5"/38 caliber gun
The Mark 12 5/38 caliber gun was a US naval gun. The gun was installed into Single Purpose and Dual Purpose mounts used primarily by the US Navy, the 38 caliber barrel was a mid-length compromise between the previous United States standard 5/51 low-angle gun and 5/25 anti-aircraft gun. The increased barrel length provided greatly improved performance in both anti-aircraft and anti-surface roles compared to the 5/25 gun, except for the barrel length and the use of semi-fixed ammunition, the 5/38 gun was derived from the 5/25 gun. Both weapons had power ramming, which enabled rapid fire at high angles against aircraft, the 5/38 entered service on USS Farragut, commissioned in 1934. The base ring mount, which improved the rate of fire, entered service on USS Gridley. Even this advanced system required nearly 100 rounds of ammunition expenditure per aircraft kill, the planes were normally killed by shell fragments and not direct hits, barrage fire was used, with many guns firing in the air at the same time.
Base ring mounts with integral hoists had a rate of fire of 15 rounds per minute per barrel, however. On pedestal and other mounts lacking integral hoists,12 to 15 rounds per minute was the rate of fire, useful life expectancy was 4600 effective full charges per barrel. The 5/38 cal gun was mounted on a large number of US Navy ships in the World War II era. It was backfitted to many of the World War I-era battleships during their wartime refits and it has left active US Navy service, but it is still on mothballed ships of the United States Navy reserve fleets. It is used by a number of nations who bought or were given US Navy surplus ships, each mount carries one or two Mk 12 5/38cal Gun Assemblies. The gun assembly shown is used in single mounts, and it is the gun in twin mounts. It is loaded from the left side, the left gun in twin mounts is the mirror image of the right gun, and it is loaded from the right side. The Mk12 gun assembly weighs 3,990 lb, the major Mk12 Gun Assembly characteristics are,158 Semi-automatic During recoil, some of the recoil energy is stored in the counter-recoil system.
That stored energy is used during counter-recoil to prepare the gun for the next round, the firing pin is cocked, the breech is opened, the spent powder case is ejected, and the bore is air cleaned. Hand loaded A Projectile-Man and a Powder-Man are stationed at each gun assembly and their job is to move the round, consisting of a projectile and a powder case, from the hoists to the rammer tray, and start the ram cycle. The hydraulically driven Rammer Spade, called the Power Spade in that picture, is at the back of the Rammer Tray, if the multiple names of the Spade is confusing, look at this footnote. Vertical sliding-wedge breech block The breech block closes the chamber behind the powder case and it holds the firing pin assembly
Balclutha, known as Star of Alaska, Pacific Queen, or Sailing Ship Balclutha, is a steel-hulled full rigged ship that was built in 1886. She is the square rigged ship left in the San Francisco Bay area and is representative of several different commercial ventures, including lumber, salmon. She is a U. S. National Historic Landmark and is preserved at the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park in San Francisco. She was added to the National Register of Historic Places on 7 November 1976, Balclutha was built in 1886 by Charles Connell and Company of Scotstoun in Glasgow, for Robert McMillan, of Dumbarton, Scotland. Designed as a trader, Balclutha rounded Cape Horn 17 times in thirteen years. During this period she carried cargoes such as wine, case oil, and coal from Europe and these included Chile for nitrate and New Zealand for wool, Burma for rice, San Francisco for grain, and the Pacific Northwest for timber. In 1899 Balclutha transferred to the registry of Hawaii, and traded timber from the Pacific Northwest to Australia, in 1902 Balclutha was chartered to the Alaska Packers Association.
After having struck a reef off of Sitkinak Island near Kodiak Island on May 16,1904, for this trade she carried over 200 crew and passengers, as compared to the 26-man crew she carried as the Balclutha. In 1911 the poop deck was extended to the main mast to accommodate Italian and Scandinavian workers and this expansion is called the shelter deck. In the tween deck, bunks for Chinese workers were built and her last voyage in this trade was in 1930, when she was laid up after her return home. In 1933, Star of Alaska was renamed Pacific Queen by her new owner Frank Kissinger, in this guise she appeared in the film Mutiny on the Bounty starring Clark Gable and Charles Laughton. She eked out an existence as a ship, gradually deteriorating. In 1954, Pacific Queen was acquired by the San Francisco Maritime Museum, in 1985 she was designated a National Historic Landmark. In 1988, she was moved to her present mooring at Hyde Street Pier of the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park and she is host to a monthly Chantey Sing in the shelter deck 8pm to midnight on the first Saturday of every month.
List of large sailing vessels National Park Service, archived from the original on 2005-02-05. Retrieved 2006-04-06. com Comedian Jonathan Winters Detained In San Francisco
James Craig (barque)
James Craig is a three-masted, iron-hulled barque restored and sailed by the Sydney Heritage Fleet, Australia. Built in 1874 in Sunderland, England, by Bartram and she was employed carrying cargo around the world, and rounded Cape Horn 23 times in 26 years. In 1900 she was acquired by Mr J J Craig, renamed James Craig in 1905, unable to compete profitably with freight cargo, in years James Craig was used as a collier. Like many other sailing ships of her vintage, she fell victim to the advance of steamships, in 1932 she was sunk by fishermen who blasted a 3-metre hole in her stern. Restoration of James Craig began in 1972, when volunteers from the Lady Hopetoun and Port Jackson Marine Steam Museum refloated her, brought back to Sydney under tow in 1981, her hull was placed on a submersible pontoon to allow work on the hull restoration to proceed. Over twenty-five years, the vessel was restored, repaired by both paid craftspeople and volunteers and relaunched in 1997, in 2001 restoration work was completed and she now goes to sea again.
A DVD on her restoration has been produced and available from the Sydney Heritage Fleet, James Craig is currently berthed at Wharf 7 of Darling Harbour, near the Australian National Maritime Museum. She is open to the public, and takes passengers out sailing on Sydney Harbour and she is crewed and maintained by volunteers from the Sydney Heritage Fleet. The ship has now made historic return voyages to Hobart and to Port Philip in 2006 and 2008, the voyages to Hobart to coincide with the Wooden Boat Festival. In October 2013 James Craig participated in the International Fleet Review 2013 in Sydney, James Craig is of exceptional historical value in that she is one of only four 19th century barques in the world that still go regularly to sea. She sails out through the Sydney heads fortnightly, when not on voyages to Melbourne, as such she is a working link to a time when similar ships carried the bulk of global commerce in their holds. Thousands of similar ships plied the oceans in the 19th and early 20th centuries linking the old world and she is sailed in the traditional 19th Century manner entirely by volunteers from the Master to the galley crew.
Her running rigging consists of 140 lines secured to belaying pins, many of the crew know each rope by name. She achieved 11.3 knots on a voyage from Melbourne in February 2006. The James Craig, her history and restoration Jeff Toghill The James Craig story Jeff Toghill Welcome Aboard James Craig, flyer for visitors to the ship, Sydney Heritage Fleet, Sydney,2008. The James Craig restoration - archived website from the James Craig Restoration Division, Sydney Heritage Fleet, 1999–2002
The tall ship Elissa is a three-masted barque. She is currently moored in Galveston, and is one of the oldest ships sailing today, Elissa was built in Aberdeen, Scotland as a merchant vessel in a time when steamships were overtaking sailing ships. She was originally launched on October 27,1877, according to the descendants of Henry Fowler Watt, Elissas builder, she was named for the Queen of Carthage, Aeneas tragic lover in the epic poem The Aeneid. Elissa sailed under Norwegian and Swedish flags, in Norway she was known as the Fjeld of Tønsberg and her master was Captain Herman Andersen. In Sweden her name was Gustav of Gothenburg, in 1918, she was converted into a two-masted brigantine and an engine was installed. She was sold to Finland in 1930 and reconverted into a schooner, in 1959, she was sold to Greece, and successively sailed under the names Christophoros, in 1967 as Achaeos, and in 1969 as Pioneer. In 1970, she was rescued from destruction in Piraeus after being purchased for the San Francisco Maritime Museum, she languished in a salvage yard in Piraeus until she was purchased for $40,000, in 1975, by the Galveston Historical Foundation, her current owners.
In 1979, after a year in Greece having repairs done to her hull, she was prepared for an ocean tow by Captain Jim Currie of the New Orleans surveyors J. K. The restoration process continued until she was ready for tow on June 7,1979, Elissa has an iron hull, and the pin rail and bright work is made of teak. Her masts are Douglas fir from Oregon, and her 19 sails were made in Maine and she has survived numerous modifications including installation of an engine, and the incremental removal of all her rigging and masts. Elissa made her first voyage as a sailing ship in 1985, traveling to Corpus Christi. In Freeport the crew was joined by seventh grader Jerry Diegel and Betty Rusk, his history, a year later, she sailed to New York City to take part in the Statue of Libertys centennial celebrations. When shes not sailing, Elissa is moored at the Texas Seaport Museum in Galveston, public tours are available year-round-provided she is not out sailing. The ship is sailed and maintained by qualified volunteers from around the nation, in July 2011, the U. S.
Coast Guard declared Elissa to be not seaworthy. Officials at the Texas Seaport Museum in Galveston where Elissa is berthed were astonished when a Coast Guard inspection in 2011 revealed a corroded hull, the tall ship is inspected twice every five years, said John Schaumburg, museum assistant director. The 2011 inspection uncovered the worst corrosion since the ship was rebuilt in 1982. Texas Seaport Museum raised the $3 million that paid for hull replacement and other long-overdue maintenance projects, the museum replaced the 22,000 board feet of Douglas fir decking. Including building new quarter deck furniture out of high quality teak, Elissa returned to sailing once again in March 2014
Holmen is a water-bound neighbourhood in Copenhagen, occupying the former grounds of the Royal Naval Base and Dockyards. In spite of its name, deceptively in singular, Holmen is a congregation of small islands, forming a north-eastern extension of Christianshavn between Zealand and the northern tip of Amager. Since the early 1990s, the area has instead been redeveloped for use as a new district of the city. The area is characterized by a mixture of residential developments, creative businesses and educational institutions. Holmen is home to the Copenhagen Opera House which was completed in 2005, though technically a part of the central Indre By district of Copenhagen, being a cul-de-sac as districts go, the area has a somewhat quiet and remote reputation and feel to it. Frederiksholm is the area which has seen most new construction since Holmen naval base was closed, many new buildings have been built while old buildings from the areas naval past have been converted for new uses. The existence of Holmen originates in a wish to relocate the Danish Fleet from its home at Bremerholm.
Since the city was growing rapidly, it was no longer practical to have the fleet stationed in the center of the city, being built out of timber, the vessels constituted a major hazard. Furthermore, the sailors disposed of their garbage by throwing it directly into the harbor, in 1680, a plan was conceived to move the fleet out of the city. Responsibility for the plan was given to Admiral Niels Juel, from 1682-92 Christianshavns Vold was extended northwards to protect the area which had been chosen for the fleet. The extension had seven bastions, named for members of the Royal Family, in Carls and Wilhems Bastion, black powder depots were constructed. Built in 1688 and 1690, they are the oldest structures at Holmen, the northernmost bastion was Charlotte Amalies Bastion, and north of this two cannon batteries were established, Batteriet Quintus and Batteriet Neptunus. The latters name came from the ship which was the foundation for the battery. This battery was renamed to Christiani Sixti Batteri, or Christian VIs Battery.
Today it is known as Batteriet Sixtus or just Sixtus, the sinking of ships continued, loaded with mud from the harbor and trash from Copenhagens streets. In certain streets, there could be more than one metre of trash and this efforts gradually formed an island, which was given the name Nyholm. It was to this island that the shipyard was relocated. The first ship which was set to sea from this shipyard was the first Dannebrog in 1692, the construction of all large ships were moved to Nyholm, and at Bremerholm, now called Gammelholm, only smaller vessels were built
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
The Harpoon is an all-weather, over-the-horizon, anti-ship missile system and manufactured by McDonnell Douglas. In 2004, Boeing delivered the 7, 000th Harpoon unit since the introduction in 1977. The missile system has further developed into a land-strike weapon. The regular Harpoon uses active homing, and a low-level. The missiles launch platforms include, Fixed-wing aircraft Surface ships Submarines, Coastal defense batteries, in 1965 the United States Navy began studies for a missile in the 45 kilometres range class for use against surfaced submarines. The name Harpoon was assigned to the project, Harpoon was primarily developed for use on US Navy warships such as the Ticonderoga-class cruiser as their principal anti-ship weapon system. The Harpoon was purchased by many American allies, including Pakistan, Singapore, South Korea, the United Arab Emirates and most NATO countries. The Royal Australian Air Force is capable of firing AGM-84 series missiles from its F/A-18F Super Hornets, F/A-18A/B Hornets, and AP-3C Orion aircraft, the Royal Australian Navy deploys the Harpoon on major surface combatants and in the Collins-class submarines.
The Spanish Air Force and the Chilean Navy are AGM-84D customers, and they deploy the missiles on ships, and F/A-18s, F-16s. The British Royal Navy deploys the Harpoon on several types of surface ship, the Royal Canadian Navy carries Harpoon missiles on its Halifax-class frigates. The Republic of Singapore Air Force operates five modified Fokker 50 Maritime Patrol Aircraft which are fitted with the sensors needed to fire the Harpoon missile, the Pakistani Navy carries the Harpoon missile on its frigates and P-3C Orions. The Turkish Navy carries Harpoons on surface warships and Type 209 submarines, the Turkish Air Force will be armed with the SLAM-ER. S. Navy Knox-class frigates and the four former USN Kidd-class destroyers which have sold to Taiwan. The two Zwaardvis/Hai Lung submarines and 12 P-3C Orion aircraft can use the missile. The Block 1 missiles were designated AGM/RGM/UGM-84A in US service and UGM-84B in the UK, Block 1B standard missiles were designated AGM/RGM/UGM-84C, Block 1C missiles were designated AGM/RGM/UGM-84D.
This version featured a fuel tank and re-attack capability, but was not produced in large numbers because its intended mission was considered to be unlikely following the events of 1991–92. Block 1D missiles were designated RGM/AGM-84F, Block 1G missiles AGM/RGM/UGM-84G, the original SLAM-ER missiles were designated AGM-84H and ones the AGM-84K. Block 1J was a proposal for an upgrade, AGM/RGM/UGM-84J Harpoon
A museum ship, called a memorial ship, is a ship that has been preserved and converted into a museum open to the public for educational or memorial purposes. Some are used for training and recruitment purposes, mostly for the number of museum ships that are still operational. Many, if not most, museum ships are associated with a maritime museum, only a few survive, sometimes because of historical significance, but more often due to luck and circumstance. The restoration and maintenance of museum ships presents problems for historians who are asked for advice, for instance, the rigging of sailing ships has almost never survived, and so the rigging plan must be reconstructed from various sources. Studying the ships allows historians to analyze how life on and operation of the ships took place, numerous scientific papers have been written on ship restoration and maintenance, and international conferences are held discussing the latest developments. Another consideration is the distinction between a museum ship, and a ship replica.
As repairs accumulate over time and less of the ship is of the materials. Visitors without historical background are often unable to distinguish between a historical museum ship and a ship replica, which may serve solely as a tourist attraction. Typically the visitor enters via gangplank, wanders around on the deck, goes below, usually using the original stairways, giving a sense of how the crew got around. The interior features restored but inactivated equipment, enhanced with mementos including old photographs, explanatory displays, pages from the logs, menus. Some add recorded sound effects, audio tours or video displays to enhance the experience, in some cases, the ships radio room has been brought back into use, with volunteers operating amateur radio equipment. Often, the callsign assigned is a variation on the identification of the ship. For example, the submarine USS Cobia, which had the call NBQV, is now on the air as NB9QV. The World War II submarine USS Pampanito, berthed at the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park, had the wartime call NJVT and is now on the air as NJ6VT, in other cases, such as the USS Missouri, a distinctive call is used.
This radio work not only helps restore part of the vessel, a number of the larger museum ships have begun to offer hosting for weddings, other events, and sleepovers, and on a few ships still seaworthy, cruises. In the United States, this includes the USS Constitutions annual turnaround, a place on the deck is by invitation or lottery only, and highly prized. Many consider the appeal of an interesting old vessel on the city waterfront strong enough that any port city should showcase one or more museum ships. This may even include building a ship at great expense
County of Peebles (ship)
County of Peebles was the worlds first four-masted, iron-hulled full-rigged ship, built in 1875 by Barclay Curle Shipbuilders in Glasgow, Scotland for the shipping firm R & J Craig of Glasgow. Her rig was in the Scottish style i. e. Royal sails above double top-sails, R & J Craig ordered a further eleven similar four-masted full-rigged ships for the thriving Indian jute trade, forming what was referred to as the Scottish East India Line. In 1898, County of Peebles was sold to the Chilean Navy, renamed Muñoz Gamero, she was used as a coal hulk at Punta Arenas on the Strait of Magellan. In the mid-1960s she was beached as a breakwater in Punta Arenas, where she lies today with cut-down masts
Coronet, a wooden-hull schooner yacht built in 1885, is one of the oldest and largest schooner yachts in the world. The 131-foot schooner Coronet was designed by William Townsend and built for Rufus T. Bush by the C. & R. Poillon shipyard in Brooklyn, Bush put forth a $10,000 challenge against any other yacht for a transatlantic race. After winning the 3, 000-mile race and the $10,000 purse, Rufus T. Bush decided to sell Coronet and his son Irving T. Bush circumnavigated the globe on Coronet in 1888. Coronet was the first registered yacht to cross Cape Horn from East to West, after crossing the Pacific Ocean and stopping in Hawaii, Coronet made port in China, Calcutta and elsewhere. Coronet was sold before Rufuss death in 1890 The vessel passed through six different owners by 1905, the Coronet circumnavigated the globe several times and was used for a Japanese-American scientific excursion during an eclipse. The Kingdom, an organization founded by Frank Sandford, purchased the ship in 1905 for $10,000 and took it around the world on prayer missions.
Coronet took a poorly planned missionary voyage to Africa in 1911 which resulted in six persons on board dying of scurvy, after the voyage, The Kingdom kept the yacht moored at Portland, Maine as well as Gloucester and owned her until 1995. The International Yacht Restoration School, in Newport, Rhode Island acquired the boat in the 1995, IYRS added Coronet to the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. National Register of Historic Places listings in Newport County, Rhode Island Coronets History with The Kingdom Page that details Coronets ongoing restoration Historic American Engineering Record No, rI-59, Schooner Yacht Coronet, International Yacht Restoration School, Thames Street, Newport County, RI
Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. It is usually abbreviated to Adm or ADM, in the Commonwealth and the U. S. a full admiral is equivalent to a full general in the army, and is above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet. In NATO, admirals have a code of OF-9 as a four-star rank. The word admiral in Middle English comes from Anglo-French amiral, from Medieval Latin admiralis and these themselves come from Arabic amīr, or amīr al-, commander of, as in amīr al-baḥr, commander of the sea. The term was in use for the Greco-Arab naval leaders of Norman Sicily, the Norman Roger II of Sicily, employed a Greek Christian known as George of Antioch, who previously had served as a naval commander for several North African Muslim rulers. Roger styled George in Abbasid fashion as Amir of Amirs, i. e. Commander of Commanders, the Sicilians and Genoese took the first two parts of the term and used them as one word, from their Aragon opponents. The French and Spanish gave their sea commanders similar titles while in Portuguese the word changed to almirante, the word admiral has today come to be almost exclusively associated with the highest naval rank in most of the worlds navies, equivalent to the army rank of general.
However, this wasnt always the case, for example, in some European countries prior to the end of World War II, admiral was the third highest naval rank after general admiral and grand admiral. The rank of admiral has been subdivided into various grades, the Royal Navy used colours to indicate seniority of its admirals until 1864, for example, Horatio Nelsons highest rank was vice admiral of the white. The generic term for these naval equivalents of army generals is flag officer, some navies have used army-type titles for them, such as the Cromwellian general at sea. Admiral is a German Navy OF-9 four-star flag officer rank, equivalent to the German Army, see Post-WWII rank is Bakurocho or Chief of Staff, Joint Staff 幕僚長 with limited function as an advisory staff to Minister of Defense, compared to Gensui during 1872–1873 and 1898–1945. Admiral of Castile was a post with a long and important history in Spain