Braunschweig called Brunswick in English, is a city in Lower Saxony, north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker River which connects it to the North Sea via the Aller and Weser Rivers. In 2016, it had a population of 250,704. A powerful and influential centre of commerce in medieval Germany, Braunschweig was a member of the Hanseatic League from the 13th until the 17th century, it was the capital city of three successive states: the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, the Duchy of Brunswick, the Free State of Brunswick. Today, Braunschweig is the second-largest city in Lower Saxony and a major centre of scientific research and development; the date and circumstances of the town's foundation are unknown. Tradition maintains that Braunschweig was created through the merger of two settlements, one founded by Brun, a Saxon count who died in 880, on one side of the River Oker – the legend gives the year 861 for the foundation – and the other the settlement of a legendary Count Dankward, after whom Dankwarderode Castle, reconstructed in the 19th century, is named.
The town's original name of Brunswik is a combination of the name Bruno and Low German wik, a place where merchants rested and stored their goods. The town's name therefore indicates an ideal resting-place, as it lay by a ford across the Oker River. Another explanation of the city's name is that it comes from Brand, or burning, indicating a place which developed after the landscape was cleared through burning; the city was first mentioned in documents from the St. Magni Church from 1031, which give the city's name as Brunesguik. Up to the 12th century, Braunschweig was ruled by the Saxon noble family of the Brunonids through marriage, it fell to the House of Welf. In 1142, Henry the Lion of the House of Welf became duke of Saxony and made Braunschweig the capital of his state, he turned Dankwarderode Castle, the residence of the counts of Brunswick, into his own Pfalz and developed the city further to represent his authority. Under Henry's rule, the Cathedral of St. Blasius was built and he had the statue of a lion, his heraldic animal, erected in front of the castle.
The lion subsequently became the city's landmark. Henry the Lion became so powerful that he dared to refuse military aid to the emperor Frederick I Barbarossa, which led to his banishment in 1182. Henry went into exile in England, he had established ties to the English crown in 1168, through his marriage to King Henry II of England's daughter Matilda, sister of Richard the Lionheart. However, his son Otto, who could regain influence and was crowned Holy Roman Emperor, continued to foster the city's development. During the Middle Ages, Braunschweig was an important center of trade, one of the economic and political centers in Northern Europe and a member of the Hanseatic League from the 13th century to the middle of the 17th century. By the year 1600, Braunschweig was the seventh largest city in Germany. Although formally one of the residences of the rulers of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire, Braunschweig was de facto ruled independently by a powerful class of patricians and the guilds throughout much of the Late Middle Ages and the Early modern period.
Because of the growing power of Braunschweig's burghers, the Princes of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, who ruled over one of the subdivisions of Brunswick-Lüneburg moved their Residenz out of the city and to the nearby town of Wolfenbüttel in 1432. The Princes of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel didn't regain control over the city until the late 17th century, when Rudolph Augustus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, took the city by siege. In the 18th century Braunschweig was not only a political, but a cultural centre. Influenced by the philosophy of the Enlightenment, dukes like Anthony Ulrich and Charles I became patrons of the arts and sciences. In 1745 Charles I founded the Collegium Carolinum, predecessor of the Braunschweig University of Technology, in 1753 he moved the ducal residence back to Braunschweig. With this he attracted poets and thinkers such as Lessing and Jakob Mauvillon to his court and the city. Emilia Galotti by Lessing and Goethe's Faust were performed for the first time in Braunschweig. In 1806, the city was captured by the French during the Napoleonic Wars and became part of the short-lived Napoleonic Kingdom of Westphalia in 1807.
The exiled duke Frederick William raised a volunteer corps, the Black Brunswickers, who fought the French in several battles. After the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Braunschweig was made capital of the reestablished independent Duchy of Brunswick a constituent state of the German Empire from 1871. In the aftermath of the July Revolution in 1830, in Brunswick duke Charles II was forced to abdicate, his absolutist governing style had alienated the nobility and bourgeoisie, while the lower classes were disaffected by the bad economic situation. During the night of 7–8 September 1830, the ducal palace in Braunschweig was stormed by an angry mob, set on fire, destroyed completely. Charles was succeeded by his brother William VIII. During William's reign, liberal reforms were made and Brunswick's parliament was strengthened. During the 19th century, industrialisation caused a rapid growth of population in the city causing Braunschweig to be for the first time enlarged beyond its medieval fortifications and the River Oker.
On 1 December 1838, the first section of the Brunswick–Bad Harzburg railway line connecting Braunschweig and
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Theoretical physics is a branch of physics that employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize and predict natural phenomena. This is in contrast to experimental physics; the advancement of science depends on the interplay between experimental studies and theory. In some cases, theoretical physics adheres to standards of mathematical rigour while giving little weight to experiments and observations. For example, while developing special relativity, Albert Einstein was concerned with the Lorentz transformation which left Maxwell's equations invariant, but was uninterested in the Michelson–Morley experiment on Earth's drift through a luminiferous aether. Conversely, Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for explaining the photoelectric effect an experimental result lacking a theoretical formulation. A physical theory is a model of physical events, it is judged by the extent. The quality of a physical theory is judged on its ability to make new predictions which can be verified by new observations.
A physical theory differs from a mathematical theorem in that while both are based on some form of axioms, judgment of mathematical applicability is not based on agreement with any experimental results. A physical theory differs from a mathematical theory, in the sense that the word "theory" has a different meaning in mathematical terms. A physical theory involves one or more relationships between various measurable quantities. Archimedes realized that a ship floats by displacing its mass of water, Pythagoras understood the relation between the length of a vibrating string and the musical tone it produces. Other examples include entropy as a measure of the uncertainty regarding the positions and motions of unseen particles and the quantum mechanical idea that energy are not continuously variable. Theoretical physics consists of several different approaches. In this regard, theoretical particle physics forms a good example. For instance: "phenomenologists" might employ empirical formulas to agree with experimental results without deep physical understanding.
"Modelers" appear much like phenomenologists, but try to model speculative theories that have certain desirable features, or apply the techniques of mathematical modeling to physics problems. Some attempt to create approximate theories, called effective theories, because developed theories may be regarded as unsolvable or too complicated. Other theorists may try to unify, reinterpret or generalise extant theories, or create new ones altogether. Sometimes the vision provided by pure mathematical systems can provide clues to how a physical system might be modeled. Theoretical problems that need computational investigation are the concern of computational physics. Theoretical advances may consist in setting aside old, incorrect paradigms or may be an alternative model that provides answers that are more accurate or that can be more applied. In the latter case, a correspondence principle will be required to recover the known result. Sometimes though, advances may proceed along different paths. For example, an correct theory may need some conceptual or factual revisions.
However, an exception to all the above is the wave–particle duality, a theory combining aspects of different, opposing models via the Bohr complementarity principle. Physical theories become accepted if they are able to make correct predictions and no incorrect ones; the theory should have, at least as a secondary objective, a certain economy and elegance, a notion sometimes called "Occam's razor" after the 13th-century English philosopher William of Occam, in which the simpler of two theories that describe the same matter just as adequately is preferred. They are more to be accepted if they connect a wide range of phenomena. Testing the consequences of a theory is part of the scientific method. Physical theories can be grouped into three categories: mainstream theories, proposed theories and fringe theories. Theoretical physics began at least 2,300 years ago, under the Pre-socratic philosophy, continued by Plato and Aristotle, whose views held sway for a millennium. During the rise of medieval universities, the only acknowledged intellectual disciplines were the seven liberal arts of the Trivium like grammar and rhetoric and of the Quadrivium like arithmetic, geometry and astronomy.
During the Middle Ages and Renaissance, the concept of experimental science, the counterpoint to theory, began with scholars such as Ibn al-Haytham and Francis Bacon. As the Scientific Revolution gathered pace, the concepts of matter, space and causality began to acquire the form we know today, other sciences spun off from the rubric of natural philosophy, thus began the modern era of theory with the Copernican paradigm shift in astronomy, soon followed by Johannes Kepler's expressions for planetary orbits, which summarized the meticulous observations of Tycho Brahe.
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Epistemological Letters was a hand-typed, mimeographed "underground" newsletter about quantum physics, distributed to a private mailing list, described by the physicist John Clauser as a "quantum subculture", between 1973 and 1984. Distributed by a Swiss foundation, the newsletter was created because mainstream academic journals were reluctant to publish articles about the philosophy of quantum mechanics anything that implied support for ideas such as action at a distance. Thirty-six or thirty-seven issues of Epistemological Letters appeared, each between four and eighty-nine pages long. Several well-known scientists published their work there, including the physicist John Bell, the originator of Bell's theorem. According to Clauser, much of the early work on Bell's theorem was published only in Epistemological Letters. According to the Irish physicist Andrew Whitaker, a powerful group of physicists centred on Niels Bohr, Wolfgang Pauli and Werner Heisenberg made clear that "there was no place in physics – no jobs in physics! – for anybody who dared to question the Copenhagen interpretation" of quantum theory.
John Clauser writes that any inquiry into the "wonders and peculiarities" of quantum mechanics and quantum entanglement that went outside the "party line" was prohibited, in what he argues amounted to an "evangelical crusade". Samuel Goudsmit, editor of the prestigious Physical Review and Physical Review Letters until he retired in 1974, imposed a formal ban on the philosophical debate, issuing instructions to referees that they should feel free to reject material that hinted at it. Articles questioning the mainstream position were therefore distributed in alternative publications, Epistemological Letters became one of the main conduits; the newsletter was sent out by the L'Institut de la Méthode of the Association Ferdinand Gonseth, established in honour of the philosopher Ferdinand Gonseth. It described itself as "an open and informal journal allowing confrontation and ripening of ideas before publishing in some adequate journal." According to Clauser, it announced that the usual stigma against discussing certain ideas, such as hidden-variable theories, was to be absent.
The newsletter's editors included Abner Shimony. Several eminent physicists published their material in Epistemological Letters, including John Bell, the originator of Bell's theorem. Clauser writes that much of the early work on Bell's theorem was published only in Epistemological Letters. Bell's paper, "The Theory of Local Beables", appeared there in March 1976. Abner Shimony, John Clauser and Michael Horne published responses to it in the Letters. Henry Stapp was another prominent physicist. H. Dieter Zeh published a paper in the Letters on the many-minds interpretation of quantum mechanics in 1981. Fundamental Fysiks Group Epistemological Letters, WorldCat. Friere, Olival. "A Story Without an Ending: The Quantum Physics Controversy 1950–1970", Science & Education, 12, pp. 573–586. Gusterson, Hugh. "Physics: Quantum outsiders", Nature, 476, pp. 278–279
The Black Forest is a large forested mountain range in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwest Germany. It is bounded by the Rhine valley to the south, its highest peak is the Feldberg with an elevation of 1,493 metres. The region is oblong in shape with a length of 160 km and breadth of up to 50 km; the Black Forest stretches from the High Rhine in the south to the Kraichgau in the north. In the west it is bounded by the Upper Rhine Plain; the Black Forest is the highest part of the South German Scarplands and much of it is densely wooded, a fragment of the Hercynian Forest of Antiquity. It lies upon rocks of the crystalline basement and Bunter Sandstone, its natural boundary with the surrounding landscapes is formed by the emergence of muschelkalk, absent from the Black Forest bedrock. Thanks to the fertility of the soil, dependent on the underlying rock, this line is both a vegetation boundary as well as the border between the Altsiedelland and the Black Forest, not permanently settled until the High Middle Ages.
From north to south the Black Forest extends for over 160 km, attaining a width of up to 50 kilometres in the south, up to 30 kilometres in the north. Tectonically the range forms a lifted fault block, which rises prominently in the west from the Upper Rhine Plain, whilst seen from the east it has the appearance of a forested plateau; the natural regions of the Black Forest are separated by various features: Geomorphologically, the main division is between the gentle eastern slopes with their rounded hills and broad plateaux and the incised, steeply falling terrain in the west that drops into the Upper Rhine Graben. It is here, in the west, where the highest mountains and the greatest local differences in height are found; the valleys are narrow and ravine-like. The summits are rounded and there are the remnants of plateaux and arête-like landforms. Geologically the clearest division is between east and west. Large areas of the eastern Black Forest, the lowest layer of the South German Scarplands composed of Bunter Sandstone, are covered by endless coniferous forest with their island clearings.
The exposed basement in the west, predominantly made up of metamorphic rocks and granites, despite its rugged topography, easier to settle and appears much more open and inviting today with its varied meadow valleys. The most common way of dividing the regions of the Black Forest is, from north to south; until the 1930s, the Black Forest was divided into the Northern and Southern Black Forest, the boundary being the line of the Kinzig valley. The Black Forest was divided into the forested Northern Black Forest, the lower, central section, predominantly used for agriculture in the valleys, was the Central Black Forest and the much higher Southern Black Forest with its distinctive highland economy and ice age glacial relief; the term High Black Forest referred to the highest areas of the South and southern Central Black Forest. The boundaries drawn were, quite varied. In 1931, Robert Gradmann called the Central Black Forest the catchment area of the Kinzig and in the west the section up to the lower Elz and Kinzig tributary of the Gutach.
A pragmatic division, oriented not just on natural and cultural regions, uses the most important transverse valleys. Based on that, the Central Black Forest is bounded by the Kinzig in the north and the line from Dreisam to Gutach in the south, corresponding to the Bonndorf Graben zone and the course of the present day B 31. In 1959, Rudolf Metz combined the earlier divisions and proposed a modified tripartite division himself, which combined natural and cultural regional approaches and was used, his Central Black Forest is bounded in the north by the watershed between the Acher and Rench and subsequently between the Murg and Kinzig or Forbach and Kinzig, in the south by the Bonndorf Graben zone, which restricts the Black Forest in the east as does the Freudenstadt Graben further north by its transition into the Northern Black Forest. The Handbook of the Natural Region Divisions of Germany published by the Federal Office of Regional Geography since the early 1950s names the Black Forest as one of six tertiary level major landscape regions within the secondary level region of the South German Scarplands and, at the same time, one of nine new major landscape unit groups.
It is divided into six so-called major units. This division was refined and modified in several, successor publications up to 1967, each covering individual sections of the map; the mountain range was divided into three regions. The northern boundary of the Central Black Forest in this classification runs south of the Rench Valley and the Kniebis to near Freudenstadt, its southern boundary varied with each edition. In 1998 the Baden-Württemberg State Department for Environmental Protection published a reworked Natural Region Division of Baden-Württemberg, it is restricted to the level of the natural regional major units and has been used since for the state's administration of nature conservation: The Black Forest Foothills (Schwarzwald-Rand