auxologic is a broad term covering the study of all aspects of human physical growth Human height varies between individuals and across populations for a variety of complex biological and environmental factors, among others. Due to methodological and practical problems, its measurement is subject to considerable error in statistical sampling; the average height in genetically and environmentally homogeneous populations is proportional across a large number of individuals. Exceptional height variation within such a population is sometimes due to gigantism or dwarfism, which are caused by specific genes or endocrine abnormalities, it is important to note that a great degree of variation occurs between the most'common' bodies, as such no person can be considered'average'.
In the most extreme population comparisons, for example, the average female height in Bolivia is 142.2 cm while the average male height in the Dinaric Alps is 185.6 cm, an average difference of 43.4 cm. The shortest and tallest of individuals, Chandra Bahadur Dangi and Robert Wadlow, have ranged from 1 ft 9 in to 8 ft 11.1 in, respectively. Human weight varies extensively both individually and across populations, with the most extreme documented examples of adults being Lucia Zarate who weighed 4.7 pounds, Jon Brower Minnoch who weighed 1,400 pounds, with population extremes ranging from 109.3 pounds in Bangladesh to 192.7 pounds in Micronesia. Adult brain size varies from 974.9 cm3 to 1,498.1 cm3 in females and 1,052.9 cm3 to 1,498.5 cm3 in males, with the average being 1,130 cm3 and 1,260 cm3, respectively. The right cerebral hemisphere is larger than the left, whereas the cerebellar hemispheres are of more similar size. Size of the human stomach varies in adults, with one study showing volumes ranging from 520 cm3 to 1,536 cm3 and weights ranging from 77 grams to 453 grams.
Male and female genitalia exhibit considerable individual variation, with penis size differing and vaginal size differing in healthy adults. Human beauty and physical attractiveness have been preoccupations throughout history which intersect with anthropometric standards. Cosmetology, facial symmetry, waist–hip ratio are three such examples where measurements are thought to be fundamental. Anthropometric studies today are conducted to investigate the evolutionary significance of differences in body proportion between populations whose ancestors lived in different environments. Human populations exhibit climatic variation patterns similar to those of other large-bodied mammals, following Bergmann's rule, which states that individuals in cold climates will tend to be larger than ones in warm climates, Allen's rule, which states that individuals in cold climates will tend to have shorter, stubbier limbs than those in warm climates. On a microevolutionary level, anthropologists use anthropometric variation to reconstruct small-scale population history.
For instance, John Relethford's studies of early 20th-century anthropometric data from Ireland show that the geographical patterning of body proportions still exhibits traces of the invasions by the English and Norse centuries ago. Anthropometric indices, namely comparison of the human stature was used to illustrate anthropometric trends; this study was conducted by Jörg Baten and Sandew Hira and was based on the anthropological founds that human height is predetermined by the quality of the nutrition, which used to be higher in the more developed countries. The research was based on the datasets for Southern Chinese contract migrants who were sent to Suriname and Indonesia and included 13,000 individuals. Today anthropometry can be performed with three-dimensional scanners. A global collaborative study to examine the uses of three-dimensional scanners for health care was launched in March 20
In vertebrate anatomy, hip refers to either an anatomical region or a joint. The hip region is located lateral and anterior to the gluteal region, inferior to the iliac crest, overlying the greater trochanter of the femur, or "thigh bone". In adults, three of the bones of the pelvis have fused into the hip bone or acetabulum which forms part of the hip region; the hip joint, scientifically referred to as the acetabulofemoral joint, is the joint between the femur and acetabulum of the pelvis and its primary function is to support the weight of the body in both static and dynamic postures. The hip joints have important roles in retaining balance, for maintaining the pelvic inclination angle. Pain of the hip may be the result of numerous causes, including nervous, infectious, trauma-related, genetic; the proximal femur is covered by muscles and, as a consequence, the greater trochanter is the only palpable bony structure in the hip region. The hip joint is a synovial joint formed by the articulation of the rounded head of the femur and the cup-like acetabulum of the pelvis.
It forms the primary connection between the bones of the lower limb and the axial skeleton of the trunk and pelvis. Both joint surfaces are covered with a strong but lubricated layer called articular hyaline cartilage; the cuplike acetabulum forms at the union of three pelvic bones — the ilium and ischium. The Y-shaped growth plate that separates them, the triradiate cartilage, is fused definitively at ages 14–16, it is a special type of spheroidal or ball and socket joint where the spherical femoral head is contained within the acetabulum and has an average radius of curvature of 2.5 cm. The acetabulum grasps half the femoral ball, a grip augmented by a ring-shaped fibrocartilaginous lip, the acetabular labrum, which extends the joint beyond the equator; the joint space between the femoral head and the superior acetabulum is between 2 and 7 mm. The head of the femur is attached to the shaft by a thin neck region, prone to fracture in the elderly, due to the degenerative effects of osteoporosis.
The acetabulum is oriented inferiorly and anteriorly, while the femoral neck is directed superiorly and anteriorly. The transverse angle of the acetabular inlet can be determined by measuring the angle between a line passing from the superior to the inferior acetabular rim and the horizontal plane; the sagittal angle of the acetabular inlet is an angle between a line passing from the anterior to the posterior acetabular rim and the sagittal plane. It measures 7° at birth and increases to 17° in adults. Wiberg's centre-edge angle is an angle between a vertical line and a line from the centre of the femoral head to the most lateral part of the acetabulum, as seen on an anteroposterior radiograph; the vertical-centre-anterior margin angle is an angle formed from a vertical line and a line from the centre of the femoral head and the anterior edge of the dense shadow of the subchondral bone posterior to the anterior edge of the acetabulum, with the radiograph being taken from the false angle, that is, a lateral view rotated 25 degrees towards becoming frontal.
The articular cartilage angle is an angle formed parallel to the weight bearing dome, that is, the acetabular sourcil or "roof", the horizontal plane, or a line connecting the corner of the triangular cartilage and the lateral acetabular rim. In normal hips in children aged between 11 and 24 months, it has been estimated to be on average 20°, ranging between 18° to 25°, it becomes progressively lower with age. Suggested cutoff values to classify the angle as abnormally increased include:30° up to 4 months of age. 25° up to 2 years of age. The angle between the longitudinal axes of the femoral neck and shaft, called the caput-collum-diaphyseal angle or CCD angle measures 150° in newborn and 126° in adults. An abnormally small angle is known as an abnormally large angle as coxa valga; because changes in shape of the femur affects the knee, coxa valga is combined with genu varum, while coxa vara leads to genu valgum. Changes in CCD angle is the result of changes in the stress patterns applied to the hip joint.
Such changes, caused for example by a dislocation, changes the trabecular patterns inside the bones. Two continuous trabecular systems emerging on auricular surface of the sacroiliac joint meander and criss-cross each other down through the hip bone, the femoral head and shaft. In the hip bone, one system arises on the upper part of auricular surface to converge onto the posterior surface of the greater sciatic notch, from where its trabeculae are reflected to the inferior part of the acetabulum; the other system emerges on the lower part of the auricular surface, converges at the level of the superior gluteal line, is reflected laterally onto the upper part of the acetabulum. In the femur, the first system lines up with a system arising from the lateral part of the femoral shaft to stretch to the inferior portion of the femoral neck and head; the other system lines up with a system in the femur stretching from the medial part of the femoral shaft to the superior part of the femoral head. On the lateral side of the hip joint the fascia lata is strengthened to
The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal is a U. S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City. The Journal, along with its Asian and European editions, is published six days a week by Dow Jones & Company, a division of News Corp; the newspaper is published in online. The Journal has been printed continuously since its inception on July 8, 1889, by Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser; the Wall Street Journal is one of the largest newspapers in the United States by circulation, with a circulation of about 2.475 million copies as of June 2018, compared with USA Today's 1.7 million. The Journal publishes the luxury news and lifestyle magazine WSJ, launched as a quarterly but expanded to 12 issues as of 2014. An online version was launched in 1996, accessible only to subscribers since it began; the newspaper is notable for its award-winning news coverage, has won 37 Pulitzer Prizes. The editorial pages of the Journal are conservative in their position. The"Journal" editorial board has promoted fringe views on the science of climate change, acid rain, ozone depletion, as well as on the health harms of second-hand smoke and asbestos.
The first products of Dow Jones & Company, the publisher of the Journal, were brief news bulletins, nicknamed "flimsies", hand-delivered throughout the day to traders at the stock exchange in the early 1880s. They were aggregated in a printed daily summary called the Customers' Afternoon Letter. Reporters Charles Dow, Edward Jones, Charles Bergstresser converted this into The Wall Street Journal, published for the first time on July 8, 1889, began delivery of the Dow Jones News Service via telegraph. In 1896, The "Dow Jones Industrial Average" was launched, it was the first of several indices of bond prices on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1899, the Journal's Review & Outlook column, which still runs today, appeared for the first time written by Charles Dow. Journalist Clarence Barron purchased control of the company for US$130,000 in 1902. Barron and his predecessors were credited with creating an atmosphere of fearless, independent financial reporting—a novelty in the early days of business journalism.
In 1921, Barron's, the United States's premier financial weekly, was founded. Barron died in 1928, a year before Black Tuesday, the stock market crash that affected the Great Depression in the United States. Barron's descendants, the Bancroft family, would continue to control the company until 2007; the Journal took its modern shape and prominence in the 1940s, a time of industrial expansion for the United States and its financial institutions in New York. Bernard Kilgore was named managing editor of the paper in 1941, company CEO in 1945 compiling a 25-year career as the head of the Journal. Kilgore was the architect of the paper's iconic front-page design, with its "What's News" digest, its national distribution strategy, which brought the paper's circulation from 33,000 in 1941 to 1.1 million at the time of Kilgore's death in 1967. Under Kilgore, in 1947, the paper won its first Pulitzer Prize for William Henry Grimes's editorials. In 1967, Dow Jones Newswires began a major expansion outside of the United States that put journalists in every major financial center in Europe, Latin America and Africa.
In 1970, Dow Jones bought the Ottaway newspaper chain, which at the time comprised nine dailies and three Sunday newspapers. The name was changed to "Dow Jones Local Media Group".1971 to 1997 brought about a series of launches and joint ventures, including "Factiva", The Wall Street Journal Asia, The Wall Street Journal Europe, the WSJ.com website, Dow Jones Indexes, MarketWatch, "WSJ Weekend Edition". In 2007, News Corp. acquired Dow Jones. WSJ. A luxury lifestyle magazine, was launched in 2008. A complement to the print newspaper, The Wall Street Journal Online, was launched in 1996 and has allowed access only by subscription from the beginning. In 2003, Dow Jones began to integrate reporting of the Journal's print and online subscribers together in Audit Bureau of Circulations statements. In 2007, it was believed to be the largest paid-subscription news site on the Web, with 980,000 paid subscribers. Since online subscribership has fallen, due in part to rising subscription costs, was reported at 400,000 in March 2010.
In May 2008, an annual subscription to the online edition of The Wall Street Journal cost $119 for those who do not have subscriptions to the print edition. By June 2013, the monthly cost for a subscription to the online edition was $22.99, or $275.88 annually, excluding introductory offers. On November 30, 2004, Oasys Mobile and The Wall Street Journal released an app that would allow users to access content from the Wall Street Journal Online via their mobile phones. Many of The Wall Street Journal news stories are available through free online newspapers that subscribe to the Dow Jones syndicate. Pulitzer Prize–winning stories from 1995 are available free on the Pulitzer web site. In September 2005, the Journal launched a weekend edition, delivered to all subscribers, which marked a return to Saturday publication after a lapse of some 50 years; the move was designed in part to attract more consumer advertising. In 2005, the Journal reported a readership profile of about 60 percent top management, an average income of $191,000, an average household net worth of $2.1 million, an average age of 55.
In 2007, the Journal launched a worldwide expansion of its website to include major foreign-language editions. The p
Sport utility vehicle
Sport-utility, SUV or sport-ute is an automotive classification a kind of station wagon / estate car with off-road vehicle features like raised ground clearance and ruggedness, available four-wheel drive. Many SUVs are built on a light-truck chassis but operated as a family vehicle, though designed to be used on rougher surfaces, most used on city streets or highways. In recent years, in some countries the term SUV has replaced terms like "Jeep" or "Land-Rover" in the popular lexicon as a generic description for light 4WD vehicles. Many SUVs have an upright built body and tall interior packaging, a high seating position and center of gravity, available all-wheel drive for off-road capability; some SUVs include the towing capacity of a pickup truck and the passenger-carrying space of a minivan or large sedan. The traditional truck-based SUV is more and more being supplanted by unitary body SUVs and crossovers based on regular automobile platforms for lighter weight and better fuel efficiency.
In some countries, notably the United States, SUVs are not classified as cars, but as light trucks. SUVs overtook lower medium segment cars to become the world's largest automotive segment in 2015, accounting for 22.9 percent of global light vehicle sales, or 36.8% of the world's passenger car market. Worldwide sales of SUVs grew from 5 million units in 2000 to 20 million in 2015 and are forecast to hit 42 million units by 2031. Becoming popular in the 1990s and early 2000s, SUVs combined with other light trucks, like pickups and minivans, supplanted many conventional large passenger cars and station wagons, changed the composition of America's vehicle fleet. SUV sales temporarily declined due to high oil prices and a declining economy, but by 2010, SUV sales around the world were growing again, in spite of gasoline prices; the market has overwhelmingly come to prefer 4/5-door models in favor of popular 2-door off-roaders. There is no universally accepted definition of the sport utility vehicle.
Dictionaries, automotive experts, journalists use varying wordings and defining characteristics, in addition to which there are regional variations of the use by both the media and the general public. The auto industry has not settled on one definition of the SUV either; the actual term "Sport Utility Vehicle" did not come into wide popular usage until the late 1980s — prior to such vehicles were marketed during their era as 4-wheel drives, station wagons, or other monikers. The American Merriam-Webster online dictionary offers three different definitions; the general definition of a "sport-utility vehicle", found under "SUV" reads: "a rugged automotive vehicle similar to a station wagon but built on a light-truck chassis", it is defined in the definition of sport-utility vehicle for students as: "an automobile similar to a station wagon but built on a light truck frame". However, the Merriam-Webster definition "for English Language Learners" reads: "a large vehicle, designed to be used on rough surfaces but, used on city roads or highways".
The Webster's New World Dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as "a passenger vehicle similar to a station wagon but with the chassis of a small truck and four-wheel drive". In recent years, the term SUV has come to replace the use of "jeep" as a generic trademark and description of these type of vehicles, a name that originated during World War II as slang for the light general purpose military truck. A Hemmings article defines the sport utility vehicle as bridging the gap between cars and trucks, "combining car-like appointments and wagon practicality with steadfast off-road capability". S. it only applies to the newer street oriented one, whereas "Jeep", "Land Rover" or 4x4 are used for the off-roader oriented ones. The German automaker BMW utilizes the term SAV to denote "Sport Activity Vehicles." Not all SUVs have four-wheel drive capabilities, not all four-wheel-drive passenger vehicles are SUVs. Although some SUVs have off-road capabilities, they play only a secondary role, SUVs do not have the ability to switch among two-wheel and four-wheel-drive high gearing and four-wheel-drive low gearing.
While automakers tout an SUV's off-road prowess with advertising and naming, the daily use of SUVs is on paved roads. In British English the terms "four-by-four" or "off-road vehicle" are preferred, for example the Chambers Dictionary has no entry for sport utility vehicle; the Collins English online dictionary defines sport utility vehicle as a "powerful vehicle with four-wheel drive that can be driven over rough ground" or "a high-powered car with four-wheel drive designed for off-road use", but the citations quoted by Collins are few. Other alternative terms are "four-wheel drive", or using the brand name to describe the vehicle. In the United States, many government regulations have categories for "off-highway vehicles" which are loosely defined and result in SUVs being classified as light trucks. For example, Corporate Average Fuel Economy regulations included "permit greater cargo-carrying capacity than passenger carrying volume" in the definition for trucks, resulting in SUVs being classified as light trucks.
This classification as trucks allowed SUVs to be regulated