William Josiah Sumner Hammersley was an English-born first-class cricketer and sports journalist in Victoria, one of the four men credited with setting down the original rules of the Australian rules football. He was educated at Aldenham School, he was educated in Billericay and at Trinity College, though he did not graduate with a degree. He was a prominent cricketer, a right-handed batsman and right-arm round-arm bowler, playing for Cambridge University Cricket Club, Surrey County Cricket Club and Marylebone Cricket Club, he married Jane Thirkettle in London on 23 September 1849. They had four children. Hammersley migrated to Australia in about 1856. Upon his arrival in Melbourne he became a member of the Melbourne Cricket Club, he worked as a sports journalist for Bell's Life in Victoria and The Australasian, where he was sporting editor until 1882, writing on cricket under the pen-name of "Longstop". He captained the first Victorian XI to visit Sydney for an inter-colonial match in 1857 and played a few more matches until 1861.
He was the first person to use the term "test match" to describe important international matches, which he did during the English cricket team's tour of Australia in 1861-62. He was a personal friend of fellow Cambridge cricketer Thomas Wentworth Wills and helped to give momentum to Wills calls to form a football club. In 1859 he became a founding member of the Melbourne Football Club and involved in popularising the club's football code. Hammersley is believed by some to have been instrumental in introducing Australian Rules to Sydney and in the early formation of the New South Wales Football Association, he died on 15 November 1886 in the Melbourne suburb of Fitzroy and was buried in the Melbourne General Cemetery. Hammersley, William Josiah at People Australia William Hammersley at CricketArchive
William C. McClelland
William Caldwell McClelland CBE was a medical doctor and an Australian rules football player and administrator. Born at Buninyong, on Victoria's goldfields, to an Irish-born father and his Victorian-born wife, McClelland went to Brighton Grammar School and to the University of Melbourne, where he was awarded a BA in 1899, MA in 1901 and MB, BS in 1905, he joined the Melbourne Football Club in 1894, but due to injury and medical studies, could not hold a place in the lineup until 1898, became known as an brilliant centre half-back. He played in the club's surprise 1900 premiership triumph and was elected as captain the following year, a position he filled for four seasons. Retiring at the end of the 1904 season with a total of 91 games to his credit, McClelland focused his energies on his medical career and he was medical officer to the Brighton City Council for more than four decades. In 1912, McClelland became president of the Melbourne Football Club, resigned the position after being elected to the presidency of the Victorian Football League in 1926, succeeding Baldwin Spencer.
He served in this capacity for 30 years, from 1944 was the president of the Melbourne Cricket Club, thus holding the two highest profile sporting positions in Victoria for 12 years. He was granted a CBE for his services to both sports in 1955. In 1956, at the age of 81, he handed over the leadership of the VFL to Carlton President Kenneth Luke, a more vocal opponent of the hold exerted by cricket clubs over the finances of VFL clubs. McClelland continued as president of the MCC until he died in 1957, he did not marry. McClelland was inducted into the Australian Football Hall of Fame as an administrator in 1996, his citation read: Cool level-headed defender for Melbourne, club president for 14 years before becoming VFL president from 1926 to 1955. In 1950, the VFL instituted the McClelland Trophy, awarded to the club with the best overall home-and-away record across the three grades at the end of the home-and-away season. With the transition to a national competition, the league was renamed the Australian Football League in 1990.
The AFL subsequently changed the criteria for the McClelland Trophy. At the end of 1991, the Under 19s competition was shut down and replaced by the TAC Cup, with the Reserves competition being shut down at the end of 1999 in favour of alignments with, or second teams in, the Victorian Football League and other state leagues. Ross, John; the Australian Football Hall of Fame. Australia: HarperCollinsPublishers. P. 141. ISBN 0-7322-6426-X. Australian Football Hall of Fame Melbourne FC Honour Roll William C. McClelland's playing statistics from AFL Tables
Ballarat is a city located on the Yarrowee River in the Central Highlands of Victoria, Australia. The city has a population of 101,588. In terms of population Ballarat is the third largest inland city in Australia. Just months after Victoria was granted separation from the state of New South Wales, the Victorian gold rush transformed Ballarat from a small sheep station to a major settlement. Gold was discovered on 18 August 1851, news spread of rich alluvial fields where gold could be extracted. Unlike many other gold boom towns, the Ballarat fields experienced sustained high gold yields for many decades, which can be evidenced to this day in the city's rich architecture; the city is famous in Australia for the Eureka Rebellion, the only armed rebellion in Australian history. In response to this event the first male suffrage in Australia was instituted and as such Eureka is interpreted by some as the origin of democracy in Australia; the rebellion's symbol, the Eureka Flag, has become a national symbol and is held at the Museum of Australian Democracy at Eureka in Ballarat.
Proclaimed a city in 1871, its prosperity continued until late in the 19th century, after which its importance relative to both Melbourne and Geelong faded with the slowing of gold extraction. It has endured as a major regional centre hosting the rowing and kayaking events from the 1956 Summer Olympics, it is the commercial capital of the Central Highlands and its largest city, as well as a significant tourist destination. Ballarat is known for its history and its well-preserved Victorian era heritage, with much of the city subject to heritage overlays. After a narrow popular vote the city merged with the town of Ballarat East in 1921, ending a long-standing rivalry. While a part of the Central Highlands of Victoria, Ballarat is part of the Midlands geological region. More it is situated on the Central Victorian Uplands. Although significant deposits of gold have been mined in the area and mining continues to this day Ballarat is not part of Victoria's Goldfields region. Prior to the European settlement of Australia, the Ballarat region was populated by the Wathaurong people, an Indigenous Australian people.
The Boro gundidj tribe's territory was based along the Yarrowee River. The first Europeans to sight the area were an 1837 party of six Scottish squatters from Geelong, led by Somerville Learmonth, who were in search of land less affected by the severe drought for their sheep to graze; the party scaled Mount Buninyong. The Yuille family, Scottish settlers Archibald Buchanan Yuille and his brother William Cross Yuille, arrived in 1837 and squatted a 10,000-acre sheep run; the first houses were built near Woolshed Creek by William Yuille and Anderson, while Yuille erected a hut at Black Swamp in 1838. Outsiders knew of the settlement as Yuille's Station and Yuille's Swamp. Archibald Yuille named the area "Ballaarat"; some claim the name is derived from a local Wathaurong Aboriginal word for balla arat. The meaning of this word is not certain. In some dialects, balla means "bent elbow", translated to mean reclining or resting and arat meaning "place". Another claim is that the name derives from Yuille's native Gaelic Baile Ararat, alluding to the resting place of Noah's Ark.
The present spelling was adopted by the City of Ballarat in 1996. The first publicised discovery of gold in the region was by Thomas Hiscock on 2 August 1851 in the Buninyong region to the south; the find brought other prospectors to the area and on 19 August 1851 John Dunlop and James Regan struck gold at Poverty Point with a few ounces. Within days of the announcement of Dunlop and Regan's find a gold rush began, bringing thousands of prospectors to the Yarrowee valley which became known as the Ballarat diggings. Yields were high, with the first prospectors in the area extracting between half an ounce and up to five ounces of alluvial gold per day; as news of the Australian gold rushes reached the world, Ballarat gained an international reputation as a rich goldfield. As a result, a huge influx of immigrants occurred, including many from Ireland and China, gathering in a collection of prospecting shanty towns around the creeks and hills. In just a few months numerous alluvial runs were established, several deep mining leads began, the population had swelled to over 1,000 people.
The first post office opened on 1 November 1851. It was the first Victorian post office. Parts of the district were first surveyed by William Urquhart as early as October 1851. By 1852 his grid plan and wide streets for land sales in the new township of West Ballarat, built upon a plateau of basalt, contrasted markedly with the existing narrow unplanned streets and gullies of the original East Ballarat settlement; the new town's main streets of the time were named in honour of police commissioners and gold commissioners of the time, with the main street, Sturt Street, named after Evelyn Pitfield Shirley Sturt. These officials were based at the government encampment, strategically positioned on an escarpment with an optimal view over the district's digg
Victorian gold rush
The Victorian gold rush was a period in the history of Victoria, Australia between 1851 and the late 1860s. It led to a period of extreme prosperity for the Australian colony, an influx of population growth and financial capital for Melbourne, dubbed "Marvellous Melbourne" as a result of the procurement of wealth; the Victorian Gold Discovery Committee wrote in 1854: The discovery of the Victorian Goldfields has converted a remote dependency into a country of world wide fame. For a number of years the gold output from Victoria was greater than in any other country in the world with the exception of the more extensive fields of California. Victoria's greatest yield for one year was in 1856, when 3,053,744 troy ounces of gold were extracted from the diggings. From 1851 to 1896 the Victorian Mines Department reported that a total of 61,034,682 oz of gold was mined in Victoria. Gold was first discovered in Australia on 15 February 1823, by assistant surveyor James McBrien, at Fish River, between Rydal and Bathurst.
The find was considered unimportant at the time, was not pursued for policy reasons. In the 1850s gold discoveries in Victoria, in Beechworth, Daylesford and Bendigo sparked gold rushes similar to the California Gold Rush. At its peak some two tonnes of gold per week flowed into the Treasury Building in Melbourne; the gold exported to Britain in the 1850s paid all her foreign debts and helped lay the foundation of her enormous commercial expansion in the latter half of the century. Melbourne was a major boomtown during the gold rush; the city became the centre of the colony with rail networks radiating to the regional towns and ports. Politically, Victoria's goldminers sped up the introduction of greater parliamentary democracy in Victoria, based on British Chartist principles adopted to some extent by the miners' activist bodies such as Bendigo's Anti-Gold Licence Association and the Ballarat Reform League; as the alluvial gold dwindled, pressures for land reform and political reform generated social struggles.
And a Land Convention in Melbourne during 1857 recorded demands for land reform. By 1854 Chinese people were contributing to the gold rushes, their presence on the goldfields of Bendigo and the Bright district resulted in riots, entry taxes and segregation in the short term, became the foundations of the White Australia policy. In short, the gold rush was reshaped Victoria, its society and politics. There were rumours abroad about the presence of gold in Australia, but Government officials kept all findings secret for fear of disorganising the young colony; however the Colonial Secretary, Edward Deas Thomson, saw a great future for the country when Edward Hargraves proved his theory that Australia was a vast storehouse of gold. Hargraves had been in the California gold rush and knew gold country, when he first saw it, round Bathurst; the news spread like wildfire, soon the race was on from coast to gold fields. Flocks were left untended, drovers deserted their teams and lawyers rushed from their desks and entire ships' crews, captains included, marched off to seek their fortunes.
In March 1850, Mr. W. Campbell of Strath Loddon found on the station of Mr. Donald Cameron, of Clunes several minute pieces of native gold in quartz; this was concealed at the time but on 10 January 1851, Campbell disclosed it. Others had found indications of gold. Dr. George H. Bruhn, a German physician, whose services as an analyst were in great demand, had been shown specimens of gold from what afterwards became the Clunes diggings. In spite of these and other discoveries, however, it was impracticable to market the gold, James Esmond's "find", made on Creswick's Creek, a tributary of the Loddon River, at Clunes on 1 July 1851, was the first marketable gold field. A party formed by Mr. Louis John Michel, consisting of himself, Mr. William Haberlin, James Furnival, James Melville, James Headon, B. Groenig, discovered the existence of gold in the quartz rocks of the Yarra ranges, at Andersons Creek, near Warrandyte, in the latter part of June, showed it on the spot to Dr. Webb Richmond, on behalf of the Gold Discovery Committee on 5 July.
The third discovery was by a resident at Buninyong. Clarke, by the discovery of Brentani's nugget in the Pyrenees district two years before, he had kept a constant lookout for gold in his neighbourhood, he discovered an auriferous deposit in the gully of the Buninyong ranges now bearing his name, on 8 August 1851, he communicated the fact, with its precise locality, to the editor of the Geelong Advertiser on the 10th of that month. Dr. George H. Bruhn, a German physician, in the month of January, 1851, started from Melbourne to explore "the mineral resources of this colony'. During his lengthened tour, he found, in April, indications of gold in quartz about two miles from Mr. Barker's station, on arriving at Mr. Cameron's station was shown by that gentleman specimens of gold at what are now called the Clunes diggings; this information he made known through the country in the course of his journey, communicated to Mr. James Esmond, at that time engaged in erecting a building at Mr. James Hodgkinson's station.
Dr. Bruhn forwarded specimens, which were received by the Gold Discovery Committe
Thomas Wentworth Wills was a sportsman, credited with being Australia's first cricketer of significance and a founder of Australian rules football. Born in the British colony of New South Wales to a wealthy family descended from convicts, Wills grew up in the bush on properties owned by his father, the pastoralist and politician Horatio Wills, in what is now the Australian state of Victoria, he befriended local Aborigines. At the age of 14, Wills went to England to attend Rugby School, where he became captain of its cricket team, played an early version of rugby football. After Rugby, Wills represented the Cambridge University Cricket Club in the annual match against Oxford, played at first-class level for Kent and the Marylebone Cricket Club. An athletic all-rounder with exceptional bowling skills, he was regarded as one of the finest young cricketers in England. Returning to Victoria in 1856, Wills achieved Australia-wide stardom as a cricketer, captaining the Victorian team to repeated victories in intercolonial matches.
He played for, but came to blows with the Melbourne Cricket Club, his larrikin streak and defections to rival clubs straining their relationship. In 1858 he called for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter. After founding the Melbourne Football Club in 1859, Wills co-wrote the first laws of Australian rules football, he and his cousin H. C. A. Harrison spearheaded the sport's development as captains and administrators. In 1861, at the height of his fame, Wills joined his father on an eight-month trek into the Queensland outback to found a new property. Soon after their arrival, Wills' father and 18 others perished in the deadliest massacre of settlers by Aborigines in Australian history. Wills survived and resumed playing sport upon his return to Victoria in 1864, in 1866–67, led an Aboriginal cricket team on an Australian tour as its captain-coach. In a career marked by controversy, Wills challenged cricket's amateur-professional divide, developed a reputation for bending sporting rules to the point of cheating.
In 1872, he became the first bowler to be called for throwing in a top-class Australian match. Dropped from the Victoria XI, he failed in an 1876 comeback attempt, by which time he was considered a relic of a bygone era, his remaining years were characterised by social alienation, flights from creditors, heavy drinking as a means of coping with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms that plagued him after the massacre. In 1880, suffering from delirium tremens, Wills committed suicide by stabbing himself in the heart. Australia's first sporting celebrity, Wills fell into obscurity after his death, but has undergone a revival in Australian culture since the 1980s. Today he is described as an archetypal tragic sports hero and as a symbol of reconciliation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians, he has become the central figure in "football's history wars"—an ongoing dispute over whether features of an Aboriginal game were incorporated into early Australian rules football. According to biographer Greg de Moore, Wills "stands alone in all his absurdity, his cracked egalitarian heroism and his fatal self-destructiveness—the finest cricketer and footballer of the age".
Wills was born on 19 August 1835 on the Molonglo Plain near modern-day Canberra, in the British penal colony of New South Wales, as the elder child of Horatio and Elizabeth Wills. Tom was a third-generation Australian of convict descent: his mother's parents were Irish convicts, his paternal grandfather was Edward Wills, an English highwayman whose death sentence for armed robbery was commuted to transportation, arriving in Botany Bay aboard the "hell ship" Hillsborough in 1799. Granted a conditional pardon in 1803, Edward became rich through mercantile activity in Sydney with his free wife Sarah, he died in 1811, five months before Horatio's birth, Sarah remarried to convict George Howe, owner of Australia's first newspaper, The Sydney Gazette. Self-educated, Horatio worked in the Gazette office from a young age, rising to become editor in 1832, the same year he met Elizabeth, an orphan from Parramatta, they married in December 1833. Seventeen months after his birth, Tom was baptised Thomas Wentworth Wills in St Andrew's, after statesman William Wentworth.
Drawing on Wentworth's pro-currency writings and the emancipist cause, Horatio, in his nationalist journal The Currency Lad, made the first call for an Australian republic. Horatio turned to pastoralism in the mid-1830s and moved with his family to the sheep run Burra Burra on the Molonglo River. Although athletic from an early age, Tom was prone to illness, at one stage in 1839 his parents "almost despaired of his recovery"; the following year, in light of explorer Thomas Mitchell's discovery of "Australia Felix", the Willses, with shepherds and their families, became some of the first settlers to overland south to the Grampians in the colony's Port Phillip District. After squatting on Mount William, they moved a few miles north through the foothills of Mount Ararat, named so by Horatio because "like the Ark, we rested there". Horatio went through a period of intense religiosity while in the Grampians, he implored himself and Tom to base their lives upon the New Testament. Living in tents, the Wills family purchased a large property named Lexington in an area used by Djab wurrung Aboriginal clans as a meeting place.
According to family members, Tom, as an only child, "was thrown much into the companio
Australian rules football
Australian rules football known as Australian football, or called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick are awarded possession. Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when mark is paid. Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement.
The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring. The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes. Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, while the Australian Football League, the sport's only professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body; the AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. The sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations, its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee.
Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules and footy. In some regions, it is marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League. There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing, football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football. In 1858, in a move that would help to shape Australian football in its formative years, "public" schools in Melbourne, Victoria began organising football games inspired by precedents at English public schools; the earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. On 10 July 1858, the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.
Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England, returned to his homeland a star athlete and cricketer. His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks Wills' friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this was the first of several "kickabouts" held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley and J. B. Thompson. Trees were used as goalposts and play lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all". Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock; this 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.
It is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, the two schools have competed annually since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the world's oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football, not codified until 1885. There is no archival evidence in favour of a Gaelic influence, the style of play shared between the two modern codes was evident in Australia long before the Irish game evolved in a similar direction. Another theory, first proposed in 1983, posits that Wills, having grown up amongst Aborigines in Victoria, may have seen or played the Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, incorporated some of its features into early Australian football; the evidence for this is only circumstantial, according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost influenced by his experience at Rugby School". A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of 1858.
The following year, on 14 May, the Melbourne Football Club came into being, making it one of the
Melbourne Cricket Club
The Melbourne Cricket Club is a sports club based in Melbourne, Australia. It was is one of the oldest sports clubs in Australia; the MCC is responsible for management and development of the Melbourne Cricket Ground, a power given to it by the government-appointed MCG Trust and an Act of Parliament. This guarantees the club's occupation of about 20 per cent of the stadium for its members reserve. In 1859, members drafted the first set of rules for Australian rules football. In 1877, it hosted the first game of Test cricket in history -- played between England. In 1971, the ground hosted; as well as cricket, the MCC is an umbrella organisation for other sports, such as Australian football, bowls, field hockey, lacrosse, target shooting and real tennis. Since 2009 the Melbourne Football Club has been the football division of the club having been part of the club from 1889 to 1980. On 15 November 1838, the first MCC cricket match occurred at the site of the Royal Mint. At the same time five men formed the Melbourne Cricket Club.
Smyth and brothers Alfred and Charles Mundy. In 1839 the MCC began playing cricket matches near the current site of Southern Cross railway station. Powlett was elected inaugural President in 1841; the Melbourne Cricket Club is the largest sporting club in Australia. As of August 2015 there were 104,000 members of the club, of which 62,700 were "full members" and 41,300 were "restricted members", with 242,000 people registered on the waiting list; that same year, a new category below Restricted Membership was created called Provisional Membership, which "is designed to prevent the lengthy wait for membership of our club from extending to 40 years or more in generations to come." Provisional members "have fewer benefits and less access to the Reserve than Full and Restricted members." As of 31 January 2018, the waiting list "consist of candidates nominated from October 1, 2000 to today." Full membership entitles members to entry to the Members' Reserve at the MCG for all cricket and football matches and most special sporting events.
Full members have a number of added benefits, which include reciprocal rights at clubs and stadiums around Australia and overseas as well as the opportunity to attend numerous club functions exclusive to MCC members. Restricted members have access to events, with the exception of the AFL Grand Final. Full members, but not restricted members, are permitted to nominate candidates for the waiting list and to vote on club affairs. Members of the MCC are able to access the members' area of reciprocal clubs while on a short visit to the area; these benefits, with the exclusion of the VRC and Docklands Stadium, are reserved for full members. These clubs include: Docklands Stadium Axcess One, Melbourne Victoria Racing Club, Melbourne Sydney Cricket Ground, Sydney Brisbane Cricket Ground Trust, Brisbane South Australian Cricket Association, Adelaide West Australian Cricket Association, Perth Tasmanian Cricket Association, HobartAlso other overseas grounds, including the Singapore and Hong Kong Cricket Clubs, the Cricket Club of India and the Marylebone Cricket Club.
On 1 December 1999, the MCC announced its cricket team of the century, with all players who had played at least one season for the club since 1906-07 being eligible for selection. The team as selected was: Bill Ponsford Colin McDonald Dean Jones Hunter Hendry Paul Sheahan Warwick Armstrong Hugh Trumble Robert Templeton Max Walker Hans Ebeling Bert Ironmonger Vernon Ransford All members of the team of the century except Robert Templeton had played at least one Test match for the Australian cricket team. Melbourne Football Club Melbourne Bowling Club Melbourne Cricket Ground Official website