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HFE hereditary haemochromatosis

Hereditary haemochromatosis is a genetic disorder characterized by excessive intestinal absorption of dietary iron, resulting in a pathological increase in total body iron stores. Humans, like most animals, have no means to excrete excess iron. Excess iron accumulates in tissues and organs, disrupting their normal function; the most susceptible organs include the liver, adrenal glands, skin, gonads and the pancreas. The hereditary form of the disease is most common among those of Northern European ancestry, in particular those of Celtic descent; the disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. Most the parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but do not show signs and symptoms of the condition. Haemochromatosis is protean in its manifestations, i.e. presenting with signs or symptoms suggestive of other diagnoses that affect specific organ systems. Many of the signs and symptoms below are uncommon, most patients with the hereditary form of haemochromatosis do not show any overt signs of disease nor do they suffer premature morbidity, if they are diagnosed early, but more than not, diagnosis occurs in the autopsy Presently, the classic triad of cirrhosis, bronze skin, diabetes is less common because of earlier diagnosis.

The more common clinical manifestations include: Fatigue Malaise Joint and bone pain Liver cirrhosis: Liver disease is always preceded by evidence of liver dysfunction, including elevated serum enzymes specific to the liver, clubbing of the fingers, asterixis, palmar erythema, spider naevi. Cirrhosis can present with jaundice and ascites. Insulin resistance due to pancreatic damage from iron deposition.) Erectile dysfunction and hypogonadism, resulting in decreased libido Congestive heart failure, abnormal heart rhythms, or pericarditis Arthritis of the hands, but the knee and shoulder joints Damage to the adrenal gland, leading to adrenal insufficiencyLess common findings including: Deafness Dyskinesias, including Parkinsonian symptoms Dysfunction of certain endocrine organs: Parathyroid gland Pituitary gland More a slate-grey or less darkish colour to the skin An increased susceptibility to certain infectious diseases caused by siderophilic microorganisms: Vibrio vulnificus infections from eating seafood or wound infection Listeria monocytogenes Yersinia enterocolica Salmonella enterica Klebsiella pneumoniae Escherichia coli Rhizopus arrhizus Mucor species Aspergillus fumigatus Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis C virusMales are diagnosed after their forties and fifties, women several decades owing to the fact that symptoms mimic those of menopause.

Most people display symptoms in their 30s but due to the lack of knowledge surrounding haemochromatosis, they are diagnosed years later. The severity of clinical disease in the hereditary form varies considerably; some evidence suggests that hereditary haemochromatosis patients affected with other liver ailments such as hepatitis or alcoholic liver disease suffer worse liver disease than those with either condition alone. Juvenile forms of hereditary haemochromatosis present in childhood with the same consequences of iron overload. Iron is stored in the liver and heart. Long-term effects of haemochromatosis on these organs can be serious fatal when untreated. For example, similar to alcoholism, haemochromatosis can cause cirrhosis of the liver; the liver is a primary storage area for iron and accumulates excess iron. Over time, the liver is to be damaged by iron overload. Cirrhosis itself may lead to additional and more serious complications, including bleeding from dilated veins in the esophagus and stomach and severe fluid retention in the abdomen.

Toxins may accumulate in the blood and affect mental functioning. This can lead to confusion or coma. Cirrhosis and haemochromatosis together can increase the risk of liver cancer; the pancreas, which stores iron, is important in the body's mechanisms for sugar metabolism. Diabetes affects the way. Diabetes is, in turn, the leading cause of new blindness in adults and may be involved in kidney failure and cardiovascular disease. If excess iron in the heart interferes with its ability to circulate enough blood, a number of problems can occur, such as congestive heart failure and death; the condition may be reversible when haemochromatosis is treated and excess iron stores are reduced. Arrhythmia or abnormal heart rhythms can cause heart palpitations, chest pain, light-headedness, are life-threatening; this condition can be reversed with treatment for haemochromatosis. Bronze or grey coloration of the skin pigmentation is caused by increased melanin deposition, with iron deposition playing a lesser role.

Severity of periodontal disease is associated with high transferrin saturation in haemochromatosis patients. The regulation of dietary iron absorption is complex and understanding is incomplete. One of the better-chara

Coca-Cola 250

The Coca-Cola 250 is a NASCAR Xfinity Series race, held at Daytona International Speedway. Scheduled as a 250-mile race, it has been held the night before the NASCAR Cup Series' Coke Zero Sugar 400 during Independence Day weekend since 2002; until 2006, there had been a different winner in each race. Dale Earnhardt Jr. became the first repeat winner. The 2010 running of the event marked the first of four races using the Nationwide Series version of the Car of Tomorrow, the other three being at Michigan and Charlotte. Races have been lengthened due to a NASCAR overtime finish: Note is race is notable for having the most overtime finishes from periods 2005–10 and 2012–2018. 2012 and 2013 252.5 miles 2007, 2009, 2010: 255 miles 2006, 2014 and 2016: 257.5 miles 2005, 2015 and 2017: 260 miles 2008 and 2018: 262.5 miles Two races has been rescheduled from its original date. 2007: Postponed from Friday night to Saturday morning because of rain. 2017: Race started on Friday night but the rest of the race was postponed to Saturday afternoon because of rain.2019: Race started on Friday and finished after midnight on Saturday due to rain delay.

In 2002, 2004 and 2006, the race was held on FX. In 2001, 2003 and 2005, the race was held on TNT, In 2007–2014, the race was held on ESPN and ESPN2. Starting in 2015, the race is being aired on NBCSN. 2017: Race started on NBCSN on Friday but switched to CNBC on Saturday due to rain/postponement. 2003: Dale Earnhardt Jr. led all 100 laps en route to victory.2004: First race in which the cars ran a roof spoiler. The last 10 laps involved several lead changes. Dale Earnhardt Jr. took the lead with 10 laps to go. With 3 laps remaining, Michael Waltrip and Jason Leffler passed Dale Jr. putting Waltrip in the lead. Leffler went for the lead and the two cars raced nose-to-nose for over a lap before Waltrip cut in front of Leffler off Turn Two on the final lap. NASCAR kept the green flag out as Dale challenged Leffler for the lead. Leffler swerved and Dale crashed into the wall in Turn Four, allowing Mike Wallace to pass everyone for the victory. Despite crossing the line second, Leffler was relegated to the last car on the lead lap for aggressive driving, giving Greg Biffle second.2010: Dale Earnhardt Jr. drove a Chevrolet fielded by Richard Childress and numbered 3 to an unchallenged win.

It was Junior's final time to drive the No. 3.2011: With the new two-car tandem draft in effect, Kevin Harvick Incorporated swept the top four positions in qualifying. The lead changed a then-race record 35 times between Cup drivers Carl Edwards, Kevin Harvick, Jamie McMurray, Tony Stewart, Clint Bowyer as well as Nationwide Series regulars Aric Almirola, Ricky Stenhouse Jr. Trevor Bayne, part-timer Danica Patrick. Eric McClure crashed hard after contact with teammate Mike Bliss. At the end of the race, a multi-car pileup involving 16 cars, ensued when Patrick, who had slapped the Turn One wall on the final lap, made contact with Mike Wallace approaching the start-finish line, enabling Joey Logano and Kyle Busch to slip by and finish 1–2.2012: Kurt Busch, fired from Penske Racing the year before for several off-track incidents, stormed to the win in the most competitive Daytona race for NASCAR's second-tier touring series in any of its varied incarnations at the time. The lead changed a series track-record 42 times as on the final lap Busch roared past Joey Logano and Elliott Sadler with Ricky Stenhouse Jr. pushing him.

There were two big ones that happened, one with 10 laps to go and the other one with just 5 laps to go.2018 Originally Justin Haley was thought to be the winner of the race, but video evidence revealed that he dipped below the yellow line and Kyle Larson had won the race. There were two big ones that happened, one with 19 laps to go with 17 cars wrecked and the other one with just 3 laps to go with 11 cars wrecked

National Palace Museum of Korea

The National Palace Museum of Korea is a national museum of South Korea located in Gyeongbokgung Palace, Seoul. The museum first began as the "Korean Imperial Museum", established in September 1908 and was located in Changgyeonggung Palace. On November of the following year, the museum was opened to the public. However, on April 1938, the ruling Japanese government renamed the museum to the "Museum of Yi dynasty". In March 1946, after the liberation of Korea, it was renamed "Deoksugung Museum". In 1991, Cultural Heritage Administration instituted the museum in Seokjojeon of Deoksugung Palace, in 2005, the museum was relocated to a modern building inside Gyeongbokgung Palace. National Palace Museum of Korea houses over 40,000 artifacts and royal treasures, from the palaces of the Joseon Dynasty and the Korean Empire, of which 14 are National Treasures of South Korea, it displays records, state rites, clothing, royal life, culture and music of the dynasty's ruling era. It has among its collection the royal seal of King Gojong of Joseon, used for his personal letters to Russian czar and Italian emperor after 1903.

It disappeared during Japanese rule and was re-covered from a US-based Korean collector in 2009. Royal Symbols and Records State Rites Joseon Science Palace Architecture Royal Life Royal Childbirth and Education Royal Scholarly Culture Korean Empire Royal Court Paintings Royal Court Music Royal Palanquins Joseon Water Clock The Museum houses 1,200 volumes of historical texts including 150 copies of Uigwe from the Joseon Dynasty that were looted in 1922, during rule by Japan under the supervision of Resident-General of Korea Itō Hirobumi, they were repatriated in December 2011 and a special exhibition was held from 27 December 2011 to 5 February 2012. The copies chronicled the royal rituals of King Gojong and King Sunjong, the last two emperors of Joseon Dynasty and Daehan Empire before Korea was annexed in 1910. List of museums in Seoul Gyeongbok Palace National Palace Museum of Korea Official Site Brief information about National Palace Museum of Korea

World Islamic Congress

The World Islamic Congress was convened in Jerusalem in December 1931 at the behest of Mohammad Amin al-Husayni, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Maulana Shaukat Ali, leader of the Indian Caliphate Committee. Ostensibly the Congress was called to consider a proposal to establish a University at the Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem as a center of Islamic scholarship, an idea which the leaders of the prestigious Al-Azhar University in Cairo opposed and which never came to fruition. Attended by 130 delegates from 22 Muslim countries, the Congress called on Muslim states to avoid trade with the Jewish community in Palestine. However, the Congress was viewed as an attempt by the mufti to enhance his prestige in advance of a bid for the office of caliph; this position had remained vacant since a Pan-Islamic Congress in Mecca in 1926 had failed to agree on a suitable candidate to replace King Hussein of Hejaz. A rival clan of the Husaynis, the Nashashibis, helped to ensure that the mufti was unsuccessful in his bid for the caliphate.

Following the election of Husayni as president of the Congress the agenda was arranged as follows: Holy Places and the Buraq wall the University of Al Masjid el Aksa the Hejaz Railway the furtherance of Muslim teaching and culture Publications Constitution of the Muslim Congress ResolutionsThe Congress resolved that "Zionism is ipso facto an aggression detrimental to Muslim well-being, that it is directly or indirectly ousting Moslems from the control of Muslim land and Muslem Holy Places". It was resolved that the Congress should meet at intervals of two or three years and that resolutions should be enacted by an Executive Committee chaired by Husayni. General Islamic Congress'Close Of Moslem Conference, Egyptian Delegate Deported', From Our Correspondent, The Times, Friday, 18 December, 1931. Feiler, Gil. From Boycott to Economic Cooperation: The Political Economy of the Arab Boycott of Israel. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-7146-4423-4'Moslem Congress In Jerusalem, Mufti As President', From Our Correspondent, The Times, Wednesday, 9 December, 1931.

Sicker, Martin. The Middle East in the Twentieth Century. Praeger/Greenwood. ISBN 0-275-96893-6 Kramer, Martin. Islam Assembled: The Advent of the Muslim Congresses. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-05994-9. A chapter is devoted to the Jerusalem congress

Verminous haemorrhagic dermatitis (cattle)

Verminous haemorrhagic dermatitis is a filariasis of cattle marked by a cutaneous haemorrhagic nodule. It is referred sometimes to as "summer wound", it is caused by infestation with the nematode Parafilaria bovicola. Transmission involves fly vectors of the genus Musca, which ingest microfilariae when feeding on the skin lesions; the disease has been reported in Bulgaria, Germany, Sweden and South Africa. In Germany, the nodules are known to develop on the upper side on the body. In Morocco, the haemorrhagic lesions are seen on the belly and forelimbs, where it can lead to a wide plages of subcutaneous necrosis, with swelling of the arm. Ivermectin is efficient for individual treatments of the illness, but surgical excision, although haemorrhagic, is far more efficient. A similar disease, sometimes referred to as Cascado, occurs in Asia and is caused by Stephanofilaria species. Epidemiology differs among the countries in which it has been reported, is dependent upon temperature and rainfall patterns, the subsequent multiplication of the fly vectors.

In Germany, the verminous nodules start in May and June, 2 to 4 weeks after the beginning of pasture feeding. They heal spontaneously in November. In Morocco, the disease is observed in years when heavy rainfalls occur in April. Numerous cases are observed in April and May, in the immediate surroundings of the ponds; some cases will heal spontaneously, but some others lead to wide subcutaneous lesions which require a veterinary treatment. The repartition and gravity of the skin lesions suggests that the causative agent may be different from the one observed in Western Europe. Related page of the Merck Veterinary Manual

Marcus Antistius Labeo

Marcus Antistius Labeo was an Ancient Roman jurist of the gens Antistia. Marcus Antistius Labeo was the son of Quintus Antistius Labeo, a jurist who caused himself to be slain after the defeat of his party at Philippi. A member of plebeian nobility in easy circumstances young Labeo entered public life early. Marcus Antistius rose to the praetorship, his rival, Ateius Capito, a loyal client of new ruling powers, was promoted by Caesar Augustus to the consulate though Labeo was in line for the job. Smarting under the wrong done him, Labeo declined the office when it was offered to him in a subsequent year. From this time he seems to have devoted his whole time to jurisprudence, his training in the science had been derived principally from Trebatius Testa. To his knowledge of the law he added a wide general culture, devoting his attention specially to dialectics and antiquities, as valuable aids in the exposition and application of legal doctrine. Down to the time of Hadrian his was the name of greatest authority.

While Capito is hardly referred to, the dicta of Labeo are of constant recurrence in the writings of the classical jurists, such as Gaius and Julius Paulus. Labeo gets the credit of being the founder of the Proculian school, while Capito is spoken of as the founder of the rival Sabinian one. Labeo's most important literary work was the Libri posteriores, so called because published only after his death, it contained a systematic exposition of the common law. His Libri ad Edictum embraced a commentary, not only on the edicts of the urban and peregrine praetors, but on that of the curule aediles, his Probabilium lib. VIII. A collection of definitions and axiomatic legal propositions, seems to have been one of his most characteristic productions. Johann Maier Eck, De vita, moribus, et studiis M. Ant. Labeonis, in Oelrichss Thes. nov. vol. i. Johannes Jacobus Mascovius, De sectis Sabinianorum et Proculianorum Lothar Anton Alfred Pernice, Marcus Antistius Labeo. Das römische Privatrecht im 1. Jahrhundert der Kaiserzeit This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed..

"Labeo, Marcus Antistius". Encyclopædia Britannica. 16. Cambridge University Press. P. 3