Conservatoire national des arts et métiers
The Conservatoire national des arts et métiers is a doctoral degree-granting higher education establishment and Grande école in engineering, operated by the French government, dedicated to providing education and conducting research for the promotion of science and industry. It has a large museum of inventions accessible to the public, it was founded on 10 October 1794, during the French Revolution. It was first proposed by Abbé Henri Grégoire as a "depository for machines, tools, drawings and books in all the areas of the arts and trades"; the deserted Saint-Martin-des-Champs Priory was selected as the site of collection, which formally opened in 1802. Charged with the collection of inventions, it has since become an educational institution. At the present time, it is known as a continuing education school for adults seeking engineering and business degrees, proposing evening classes in a variety of topics; the collection of inventions is now operated by the Musée des Arts et Métiers. The original Foucault pendulum was exhibited as part of the collection, but was moved to the Panthéon in 1995 during museum renovation.
It was reinstalled in the Musée des Arts et Métiers. On 6 April 2010, the cable suspending the original pendulum bob snapped causing irreparable damage to the pendulum and to the marble flooring of the museum; the novel Foucault's Pendulum by Umberto Eco deals with this establishment, as the Foucault pendulum hung in the museum plays a great role in the storyline. The novel was published in 1989 prior to the pendulum being moved back to the Panthéon during museum reconstruction; the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers is located at 292 rue Saint Martin, in the 3rd arrondissement of Paris, in the historical area of the city named Le Marais. The Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers is a public institution of the French government, in the scientific and professional fields, with the status of "Grand Etablissement". Under the supervision of the Ministry of Higher Education, it has 3 missions: Training throughout life, it is implemented in more than 150 cities in France and abroad. Cnam's motto is "Omnes docet ubique", which means "He teaches everyone everywhere."
Since July 2010, Cnam has been organized in two distinct "Schools", each one with seven departments: Industrial Sciences and Information Technology, directed by William Dab: Chemicals, Health, Risk. Mechanical and electrotechnical systems engineering; the CNAM supports continuing education. Multidisciplinary programs. All teachings are formatted to comply with the CNAM LMD, thus respecting the European Credit Transfer System. Léon Bourgeois, Nobel Peace Prize, Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Sadi Carnot, alumnus of the École Polytechnique and of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, physicist. Paul Doumer, alumnus of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, President of the French Republic. Louis Pasteur, alumnus of the École Normale Supérieure and of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers and biologist. From 1995 to 2009, the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers hosted the weekly seminar of psychoanalyst Jacques-Alain Miller.
Jean Ferrat, alumnus of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, singer-songwriter. Abbé Grégoire, founder of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers. Jean-Baptiste Say, alumnus of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, classical economist, professor with the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers and the Collège de France. Alexandre Vandermonde, mathematician. From 1794 on, Vandermonde was member of the Conservatoire national des arts et métiers, examiner with the École polytechnique, professor with the École Normale Supérieure. Jacques de Vaucanson, famous engineer, gave his personal collection to the CNAM as well as his name to an adjacent street. Léon Vaudoyer, architecte of the CNAM building during the nineteenth century, together with the Institut de France building. Jean Prouvé, French metal worker, self-taught architect and designer, CNAM professor from 1957 to 1970. Alain Wisner Vandermonde: secret society of the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Écoles de l'an III scientifiques Michel Nusimovici, Les écoles de l'an III, 2010 Official website Official website Official website CNAM lebanon
A rector is a senior official in an educational institution, can refer to an official in either a university or a secondary school. Outside the English-speaking world the rector is the most senior official in a university, whilst in the United States the most senior official is referred to as President and in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations the most senior official is the Chancellor, whose office is ceremonial and titular; the term and office of a rector can be referred to as a rectorate. The title is used in universities in Europe, and is common in Latin American countries. It is used in Brunei, Russia, the Philippines, Indonesia and the Middle East. In the ancient universities of Scotland the office is sometimes referred to as Lord Rector, is the third most senior official, is responsible for chairing the University Court; the head of a university in Germany is called a president, rector magnificus or rectrix magnifica, as in some Belgian universities. In Dutch universities, the rector magnificus is the most publicly prominent member of the board, responsible for the scientific agenda of the university.
In the Netherlands, the rector is, not the chair of the university board. The chair has, in the most influence over the management of the University. In some countries, including Germany, the position of head teacher in secondary schools is designated as rector. In the Netherlands, the terms "rector" and "conrector" are used for high school directors; this is the case in some Maltese secondary schools. In the Scandinavian countries, the head of a university or a gymnasium is called a rektor. In Sweden and Norway, this term is used for the heads of primary schools. In Finland, the head of a primary school or secondary schools is called a rector provided the school is of sufficient size in terms of faculty and students, otherwise the title is headmaster; the head of some Finnish universities is called chancellor. In the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal's and Spain's university heads or presidents have the title; those universities whose foundation has been approved by the Pope, as e.g. the rector of the University of Coimbra, the oldest Portuguese university, is referred to as Magnífico Reitor.
The others are referred to as Excelentíssimo Senhor Reitor. In Spain, all Rectors must be addressed as Señor Rector Magnífico according to the law, but the Rector of the University of Salamanca, the oldest on the Iberian Peninsula, is styled according to academic protocol as Excelentísimo y Ilustrísimo Señor Profesor Doctor Don, Rector Magnífico de la Universidad de Salamanca. In a few "Crown lands" of the Austrian Empire, one seat in the Landtag was reserved for the rector of the capital's university, notably: Graz in Steiermark, Innsbruck in Tirol, Wien in Nieder-Österreich. Today Austrian universities are headed by a Rectorate consisting of one Rector and 3-5 additional Vizerectors; the Rector is the CEO of the university. The heads of Czech universities are called the rektor; the rector acts in the name of the university and decides the university's affairs unless prohibited by law. The rector is nominated by the University Academic Senate and appointed by the President of the Czech Republic.
The nomination must be agreed by a simple majority of all senators, while a dismissal must be agreed by at least three fifths of all senators. The vote to elect or repeal a rector is secret; the term of office is four years and a person may hold it for at most two consecutive terms. The rector appoints vice-rectors. Rectors' salaries are determined directly by the Minister of Education. Among the most important rectors of Czech universities were reformer Jan Hus, physician Jan Jesenius and representative of Enlightenment Josef Vratislav Monse. Jiřina Popelová became the first female Rector in 1950; the rectors are addressed "Your Magnificence Rector". In Danish, rektor is the title used in referring to the heads of universities, schools of commerce and construction, etc. Rektor may be used for the head of any educational institution above the primary school level, where the head is referred to as a'skoleinspektør'. In universities, the second-ranked official of governance is known as prorektor. Most English universities are formally headed by "chancellors".
In a few colleges, the equivalent person is called a "president", "provost", or "warden". At two Oxford colleges, Lincoln College and Exeter College, the head is called "rector". At Oxford and Cambridge, the university's overall head is called "chancellor", but this is chiefly a ceremonial position while the academic head of each university is the "vice-chancellor". At St Chad's College, one of the two so-called "recognised colleges" of the University of Durham, there is a "rector" as titular head while the academic head is the "principal"; the University of London has a chancellor (a
Arts et Métiers ParisTech
Arts et Métiers ParisTech is a French engineering and research graduate school. It is a general engineering school recognized for leading French higher education in the fields of mechanics and industrialization. Founded in 1780, it is among the oldest French institutions and is one of the most prestigious engineering schools in France; the school has trained 85,000 engineers since its foundation by François Alexandre Frédéric, duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt. It is a "Public Scientific and Professional Institution" under the authority of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research and has the special status of Grand établissement; the École nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers, which adopted the brand name "Arts et Mėtiers ParisTech" in 2007, was a founding member of ParisTech, héSam and France AEROTECH. Arts et Métiers ParisTech consists of eight Teaching and Research Centres and three institutes spread across the country, its students are called Gadz'Arts. The school was founded in Liancourt, Oise, by Duke of Rochefoucauld-Liancourt in 1780.
After 1800, the institution became known as the École d'Arts et Métiers. Under Napoleon's reign, it was known as the "Ecole impériale des Arts et Métiers", he intended to use the school to train "Non-commissioned officers of Industry". The empire decided to move the school to a bigger city, Compiègne, in 1799; when Napoléon Bonaparte visited the castle where the school was located, he thought that it was inappropriate for such an industrial school to occupy the place. He decided to relocate the school to Châlons-en-Champagne in 1806, where two former monasteries were made available to offer much more space. Many students and alumni enlisted in the armed forces during the World War I, it is estimated that of the 6500 gadzarts who joined the army, 1100 died the first year of the conflict. Many campuses were damaged by the war that of Châlons-sur-Marne, in the middle of the Battle of the Marne; the Lille campus was occupied by the Germans and used as a military hospital. The other campuses were closed from 1916–17 and the new Parisian campus was undamaged.
Between the wars, the rapid industrialization of Europe favoured the Gadzarts. The arms race pushed industry to hire more engineers and the gadzarts matched their needs perfectly; the other important factor was the creation of new ranks in the hierarchical working organization. The middle management and upper management positions were perfect for the gadzarts engineers who filled these positions in most industries. During World War II, the school tried to keep a certain level of activity; the only campuses to experience some difficulties were Lille and Châlons-sur-Marne: in 1939 no new students were admitted. The Cluny campus was the target of a roundup in 1943 and a large part of students and staff were deported; the death of Jacques Bonsergent left a mark on the conflict, he became a symbol of resistance to the oppressor. The second school of this kind was founded in 1804 at Beaupréau and transferred to Angers in 1815. Three decades a third school was built in Aix-en-Provence in 1843, in former barracks and monasteries.
At the dawn of the 20th century, the development of the school expanded to three new campuses. In 1891, the ancient abbey of Cluny was chosen to host the activities of the 4th school. To go hand in hand with the industrial revolution, the members of parliament decided to create a 5th campus in Lille, a city, growing; the facilities of Lille were the first ones to be built expressly for the school. The campus of Paris, a long-standing project, was built between 1906 and 1912, it became the biggest campus of the Arts et World War II delayed the school's opening. By the end of the war, the campus had over 500 students. In the middle of the "Trentes Glorieuses", the 7th campus was created near Bordeaux, in the science park of Talence; the modern buildings were operational in 1963. The latest campus established was Metz; the campus was built in the science park, close to the transportation hubs. The school wanted this campus to become an international one, being close to Belgium and Germany, its construction was motivated by partnerships with German and American universities.
Between 1990 and 2000, the 3 institutes of research were created: Chambéry in 1994, Chalons-sur-Saône in 1997 and Bastia in 2000. The school has 2 satellite campuses in Bouc-bel-Air and Laval that are under the authority of the main campuses of Aix-en-provence and Angers; these satellites are linked to the research laboratories of the school. In 1817, the school's military status was removed by royal order and the official goal of the school was set to train qualified technicians. However, in practice, the organisation remained military and the students continued to wear the uniform; this tradition continues today. In 1826, a second royal order confirmed this new status and the military organisation was removed; the students were granted the right to wear the uniform as a civil one. After a third attempt, the students gained the right to form an association of the Arts et Métiers alumni in 1847; the regional campuses were transformed into engineer training institutions in 1907. In 1963, the curriculum was modified in order to recruit new students from the Classes préparatoires.
In 1964, the first woman was enrolled at the Arts et Métiers. The school became a grande école in 1976 and received the EPSCP status in 1990. In 2007, the school created the PRES ParisTech and adopted the brand name "Arts et Métiers
École européenne de chimie, polymères et matériaux
The École européenne de chimie, polymères et matériaux of Strasbourg is a public engineering school in the city of Strasbourg, in Alsace, France. It was founded in 1948, is located on the Cronenbourg Campus of the University of Strasbourg; each year 90 students graduate from the school with a diplôme d'ingénieur. It is a National School of Engineers, part of the University of Strasbourg and a member of the Fédération Gay-Lussac, which recruits from the common polytechnic entrance examination, it is part of the Alsace Tech network of nine engineering schools in Alsace. The ECPM offers its students three specialties: polymers or materials. 1919 - Creation of the chemical institute by the professors T. Muller and H. Gault. Lectures are taught rue Goethe in Strasbourg. 1948 - Creation at the same place of the Ecole nationale supérieure de chimie by the professor H. Forestier. 1962 - The Ecole de chimie has place in new premises on the campus central de l'Esplanade. The first practical sessions from the ENSCS in analytical chemistry begin at the start of the school year 1962.
1968 - The ENSCS becomes a public organization. 1981 - The professor M. Daire introduces the European teaching program. 1986 - The ENSCS becomes Ecole Européenne des hautes études des industries chimiques de Strasbourg 1995 - The EHICS, the Ecole d'application des hauts Polymères and the Magistère matériaux de l'université de Strasbourg-I group together and form the Ecole de chimie, Polymères et Matériaux. 1998-1999 - The ECPM moves to new premises on the University's Cronenbourg campus. 2006 - Strasbourg becomes business cluster of the French chemistry. 2009 - The université Louis Pasteur and the other universities of Strasbourg are joined and form l'Université de Strasbourg 2011 - Opening of the new Classe préparatoire intégrée internationale - CHEM. I. ST. At the start of the school year 2011. → To enter the First year: - The school recruit with the «Concours Communs Polytechniques» or the DEUG. - The admission could be done by an interview with a License 3 in Chemistry or in Physics at the university, a DUT for example, in Chemistry, physical measurements optional materials or chemical engineering.
- For international students, they must have a Bachelor of an equivalent foreign degree. - After 2 years in CPI classes at Rennes, Clermont-Ferrand or in Strasbourg. → To enter the Second year, students can have access at the ECPM having an interview, with a Master M1 in Physics with a speciality in Polymers or materials. → Admission to the CP2i class in the ECPM, after the Baccalaureate, or an equivalent foreign degree for the international students. There is no competitive exam. There are interviews to evaluate the motivations with the people in charge of the Chem. I. St programme. 50 students are selected every year. There are nearly 20% international students; this class allows the students to gain admission to a school of the Fédération Gay Lussac after two years. These 2 years consist of studying engineer's trades in the domain of chemistry. There are 5 CPIs in France: Rennes, Clermont-Ferrand, Lille and Strasbourg at the ECPM The last one was opened at the start of the 2011-12 school year in Strasbourg.
The speciality of this school is that it welcomes a large number of international students, as well as that 20% of the courses are delivered in English and 10% are delivered in German. There are 50 students in each year. To gain admission to the CP2I: French students register on Admission Post-Bac and follow the steps. Students are selected on the basis of a 20-minute interview. International students submit their dossiers directly to the school. International students are selected on the basis of their academic record and an interview. General presentation of CPI-CHEM. I. ST: A strong scientific program: a major part of chemistry and maths during the 2 years with a total, for the first year, of around 700 hours of scientific lesson. We must add Lab Work of this scientific formation, with a total of 102 hours for the first year; the CPI-CHEM. I. ST base of more practical work than in an intensive foundation degree, with high-quality laboratory; the program includes group work to develop the communication, the creativity around scientists projects.
Moreover, in 2016, a "videxo" program was created. During, the "videxo" student solves a science problem on a board and in the same time someone films him to send the video to the teachers; the goal of this is to promote self-confidence and the scientist reflexion which are important qualities for the future engineer. An international program in a multicultural environment: many students with different cultures and two foreign languages to learn. At the beginning of the formation, students can participate in an English language session for one week in order to learn the fundamentals of the scientific English. Insertions travels are organised in England; the students will participate in lab work in a foreign university. Most of the time the foreign students come from China; the speciality is chosen in the second year. Students have four possibilities: Chemistry: Organic Chemistry: With this speciality, students attain a high level in synthesis and characterization of organic chemistry. Analytical Chemistry: Students are trained in techniques of analysis within the context of quality control.
Polymers: Students are trained to become fle
École nationale de l'aviation civile
The École nationale de l'aviation civile is one of the 207 schools that offers engineering degrees in France. ENAC has been classified as a Grande école by the Conférence des Grandes Écoles. Conférence des Grandes Écoles is a non-profit organisation which accredits and delivers the master's degrees of all Grandes écoles; the group of Grandes écoles in France, was founded on August 28, 1949 to provide initial and continuing education in the field of civil aviation. This university is a établissement public à caractère scientifique, culturel et professionnel and functions under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Housing, it is member of the following apart from Conférence des Grandes Écoles, University of Toulouse, Aerospace Valley and is one of the five founders of France AEROTECH. ENAC offers 30 engineering degrees in civil aviation/aeronautics; some of the most notable ones include aerospace engineering, aircraft technicians, commercial airline pilots licenses, air traffic control, flight instructors.
The university offers 3 masters of science programmes and 12 Advanced masters degrees for students with industry/relevant experience. In 1945 after the WWII, the French air transport industry witnessed a rapid growth. To ensure safety and compliance to regulations, there was a high demand for qualified staff, as well as a need to harmonise communications between various sectors of the aviation industry. ENAC was founded to address this issue. Among the founders was Max Hymans, the secretary general of civil and commercial aviation at the time, who played a prominent role in ENAC's creation. In the years following the Western Front, there was a distinct lack of unity within the civil aviation industry due to the recruitment of people with various backgrounds. In order to standardize backgrounds, many centers were created to train aeronautic personnel. Airfield commanders were trained in Orly while technical staff for air navigation were trained in Le Bourget. Wireless operators and radio technicians were trained in Orly, although under the Department of Telecommunications and Signaling, not connected directly to the world of aviation.
Technical managers were trained in engineering schools, including Arts et Métiers and the National School of Meteorology. Designers were trained by the École spéciale des travaux aéronautiques while aircrew were trained by other public or private institutions. ENAC's mission was to unify the training of all aviation personnel. Through Decree No. 49-970, the rules of the French public administration were laid down. A complete overhaul of the regulations applying to civil aviation officials was made, affecting the technical staff in particular. Several new bodies of civil servants were established: air traffic engineers, air navigation operation engineers, aerial telecommunication civil engineers, air traffic controllers, telecommunication controllers and air navigation agents; the creation of these new bodies was followed by a ministerial decision on 12 August 1948 that paved the way for the first recruitment by competitive examination. The examinations themselves were organized in October 1948.
Independently of these events, on 14 April 1948, the International Civil Aviation Organization established prerequisite conditions for air crew licensing, notably including a minimum number of flight hours for each category of aircraft pilots. Before adopting the name ENAC, the school was called a "service of education and internships" and was provided by the General secretariat for civil and commercial aviation; that contrasted with that the longstanding tradition of French civil service personnel being trained in higher education institutions called Grande écoles. Jules Moch, the Minister of Works and Tourism at the time, proposed the name: "École nationale de l'aviation marchande", a name, not chosen. ENAC was created on 28 August 1949 in Paris at the initiative of Max Hymans, Secretary General of Civil Aviation, Jules Moch. in order to train all the professionals of civil aeronautics and harmonize all the air transport stakeholders, aircrew or not, commercial or technical, including the civil services of civil aviation.
The university is located at Orly, south of Paris. René Lemaire considers ENAC as "a university of aviation safety"; this priority given to aviation safety is somehow consubstantial with ENAC, being the first reason for the training of future technicians and future airmen in a single university. As noted in a report of the Inspection générale de l'aviation civile, "It was in the minds of the creators of the university, to develop between the aircrew and the ground staff a community of ideas, reciprocal knowledge, esteem, that are essential for the teamwork required by air transport." However, it is doubtful that the "community of ideas" the author of the report wishes could be only expressed by the coexistence of different courses in the same university. Other factors work in opposite directions, including the significant disparity of durations of the training cycles. Thus, air navigation civil engineers of the branch "telecommunications" stays 30 months in the university. To realize the chemistry that, in the m
École de l'air
The École de l'Air is a military school and grande école training line officers in the French Air Force. It is located at Salon-de-Provence Air Base in France. In 1922, the École du génie of Versailles, was entrusted with the mission to train all officers and aircrew in aeronautics; the École militaire et d’application de l’Aéronautique was set up in 1925. The officer cadets from the non-commissioned officers' corps and young officers from the École Spéciale Militaire de Saint-Cyr and École Polytechnique attended training at Versailles for two years. For pilots, their training continued at Avord and Cazaux, where they trained in aerial combat and bombing. President Albert Lebrun created the École de l'Air by Presidential decree in 1933; the school's first class began training November 4, 1935. The school's motto, Faire Face is a tribute to Capitaine Georges Guynemer, a World War I fighter ace In 1937, the school moved into still-unfinished buildings in Salon, Bouches-du-Rhône; the outbreak of World War II forced the school to relocate several times from 1939 to 1945, to sites including Bordeaux and Marrakech.
It was not until 1946. The school received the Legion of Honor and the Croix de Guerre from President Vincent Auriol in 1947. Other specialized schools joined the École de l'Air, including the École du commissariat de l'Air, which trains administrative and financial officers, in 1953, the Cours Spécial de l'École de l'Air, which trains exchange cadets from French-speaking African countries, in 1973. In 1969, the École de l'Air began an exchange program with the United States Air Force Academy, for eight cadets per school each year; the school first accepted women in 1976. Since 2008, The École de l'Air proposes two mastères spécialisés courses in aviation safety aircraft airworthiness and aerospace project management in partnership with the École nationale de l'aviation civile and the Institut Supérieur de l'Aéronautique et de l'Espace. In 2015, The École de l'air launched a MOOC titled Compréhension de l’Arme Aérienne on France Université Numérique's platform. Stéphane Abrial, French General, the previous Commander of Allied Command Transformation Caroline Aigle, first woman fighter pilot in the French Air Force Patrick Baudry, retired Lieutenant Colonel in the French Air Force and a former CNES astronaut Jean-Loup Chrétien, former CNES spationaut Olivier Dassault, French politician serving as a deputy in the French National Assembly Léopold Eyharts, ESA astronaut Jean-Pierre Haigneré, French Air Force officer and a former CNES spationaut Fleury Marius, French aviator Francis Pollet, Director of the Institut Polytechnique des Sciences Avancées Jacques Rosay, Vice President Chief Test Pilot of the aircraft manufacturer Airbus Michel Tognini, French test pilot, brigadier general in the French Air Force, a former CNES and ESA astronaut
Liège is a major Walloon city and municipality and the capital of the Belgian province of Liège. The city is situated in the valley of the Meuse, in the east of Belgium, not far from borders with the Netherlands and with Germany. At Liège, the Meuse meets the River Ourthe; the city is part of the former industrial backbone of Wallonia. It still is the principal cultural centre of the region; the Liège municipality includes the former communes of Angleur, Bressoux, Chênée, Grivegnée, Jupille-sur-Meuse and Wandre. In November 2012, Liège had 198,280 inhabitants; the metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,879 km2 and had a total population of 749,110 on 1 January 2008. This includes a total of 52 municipalities, among others and Seraing. Liège ranks as the third most populous urban area in Belgium, after Brussels and Antwerp, the fourth municipality after Antwerp and Charleroi; the name is Germanic in origin and is reconstructible as *liudik-, from the Germanic word *liudiz "people", found in for example Dutch lui, German Leute, Old English lēod and Icelandic lýður.
It is found in Lithuanian as liaudis, in Russian as liudi, in Latin as Leodicum or Leodium, in Middle Dutch as ludic or ludeke. Until 17 September 1946, the city's name was written Liége, with the acute accent instead of a grave accent. In French, Liège is associated with the epithet la cité ardente; this term, which emerged around 1905 referred to the city's history of rebellions against Burgundian rule, but was appropriated to refer to its economic dynamism during the Industrial Revolution. Although settlements existed in Roman times, the first references to Liège are from 558, when it was known as Vicus Leudicus. Around 705, Saint Lambert of Maastricht is credited with completing the Christianization of the region, indicating that up to the early 8th century the religious practices of antiquity had survived in some form. Christian conversion may still not have been quite universal, since Lambert was murdered in Liège and thereafter regarded as a martyr for his faith. To enshrine St. Lambert's relics, his successor, built a basilica near the bishop's residence which became the true nucleus of the city.
A few centuries the city became the capital of a prince-bishopric, which lasted from 985 till 1794. The first prince-bishop, transformed the city into a major intellectual and ecclesiastical centre, which maintained its cultural importance during the Middle Ages. Pope Clement VI recruited several musicians from Liège to perform in the Papal court at Avignon, thereby sanctioning the practice of polyphony in the religious realm; the city was renowned for its many churches, the oldest of which, St Martin's, dates from 682. Although nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire, in practice it possessed a large degree of independence; the strategic position of Liège has made it a frequent target of armies and insurgencies over the centuries. It was fortified early on with a castle on the steep hill. During this medieval period, three women from the Liège region made significant contributions to Christian spirituality: Elizabeth Spaakbeek, Christina the Astonishing, Marie of Oignies. In 1345, the citizens of Liège rebelled against Prince-Bishop Engelbert III de la Marck, their ruler at the time, defeated him in battle near the city.
Shortly after, a unique political system formed in Liège, whereby the city's 32 guilds shared sole political control of the municipal government. Each person on the register of each guild was eligible to participate, each guild's voice was equal, making it the most democratic system that the Low Countries had known; the system spread to Utrecht, left a democratic spirit in Liège that survived the Middle Ages. At the end of the Liège Wars, a rebellion against rule from Burgundy that figured prominently in the plot of Sir Walter Scott's 1823 novel Quentin Durward, Duke Charles the Bold of Burgundy, witnessed by King Louis XI of France and destroyed the city in 1468, after a bitter siege, ended with a successful surprise attack; the Prince-Bishopric of Liège was technically part of the Holy Roman Empire which, after 1477, came under the rule of the Habsburgs. The reign of prince-bishop Erard de la Marck coincides with the dawn of the Renaissance. During the Counter-Reformation, the diocese of Liège was split and progressively lost its role as a regional power.
In the 17th century, many prince-bishops came from the royal house of Wittelsbach. They ruled over other bishoprics in the northwest of the Holy Roman Empire as well. In 1636, during the Thirty Years' War, the city was besieged by Imperial forces under Johann von Werth from April to July; the army consisting of mercenaries and viciously plundered the surrounding bishopric during the siege. The Duke of Marlborough captured the city from the Bavarian prince-bishop and his French allies in 1704 during the War of the Spanish Succession. In the middle of the eighteenth century the ideas of the French Encyclopédistes began to gain popularity in the region. Bishop de Velbruck, encouraged their propagation, thus prepared the way for the Liège Revolution which started in the episcopal city on 18 August 1789 and led to the creation of the Republic of Liège before it was invaded by counter-revolutionary forces of the Habsbu