Sport includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, in some cases, entertainment for spectators. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete or consecutively, with one winner; some sports allow a "tie" or "draw". A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs. Sport is recognised as system of activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition, other organisations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports.
However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports: bridge, draughts, Go and xiangqi, limits the number of mind games which can be admitted as sports. Sport is governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can be crossing a line first, it can be determined by judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression. Records of performance are kept, for popular sports, this information may be announced or reported in sport news. Sport is a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sport drawing large crowds to sport venues, reaching wider audiences through broadcasting.
Sport betting is in some cases regulated, in some cases is central to the sport. According to A. T. Kearney, a consultancy, the global sporting industry is worth up to $620 billion as of 2013; the world's most accessible and practised sport is running, while association football is its most popular spectator sport. The word "sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning "leisure", with the oldest definition in English from around 1300 being "anything humans find amusing or entertaining". Other meanings include. Roget's defines the noun sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion and recreation; the singular term "sport" is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept, with "sports" used to describe multiple activities. American English uses "sports" for both terms; the precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources. The closest to an international agreement on a definition is provided by SportAccord, the association for all the largest international sports federations, is therefore the de facto representative of international sport.
SportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sport should: have an element of competition be in no way harmful to any living creature not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier not rely on any "luck" element designed into the sport. They recognise that sport can be physical mind, predominantly motorised co-ordination, or animal-supported; the inclusion of mind sports within sport definitions has not been universally accepted, leading to legal challenges from governing bodies in regards to being denied funding available to sports. Whilst SportAccord recognises a small number of mind sports, it is not open to admitting any further mind sports. There has been an increase in the application of the term "sport" to a wider set of non-physical challenges such as video games called esports due to the large scale of participation and organised competition, but these are not recognised by mainstream sports organisations. According to Council of Europe, European Sports Charter, article 2.i, "'Sport' means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels."
There are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a defining element of a sport, with all professional sport involving competition, governing bodies requiring competition as a prerequisite of recognition by the International Olympic Committee or SportAccord. Other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include all physical activity. For instance, the Council of Eu
Alexis Argüello was a Nicaraguan professional boxer who competed from 1968 to 1995, became a politician. He was a three-weight world champion, having held the WBA featherweight title from 1974 to 1976. Additionally, he held the Ring magazine and lineal featherweight titles from 1975 to 1977. In his career he challenged twice for light welterweight world titles, both times in famous fights against Aaron Pryor. Argüello has been cited as one of the greatest boxers of his era, having never lost any of his world titles in the ring, instead relinquishing them each time in pursuit of titles in higher weight classes. After his retirement from boxing, he became active in Nicaraguan politics and in November 2008 was elected mayor of his native Managua, the nation's capital city; the Ring magazine has ranked Argüello as 20th on their list of "100 greatest punchers of all time", while the Associated Press ranked him as the world's best super featherweight of the 20th century. He was named one of the 20 greatest fighters of the past 80 years by The Ring magazine.
Argüello was born April 19, 1952. His father was a shoemaker. Argüello had a troubled childhood; when he was 5 years old, his father attempted suicide. At the age of 9, Argüello ran away to work in a dairy farm; when he was 13, he emigrated to Canada to provide for his family. Argüello was involved in street brawls through his teenage years, but it wasn't until his sister Marina, one of Alexis' 7 siblings, married a boxer that young Alexis took an interest in the sport. Argüello's brief amateur career saw him compile a 58-2 record. Argüello debuted on October 1968, trained by former boxer Miguel Angel Rivas. After winning his first 3 fights "The Explosive Thin Man" suffered an unavenged first-round KO loss, followed by another split decision loss. Argüello would win 29 of his next 30 bouts over the next 5 years, including a win over José Legrá. Argüello earned world featherweight championship bout against experienced WBA champion Ernesto Marcel; the fight took place in Marcel's home country. The young challenger lost a 15-round unanimous decision in the champion's retirement bout.
Months after Marcel's retirement, the WBA featherweight title was won by former unified bantamweight champion Ruben Olivares. Undaunted, Argüello put together another streak of wins, found himself contending for the WBA featherweight, this time against Olivares in the latter's first defense; the fight took place at The Forum in Inglewood on November 23, 1974. After Olivares had built a small lead on the judges' scorecards, Argüello and Olivares landed simultaneous left hooks in round thirteen. Olivares's left hand caused a visible expression of pain on Argüello's face, but Argüello's left hand caused Olivares to crash hard against the canvas. A few seconds Argüello was the new featherweight champion of the world. Argüello's first defense came against Venezuelan featherweight champion Leonel Hernández. Once again, Argüello fought in enemy territory. Argüello made short work of his challenger, stopping him by technical knockout in the 8th round, his first defense in Nicaragua was against Rigoberto Riasco.
Argüello dominated once again, this time stopping Riasco in the second round. Next up for Argüello would be Royal Kobayashi, a touted Japanese challenger, undefeated until then. After a tense, close start Argüello's relentless body-punching broke Kobayashi halfway through the fifth round, with the challenger dropping to the canvas twice. After a successful fourth defense, Argüello moved up in weight to challenge world junior lightweight champion Alfredo Escalera in Bayamón, Puerto Rico, in what has been nicknamed The Bloody Battle of Bayamon by many. Escalera had been a busy champion with ten defenses, he had dethroned Kuniaki Shibata in 2 rounds in Tokyo. In what some experts consider one of the most brutal fights in history, Escalera had his eye and nose broken early, but was rallying back in the scorecards when Argüello finished him, once again in the thirteenth round, his reign at Junior Lightweight saw him fend off the challenges of Escalera in a rematch held at Rimini, Italy, as well as former and future world champion Bobby Chacon, future two time world champion Rafael "Bazooka" Limón, Ruben Castillo, future champion Rolando Navarrete, Diego Alcalá, beaten in only one round.
Argüello suffered many cuts around his face during his second victory against Escalera. The on-site doctor wanted him hospitalized, but Argüello had a flight to catch from Rome the next day to return to Nicaragua, he boarded a train from Rimini; the doctor decided to travel with Argüello, performed plastic surgery on Argüello's cuts with Argüello awake. After eight successful title defenses, Argüello moved up in weight again, this time he had to go to London, England, to challenge world lightweight champion Jim Watt. Watt lasted fifteen rounds, but the judges gave Argüello a unanimous 15-round decision, thus making him only the sixth boxer to win world titles in 3 divisions, the second Latin American to do it, he had to face some less known challengers in this division, one exception being the famous prospect Ray Mancini. Mancini and Argüello engaged in a fight, showcased in a boxing video of the best fights of the 1980s, with Argüello prevailing by stoppage when he decked Mancini in round 14.
Oscar De La Hoya
Oscar De La Hoya is an American former professional boxer who, in 2002 became a boxing promoter and, in 2018, a mixed martial arts promoter. As a boxer, he competed from 1992 to 2008, winning multiple world titles in six weight classes, including the lineal championship in three weight classes, he is ranked as the 11th best boxer of pound for pound, by BoxRec. De La Hoya was nicknamed "The Golden Boy of boxing" by the media when he represented the United States at the 1992 Summer Olympics where, shortly after having graduated from James A. Garfield High School, he won a gold medal in the lightweight division, "set a sport back on its feet."De La Hoya was named The Ring magazine Fighter of the Year in 1995, was its top-rated fighter in the world, pound for pound, in 1997 and 1998. He generated $700 million in pay-per-view income, making De La Hoya the top pay-per-view earner before being surpassed by Floyd Mayweather Jr. and Manny Pacquiao. He announced his retirement following a professional career spanning 16 years.
In 2002, De La Hoya founded a combat sport promotional firm. He is the first American of Mexican descent to own a national boxing promotional firm, one of the few boxers to take on promotional responsibilities while still active. In 2018, he began promoting MMA matches as well, beginning with a 2018 trilogy bout between long-time rivals Chuck Liddell and Tito Ortiz, with the inaugural Golden Boy MMA event scheduled for November 24, 2018. De La Hoya has held dual American and Mexican citizenship since 2002, when the Consulate General of Mexico in Los Angeles granted him Mexican citizenship, reflecting his heritage, his parents emigrated from Mexico to the US prior to his birth. He was born in California into a boxing family, his brother, Joel Jr. was a boxer. De La Hoya won the national Junior Olympics 119-pound title at age 15, following up with the 125-pound title the following year. In 1989, he became the Golden Gloves champion, his amateur career included 234 wins — 163 by knockout, six losses.
Of those six losses, two were to Shane Mosley. In 1989, he won the National Golden Gloves title in the bantamweight division. In 1990, at age 17, he won the U. S. National Championship at featherweight and was the youngest U. S. boxer at that year's Goodwill Games, winning a gold medal. The joy of victory was tempered by the news that his mother, Cecilia Gonzales De La Hoya, was terminally ill with breast cancer, she died that October, expressing the hope that her son would one day become an Olympic gold medalist. As the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona approached, De La Hoya turned his mother's dream into a strong focus for his training. After an upset victory in the first round over the Mexican boxer Julio Gonzalez. Rudolph had been the only fighter to defeat him in the last several years; the U. S. media publicized his quest to fulfill his mother's dying wish and nicknamed him, "The Golden Boy", which has remained with him throughout his career. In 2000, the Cecilia Gonzalez De La Hoya Cancer Center was formally opened by De La Hoya and his siblings at the White Memorial Medical Center, with a $350,000 donation from De La Hoya, in honor of their mother.
1989 Gold Medalist National Golden Gloves 1990 Gold Medalist US National Championships 1990 Gold Medalist Goodwill Games 1991 Gold Medalist US National Championships 1991 Gold Medalist US Olympic Festival1992 Gold Medalist Olympic Games Amateur record: 223–5 In 2008, De La Hoya was inducted into the United States Olympic Hall of Fame. On November 23, 1992, De La Hoya made his professional debut by scoring a first-round TKO victory. In his twelfth professional fight, he won his first world title at age 20, stopping Jimmy Bredahl in the tenth round to win the WBO super featherweight title, he defended the title once. On July 29, 1994, he knocked out Jorge Páez in the second round to win the vacant WBO Lightweight title. In his first title defense, he defeated John-John Molina, who had vacated his IBF Super Featherweight title, by unanimous decision. On May 6, 1995, De La Hoya defeated IBF lightweight champion Rafael Ruelas in a unification bout. De La Hoya knocked Ruelas down twice; the IBF ordered De La Hoya to defend against Miguel Julio.
He relinquished the IBF title and defended the WBO title against undefeated Genaro Hernández, who relinquished the WBA super-featherweight title to fight De La Hoya. Hernandez quit after six rounds because of a broken nose. In his sixth and final defense of the WBO lightweight title, he knocked out Jesse James Leija in two rounds at New York's Madison Square Garden. On June 7, 1996, Oscar De La Hoya fought Mexican legend Julio César Chávez for the lineal and WBC light welterweight championship. De la Hoya, with a record of 21–0 with 19 K. Os, defeated Chavez by a fourth-round TKO; the fight was stopped due to a several bad cuts suffered by Chavez above his left eye. Until their rematch in 1998, Chávez stated that De La Hoya did not defeat him since the fight was stopped. De La Hoya defended his titles with a twelve-round unanimous decision against undefeated former WBC Lightweight Champion and number one light welterweight contender Miguel Ángel González. On April 12, 1997, De La Hoya fought Pernell Whitaker.
The fight proved to be a
Zaire the Republic of Zaire, was the name of a sovereign state between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa, now known as Democratic Republic of the Congo. The country was a one-party totalitarian dictatorship, run by Mobutu Sese Seko and his ruling Popular Movement of the Revolution party. Zaire was established following Mobutu's seizure of power in a military coup in 1965, following five years of political upheaval following independence known as the Congo Crisis. Zaire had a centralist constitution, foreign assets were nationalised; the period is sometimes referred to as the Second Congolese Republic. A wider campaign of Authenticité, ridding the country of the influences from the colonial era of the Belgian Congo, was launched under Mobutu's direction. Weakened by the end of American support after the end of the Cold War, Mobutu was forced to declare a new republic in 1990 to cope with demands for change. By the time of its downfall, Mobutu's rule was characterised by widespread cronyism and economic mismanagement.
Zaire collapsed in the 1990s, amid the destabilization of the eastern parts of the state in the aftermath of the Rwandan genocide and growing ethnic violence. In 1996, Laurent-Désiré Kabila, the head of the Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo militia, led a popular rebellion against Mobutu. With rebel forces making gains beyond the east, Mobutu fled the country, leaving Kabila's forces in charge as the country restored its name to the Democratic Republic of the Congo the following year. Mobutu died within four months; the state's name, Zaire was derived from the name of the Congo River, sometimes called Zaire in Portuguese, adapted from the Kongo word nzere or nzadi. Congo seems to have replaced Zaire in English usage during the 18th century, Congo is the preferred English name in 19th-century literature, although references to Zahir or Zaire as the name used by the natives remained common. In 1965, as in 1960, the division of power in Congo-Léopoldville between President and Parliament led to a stalemate and threatened the country's stability.
Joseph-Désiré Mobutu again seized power. Unlike the first time, Mobutu assumed the presidency, rather than remaining behind the scenes. From 1965, Mobutu dominated the political life of the country, restructuring the state on more than one occasion, claiming the title of "Father of the Nation". When, under the authenticity policy of the early 1970s, Zairians were obliged to adopt "authentic" names, Mobutu dropped Joseph-Désiré and changed his name to Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga, or, more Mobutu Sésé Seko meaning "the all-conquering warrior, who goes from triumph to triumph". In retrospective justification of his 1965 seizure of power, Mobutu summed up the record of the First Republic as one of "chaos, disorder and incompetence". Rejection of the legacy of the First Republic went far beyond rhetoric. In the first two years of its existence, the new regime turned to the urgent tasks of political reconstruction and consolidation. Creating a new basis of legitimacy for the state, in the form of a single party, came next in Mobutu's order of priority.
A third imperative was to expand the reach of the state in the social and political realms, a process that began in 1970 and culminated in the adoption of a new constitution in 1977. By 1976, this effort had begun to generate its own inner contradictions, thus paving the way for the resurrection of a Bula Matari system. By 1967, Mobutu had consolidated his rule and proceeded to give the country a new constitution and a single party; the new constitution was submitted to popular referendum in June 1967 and approved by 98 percent of those voting. It provided that executive powers be centralised in the president, to be head of state, head of government, commander in chief of the armed forces and the police, in charge of foreign policy; the president was to appoint and dismiss cabinet members and determine their areas of responsibility. The ministers, as heads of their respective departments, were to execute the programs and decisions of the president; the president was to have the power to appoint and dismiss the governors of the provinces and the judges of all courts, including those of the Supreme Court of Justice.
The bicameral parliament was replaced by a unicameral legislative body called the National Assembly. Governors of provinces were no longer elected by provincial assemblies but appointed by the central government; the president had the power to issue autonomous regulations on matters other than those pertaining to the domain of law, without prejudice to other provisions of the constitution. Under certain conditions, the president was empowered to govern by executive order, which carried the force of law, but the most far-reaching change was the creation of the Popular Movement of the Revolution on 17 April 1967, marking the emergence of "the nation politically organised". Rather than being the emanation of the state, the state was henceforth defined as the emanation of the party. Thus, in October 1967 party and administrative responsibilities were merged into a single framework, thereby automatically extending the role of the party to all administrative organs at the central and provincial levels, as well as to the trade unions, youth movements, student organisations.
Every seven years, the MPR elected a president who began a seven-year term as president of the republic. Every five years, a single list of MPR candidates was ret
Joseph William Frazier, nicknamed "Smokin' Joe", was an American professional boxer who competed from 1965 to 1981. He reigned as the undisputed heavyweight champion from 1970 to 1973, as an amateur won a gold medal at the 1964 Summer Olympics. Frazier was known for his sheer strength, formidable punching power, relentless pressure fighting style. Frazier emerged as the top contender in the late 1960s, defeating opponents that included Jerry Quarry, Oscar Bonavena, Buster Mathis, Eddie Machen, Doug Jones, George Chuvalo, Jimmy Ellis en route to becoming undisputed heavyweight champion in 1970, followed up by defeating Muhammad Ali by unanimous decision in the anticipated Fight of the Century in 1971. Two years Frazier lost his title when he was defeated by George Foreman, he fought on, losing a rematch to Ali and beating Quarry and Ellis again. Frazier's last world title challenge came in 1975, but he was beaten by Ali in their brutal rubber match, the Thrilla in Manila, he retired in 1976 following a second loss to Foreman.
He made a comeback in 1981. The International Boxing Research Organization rates Frazier among the ten greatest heavyweights of all time; the Ring magazine named him Fighter of the Year in 1967, 1970 and 1971, while the Boxing Writers Association of America named him Fighter of the Year in 1969, 1971 and 1975. In 1999, The Ring magazine ranked him the eighth greatest heavyweight. BoxRec ranks him as the 18th greatest heavyweight of all time, he is the World Boxing Hall of Fame. Frazier's style was compared to that of Henry Armstrong and Rocky Marciano, dependent on bobbing and relentless pressure to wear down his opponents, his best known punch was a powerful left hook. In his career he lost to only two fighters, both former Olympic and world heavyweight champions: twice to Muhammad Ali, twice to George Foreman. After retiring, Frazier made cameo appearances in several Hollywood movies, two episodes of The Simpsons, his son Marvis became a boxer—trained by Frazier himself—but was unable to match his father's success.
His daughter Jackie Frazier-Lyde boxed professionally. Frazier continued to train fighters in his gym in Philadelphia, his attitude towards Ali in life was characterized by bitterness and contempt, interspersed with brief reconciliations. Frazier was admitted to hospice care, he died of complications from the disease on November 7, 2011. Joe Frazier was the 12th child born to Dolly Rubin in Beaufort, South Carolina, he was raised in a rural community of Beaufort called Laurel Bay. Frazier said he was always close to his father, who carried him when he was a toddler "over the 10 acres of farmland" the Fraziers worked as sharecroppers "to the still where he made his bootleg corn liquor, into town on Saturdays to buy the necessities that a family of 10 needed." Young Frazier was affectionately called "Billie Boy."Rubin Frazier had his left hand burned and part of his forearm amputated in a tractor accident the year his son was born. Rubin Frazier and his wife Dolly had been in their car when Arthur Smith, drunk, passed by and made a move for Dolly but was rebuffed.
Stefan Gallucci, a local barkeep, recounted the experience. When the Fraziers drove away Smith fired at them several times, hitting Dolly in the foot and Rubin several times in his arm. Smith did not stay long. Dolly Frazier said, "If you were a good workman, the white man took you out of jail and kept you busy on the farm."Frazier's parents worked their farm with two mules, named Buck and Jenny. The farmland was what country people called "white dirt, another way of saying it isn't worth a damn." They could not grow peas or corn on only cotton and watermelons. In the early 1950s, Frazier's father bought a white television; the family and others nearby came to watch. Frazier's mother sold drinks for a quarter as they watched boxers like Sugar Ray Robinson, Rocky Marciano, Willie Pep and Rocky Graziano. One night Frazier's Uncle Israel noticed. "That boy there...that boy is gonna be another Joe Louis" he remarked. The words made an impression on Joe, his classmates at school would give him a sandwich or a quarter to walk with them at final bell so that bullies would not bother them.
Frazier said, "Any ` scamboogah' would soon regret it. The day after his Uncle's comment, Frazier filled old burlap sack with rags, corncobs, a brick, Spanish moss, he hung the makeshift heavybag from an oak tree in the backyard. "For the next 6, 7 years, damn near every day I'd hit that heavybag for an hour at a time. I'd wrap my hands with a necktie of my Daddy's, or a stocking of my Momma's or sister's, get to it" Joe remarked. Not long after Frazier started working, his left arm was injured while he was running from the family's 300 pound hog. One day Frazier ran away; the gate to the pigpen was open and the hog chased him. Frazier hit his left arm on a brick, his arm was torn badly. Joe was never able to keep it straight again. By the time Frazier was 15 years old, he was working on a farm for a family named Bellamy, they were both white men: Mac, the younger of the two and more easy going, Jim, a little rougher and somewhat backward. One day a little black boy of about 1
Marvin Hagler vs. Thomas Hearns
Marvelous Marvin Hagler vs. Thomas Hearns, was a world middleweight championship boxing match between undisputed champion Marvin Hagler and challenger Thomas Hearns, the world junior middleweight champion, who had gone up in weight for the bout. Won by Hagler by third round knockout, the fight is considered by many to be among the finest boxing matches in history, due to its constant action and violent back-and-forth exchanges. By 1985, "Marvelous" Marvin Hagler had been the undisputed champion of the middleweight division since September 27, 1980, after having been regarded as the No. 1 challenger for much of the late 1970s. His first two shots at the world middleweight title resulted in controversy: the first was an unpopular draw against then-champion Vito Antuofermo in 1979, the second was a three-round technical knockout of Alan Minter, in London, which led to a riot by Minter's fans; the hard road to the middleweight championship, may have helped motivate Hagler to remain dominant during his reign.
Hagler was renowned for his conditioning and durability, suffering only one official knockdown in his career, against Juan Domingo Roldan, an incident Hagler always insisted should have been ruled a slip. By the time he fought Thomas Hearns, he had defended the title ten times, winning all but one by knockout. Hagler was approaching the middleweight record of 14 title defenses, held by Carlos Monzón; when Hagler vs. Hearns took place, Hearns had moved up from the welterweight to the junior middleweight to the middleweight division. Hearns was regarded as one of the hardest punchers of all time, winning 30 of his first 32 bouts by knockout. In Hearns's first title shot in 1980, he scored a spectacular second-round knockout over WBA champion Pipino Cuevas. Hearns defended that title three times before meeting Sugar Ray Leonard in a thrilling fight dubbed "The Showdown." Hearns lost by technical knockout in the 14th round despite leading on all three scorecards. He successfully campaigned at junior middleweight, winning the WBC title from Wilfred Benítez, defeating Roberto Durán.
Hearns defeated several middleweights during this period, including Marcos Geraldo by first-round knockout. Geraldo had gone the distance against both Hagler. Given the pair's renown punching power and the way both men had won their respective fights coming into the bout, it garnered significant media attention and fan interest around the world, it was held at the Caesars Palace hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada on April 15, 1985. In the United States and Puerto Rico, it was broadcast by HBO with Barry Tompkins, Sugar Ray Leonard and Larry Merchant, while Curt Gowdy served as host. Al Michaels and Al Bernstein acted as commentators for the closed circuit television for Top Rank. In the UK the fight was shown on ITV with Donald Curry commentating. Hearns received a massage before the fight, much to the chagrin of his trainer Emanuel Steward. In HBO's Legendary Nights: The Tale of Hagler-Hearns, Steward stated that he felt the massage weakened Hearns' legs during the fight and led him to adopt a more aggressive approach than he would have.
Hagler a slow starter, stormed Hearns from the opening bell pinning him to the ropes. Hearns threw his devastating right hand to Hagler's chin, stunning Hagler for a moment before Hagler was able to tie him up in a clinch. Seconds however, the two were trading power punches, with Hagler trying to get inside and to pin Hearns to the ropes again. In the process, he succeeded in stunning Hearns with a hard left hand. Hearns tied up Hagler again and tried to slow the pace by boxing rather than trading power punches with Hagler, still the aggressor; this lasted for only a moment, however. Before long the two once again started to trade power punches; the slugfest continued for the better part of the next two and a half minutes as both fighters traded heavy blows with little regard for defense or pacing. Hagler developed a cut on his forehead but didn't slow as he pinned Hearns to the ropes and meted out more punishment hurting Hearns at the end of the round. Sportscaster Barry Tompkins, doing the blow-by-blow commentary for HBO's broadcast of the fight, yelled out, "This is still only the first round!" as the fighters traded heavy shots at round's end.
Al Bernstein remarked, "Perhaps one of the best opening rounds in middleweight history!" It is considered by The Ring magazine to be the greatest round in boxing history, it won round of the year honors for 1985. In a subsequent HBO broadcast featuring both Hagler and Hearns in studio commenting on the fight, Hearns revealed, "that first round took everything I had, man." When asked in the ring after the bout if he was hurt by Hearns' first right hand, a blow that caused him to step back and fall into a clinch, Hagler commented, "He tried to put the bomb on me.... He can punch...." The scorecards were split with Reno judge Herb Santos scoring the round 10-9 for Hagler, along with U. K judge Harry Gibbs while Dick Young of California had Hearns ahead 10-9, it was described as a war zone for both fighters. By the beginning of the second round, it looked as though Hearns had no legs under him, as he slowed the pace by boxing Hagler. Hearns stumbled several times as he attempted to move around the ring and change direction, prompting HBO commentator Sugar Ray Leonard to note, "I don't like the way Tommy's moving...a little rubbery-legged."
In the studio broadcast of the fight, Hea
Tokyo Tokyo Metropolis, one of the 47 prefectures of Japan, has served as the Japanese capital since 1869. As of 2018, the Greater Tokyo Area ranked as the most populous metropolitan area in the world; the urban area houses the seat of the Emperor of Japan, of the Japanese government and of the National Diet. Tokyo forms part of the Kantō region on the southeastern side of Japan's main island and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands. Tokyo was named Edo when Shōgun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters in 1603, it became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from Kyoto in 1868. Tokyo Metropolis formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture and the city of Tokyo. Tokyo is referred to as a city but is known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo; the 23 Special Wards of Tokyo were Tokyo City. On July 1, 1943, it merged with Tokyo Prefecture and became Tokyo Metropolis with an additional 26 municipalities in the western part of the prefecture, the Izu islands and Ogasawara islands south of Tokyo.
The population of the special wards is over 9 million people, with the total population of Tokyo Metropolis exceeding 13.8 million. The prefecture is part of the world's most populous metropolitan area called the Greater Tokyo Area with over 38 million people and the world's largest urban agglomeration economy; as of 2011, Tokyo hosted 51 of the Fortune Global 500 companies, the highest number of any city in the world at that time. Tokyo ranked third in the International Financial Centres Development Index; the city is home to various television networks such as Fuji TV, Tokyo MX, TV Tokyo, TV Asahi, Nippon Television, NHK and the Tokyo Broadcasting System. Tokyo third in the Global Cities Index; the GaWC's 2018 inventory classified Tokyo as an alpha+ world city – and as of 2014 TripAdvisor's World City Survey ranked Tokyo first in its "Best overall experience" category. As of 2018 Tokyo ranked as the 2nd-most expensive city for expatriates, according to the Mercer consulting firm, and the world's 11th-most expensive city according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's cost-of-living survey.
In 2015, Tokyo was named the Most Liveable City in the world by the magazine Monocle. The Michelin Guide has awarded Tokyo by far the most Michelin stars of any city in the world. Tokyo was ranked first out of all sixty cities in the 2017 Safe Cities Index; the QS Best Student Cities ranked Tokyo as the 3rd-best city in the world to be a university student in 2016 and 2nd in 2018. Tokyo hosted the 1964 Summer Olympics, the 1979 G-7 summit, the 1986 G-7 summit, the 1993 G-7 summit, will host the 2019 Rugby World Cup, the 2020 Summer Olympics and the 2020 Summer Paralympics. Tokyo was known as Edo, which means "estuary", its name was changed to Tokyo when it became the imperial capital with the arrival of Emperor Meiji in 1868, in line with the East Asian tradition of including the word capital in the name of the capital city. During the early Meiji period, the city was called "Tōkei", an alternative pronunciation for the same characters representing "Tokyo", making it a kanji homograph; some surviving official English documents use the spelling "Tokei".
The name Tokyo was first suggested in 1813 in the book Kondō Hisaku, written by Satō Nobuhiro. When Ōkubo Toshimichi proposed the renaming to the government during the Meiji Restoration, according to Oda Kanshi, he got the idea from that book. Tokyo was a small fishing village named Edo, in what was part of the old Musashi Province. Edo was first fortified in the late twelfth century. In 1457, Ōta Dōkan built Edo Castle. In 1590, Tokugawa Ieyasu was transferred from Mikawa Province to Kantō region; when he became shōgun in 1603, Edo became the center of his ruling. During the subsequent Edo period, Edo grew into one of the largest cities in the world with a population topping one million by the 18th century, but Edo was Tokugawa's home and was not capital of Japan. The Emperor himself lived in Kyoto from 794 to 1868 as capital of Japan. During the Edo era, the city enjoyed a prolonged period of peace known as the Pax Tokugawa, in the presence of such peace, Edo adopted a stringent policy of seclusion, which helped to perpetuate the lack of any serious military threat to the city.
The absence of war-inflicted devastation allowed Edo to devote the majority of its resources to rebuilding in the wake of the consistent fires and other devastating natural disasters that plagued the city. However, this prolonged period of seclusion came to an end with the arrival of American Commodore Matthew C. Perry in 1853. Commodore Perry forced the opening of the ports of Shimoda and Hakodate, leading to an increase in the demand for new foreign goods and subsequently a severe rise in inflation. Social unrest mounted in the wake of these higher prices and culminated in widespread rebellions and demonstrations in the form of the "smashing" of rice establishments. Meanwhile, supporters of the Meiji Emperor leveraged the disruption that t