Siemens AG is a German multinational conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad. The principal divisions of the company are Industry, Energy and Infrastructure & Cities, which represent the main activities of the company; the company is a prominent maker of medical diagnostics equipment and its medical health-care division, which generates about 12 percent of the company's total sales, is its second-most profitable unit, after the industrial automation division. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Siemens and its subsidiaries employ 379,000 people worldwide and reported global revenue of around €83 billion in 2018 according to its earnings release. Siemens & Halske was founded by Werner von Siemens and Johann Georg Halske on 12 October 1847. Based on the telegraph, their invention used a needle to point to the sequence of letters, instead of using Morse code; the company called Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske, opened its first workshop on 12 October.
In 1848, the company built the first long-distance telegraph line in Europe. In 1850, the founder's younger brother, Carl Wilhelm Siemens Sir William Siemens, started to represent the company in London; the London agency became a branch office in 1858. In the 1850s, the company was involved in building long distance telegraph networks in Russia. In 1855, a company branch headed by another brother, Carl Heinrich von Siemens, opened in St Petersburg, Russia. In 1867, Siemens completed the monumental Indo-European telegraph line stretching over 11,000 km from London to Calcutta. In 1867, Werner von Siemens described a dynamo without permanent magnets. A similar system was independently invented by Charles Wheatstone, but Siemens became the first company to build such devices. In 1881, a Siemens AC Alternator driven by a watermill was used to power the world's first electric street lighting in the town of Godalming, United Kingdom; the company diversified into electric trains and light bulbs. In 1887, it opened its first office in Japan.
In 1890, the founder retired and left running the company to his brother Carl and sons Arnold and Wilhelm. Siemens & Halske was incorporated in 1897, merged parts of its activities with Schuckert & Co. Nuremberg in 1903 to become Siemens-Schuckert. In 1907, Siemens had 34,324 employees and was the seventh-largest company in the German empire by number of employees. In 1919, S & H and two other companies jointly formed the Osram lightbulb company. During the 1920s and 1930s, S & H started to manufacture radios, television sets, electron microscopes. In 1932, Gebbert & Schall, Phönix AG and Siemens-Reiniger-Veifa mbH merged to form the Siemens-Reiniger-Werke AG, the third of the so-called parent companies that merged in 1966 to form the present-day Siemens AG. In the 1920s, Siemens constructed the Ardnacrusha Hydro Power station on the River Shannon in the Irish Free State, it was a world first for its design; the company is remembered for its desire to raise the wages of its under-paid workers only to be overruled by the Cumann na nGaedheal government.
Siemens exploited the forced labour of deported people in extermination camps. The company owned a plant in Auschwitz concentration camp. During the final years of World War II, numerous plants and factories in Berlin and other major cities were destroyed by Allied air raids. To prevent further losses, manufacturing was therefore moved to alternative places and regions not affected by the air war; the goal was to secure continued production of important everyday goods. According to records, Siemens was operating 400 alternative or relocated manufacturing plants at the end of 1944 and in early 1945. In 1972, Siemens sued German satirist F. C. Delius for his satirical history of the company, Unsere Siemenswelt, it was determined much of the book contained false claims although the trial itself publicized Siemens' history in Nazi Germany; the company supplied electrical parts to Nazi concentration camps and death camps. The factories had poor working conditions, where death were common; the scholarship has shown that the camp factories were created and supplied by the SS, in conjunction with company officials, sometimes high-level officials.
Siemens businessman and Nazi Party member John Rabe is, credited with saving many Chinese lives during the infamous Nanking Massacre. He toured Germany lecturing on the atrocities committed by Japanese forces in Nanking. In the 1950s, from their new base in Bavaria, S&H started to manufacture computers, semiconductor devices, washing machines, pacemakers. In 1966, Siemens & Halske, Siemens-Schuckertwerke and Siemens-Reiniger-Werke merged to form Siemens AG. In 1969, Siemens formed Kraftwerk Union with AEG by pooling their nuclear power businesses; the company's first digital telephone exchange was produced in 1980. In 1988, Siemens and GEC acquired the UK technology company Plessey. Plessey's holdings were split, Siemens took over the avionics and traffic control businesses—as Siemens Plessey. In 1985, Siemens bought Allis-Chalmers' interest in the partnership company Siemens-Allis which supplied electrical control equipment, it was incorporated into Siemens' Energy and Automation division. In 1987, Siemens reintegrated
Mountain View, California
Mountain View is a city located in Santa Clara County, United States, named for its views of the Santa Cruz Mountains. From its origins as a stagecoach stop, it grew to a large suburb with a pedestrian-friendly downtown and a population of 74,066; the city borders Palo Alto and the San Francisco Bay to the north, Los Altos to the south, Moffett Federal Airfield and Sunnyvale to the east. Situated in the southern end of the Peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area, in the northwest corner of Santa Clara county, Mountain View is home to many high technology companies. In 1956, Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory, the first company to develop silicon semiconductor devices in what came to be known as Silicon Valley, was established in the city by William Shockley. Today, many of the largest technology companies in the world are headquartered in the city, including Google, Mozilla Foundation and Intuit; the original Byte Shop computer store was opened at 1063 El Camino Real, Mountain View, by Paul Terrell, the first 50 Apple I computers were sold from that location.
The Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority integrates the city with the neighboring cities of Palo Alto, Los Altos, Sunnyvale. The Mexican land grant of Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas was given in 1842 by Alta California Governor Juan Alvarado to Francisco Estrada; this grant was passed on to Mariano Castro, who sold half of the land to Martin Murphy, Jr. Eventually, the former land grant became the cities of Mountain View and Sunnyvale; the area, on the southwest shore of San Francisco Bay, was settled in 1852 as a stagecoach station. By the early 1900s, it was a shipping point for fruit and grain, as well as a center of religious book publishing, it was first known as the major center of Fremont Twp. before the first California 1852 census, for Santa Clara County. Which meant that it was a predecessor to Palo Alto. Mountain View Station named in 1864, had its beginnings earlier as a stagecoach stop on the route between San Francisco and San Jose, including the Butterfield Overland Mail.
Incorporated on November 7, 1902. Phyllis Ave. & El Camino Real of today, was closer to what was once the original town center and its San Jose Road. The early pioneers were buried at the old cemetery between Mercy & Church, off Castro Street, now the present city Library and park, aka Pioneer Park. Reverend Henry Merrill Henderson, born in Maryland, age 35, arrived in Spring of 1852, with his family to meet with relatives Ricketts and many others from Missouri and Kentucky, he was the first Baptist minister in town and soon was going by horse to Half-Moon Bay, McCartersville for services. His next-door neighbor arrived that year, Seligman Weilheimer and brother Samuel from Dossenheim, Germany, who built at that property, the first big general merchandise store in 1856; the Fremont twp. population was about 560 by 1860, less Mayfield Post office section, which began north of present San Antonio Road. The town's early growth was due to agriculture, William Bubb being a town figure, buying 80 acres to farm in October 1851, where he died in 1864.
His heirs intermarried in the area. Agriculture remained the primary industry into the middle of the 20th century; the U. S. Navy's adjacent 1000 acre Moffett Field Complex began after 1931 and brought many economic opportunities. After World War II, the population grew with the development of the aerospace and electronics industries. Between 1950 and 1960, the population grew from 6,563 to 30,889, an increase of 370.7%. Between 1929 and 1994, the city was the home of the Moffett Field Naval Air Station. In 1940, the city became the home of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, influencing the city's development of its aerospace and electronics industries. Today, high technology is the foundation of the local economy, there exist few remnants of the city's agricultural past. In 1990, Kevin Duggan began his position as city manager, he built a relationship with Google, Inc. and issued a long-term lease to that and other technology companies. As of 2014, those leases generate over $5 million per year in city revenue.
Duggan reinstituted a special tax district for the Shoreline area, a landfill and pig farm in 1990. That money allowed the city to create a large golf course on the site; the Castro Street downtown area benefited from a special tax district. In 2016, the city's voters approved a rent control ordinance. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.3 sq mi, of which 12.0 sq mi is land and 0.27 sq mi is water. Mountain View is located at the north end of State Route 85, where it meets U. S. Route 101. State Route 82 follows the route of the historic El Camino Real through Mountain View; the city is bounded to the northwest by Palo Alto, to the north by the Bay, to the south and southwest by Los Altos, to the east by Sunnyvale and Moffett Federal Airfield. To the west lie the Santa Cruz Mountains, after which the city is named and which separate it from the Pacific Ocean. To the east lies the Diablo Range; the two ranges demarcate the Santa Clara Valley. Most of Mountain View consists of residential neighborhoods.
Business parks are located in the North Shoreline neighborhood, north of Highway 101, east of Highway 85. Mountain View has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate. Summers are warm and dry, while winters a
MIFARE is the NXP Semiconductors-owned trademark of a series of chips used in contactless smart cards and proximity cards. The brand name covers proprietary solutions based upon various levels of the ISO/IEC 14443 Type A 13.56 MHz contactless smart card standard. It incorporates AES and DES/Triple-DES encryption standards, as well as an older proprietary encryption algorithm. According to NXP themselves, 10 billion of their smart card chips and over 150 million reader modules have been sold. MIFARE is owned by NXP Semiconductors, spun off from Philips Electronics in 2006. MIFARE products are embedded in contactless and contact smart cards, smart paper tickets and phones; the MIFARE brand name covers four families of contactless cards: MIFARE Classic Employs a proprietary protocol compliant to parts 1–3 of ISO/IEC 14443 Type A, with an NXP proprietary security protocol for authentication and ciphering. Subtype: MIFARE Classic EV1. MIFARE Plus Drop-in replacement for MIFARE Classic with certified security level and is backwards compatible with MIFARE Classic.
Subtypes MIFARE Plus S, MIFARE Plus X and MIFARE Plus SE. MIFARE Ultralight Low-cost ICs that are useful for high volume applications such as public transport, loyalty cards and event ticketing. Subtypes: MIFARE Ultralight C, MIFARE Ultralight EV1 and MIFARE Ultralight Nano. MIFARE DESFire Contactless ICs that comply to parts 3 and 4 of ISO/IEC 14443-4 Type A with a mask-ROM operating system from NXP; the DES in the name refers to the use of a two-key 3DES, three-key 3DES and AES encryption. Subtypes: MIFARE DESFire EV1, MIFARE DESFire EV2. There is the MIFARE SAM AV2 contact smart card; this can be used to handle the encryption in communicating with the contactless cards. The SAM provides the secure storage of cryptographic functions; the MIFARE Classic IC is fundamentally just a memory storage device, where the memory is divided into segments and blocks with simple security mechanisms for access control. They have limited computational power. Thanks to their reliability and low cost, those cards are used for electronic wallet, access control, corporate ID cards, transportation or stadium ticketing.
The MIFARE Classic with 1K memory offers 1,024 bytes of data storage, split into 16 sectors. Each key can be programmed to allow operations such as reading, increasing value blocks, etc. MIFARE Classic with 4K memory offers 4,096 bytes split into forty sectors, of which 32 are same size as in the 1K with eight more that are quadruple size sectors. MIFARE Classic Mini offers 320 bytes split into five sectors. For each of these IC types, 16 bytes per sector are reserved for the keys and access conditions and can not be used for user data; the first 16 bytes contain the serial number of the card and certain other manufacturer data and are read only. That brings the net storage capacity of these cards down to 752 bytes for MIFARE Classic with 1K memory, 3,440 bytes for MIFARE Classic with 4K memory, 224 bytes for MIFARE Mini, it uses an NXP proprietary security protocol for ciphering. The Samsung TecTile NFC tag stickers use MIFARE Classic chips; this means only devices with an NXP NFC controller chip can write these tags.
At the moment BlackBerry phones, the Nokia Lumia 610, the Google Nexus 4, Google Nexus 7 LTE and Nexus 10 can't read/write TecTile stickers. MIFARE Classic encryption has been compromised. MIFARE Plus is a replacement IC solution for the MIFARE Classic. Key applications: Public transportation Access management. MIFARE Plus was publicly announced in March 2008 with first samples in Q1 2009. MIFARE Plus, when used in older transportation systems that do not yet support AES on the reader side, still leaves an open door to attacks. Though it helps to mitigate threats from attacks that broke the Crypto-1 cipher through the weak random number generator, it does not help against brute force attacks and cryptoanalytic attacks. During the transition period from MIFARE Classic to MIFARE Plus where only a few readers might support AES in the first place, it offers an optional AES authentication in Security Level 1; this does not prevent the attacks mentioned above but enables a secure mutual authentication between the reader and the card to prove that the card belongs to the system and is not fake.
In its highest security level SL3, using 128-bit AES encryption, MIFARE Plus is secured from attacks. MIFARE Plus EV1 was announced in April 2016. New features compared to MIFARE Plus X include: Sector-wise security-level switching The choice of crypto algorithm used in the authentication protocol can be set separately for each sector; this makes it possible to use the same card with both readers that can read MIFARE Classic products and readers that can read MIFARE Plus products. This feature is intended to make it easier to migrate existing MIFARE Classic product-based installations to MIFARE Plus, without having to replace all readers at the same time. ISO 7816-4 wrapping The card can now be accessed in either the protocol for MIFARE, or using
Galway is a city in the West of Ireland, in the province of Connacht. Galway lies on the River Corrib between Lough Corrib and Galway Bay, surrounded by County Galway, is the sixth most populous city in Ireland, with a population at the 2016 Census of 79,934. Galway will be the European Capital of Culture in 2020, alongside Croatia; the city's name comes from the Irish name Gaillimhe, which formed the western boundary of the earliest settlement, Dún Gaillimhe "Fort Gaillimh".. The name was Anglicised as Galliv or Gallive, closer to the Irish pronunciation; the city's name in Latin is Galvia. Residents of the city are referred to as Galwegians; the city bears the nickname "City of the Tribes" because of the fourteen merchant families called the "tribes of Galway" who led the city in its Hiberno-Norman period. Dún Gaillimhe was constructed by the King of Connacht, Tairrdelbach Ua Conchobair. A settlement grew around it. During the Norman invasion of Connacht in the 1230s, Dún Gaillimhe was captured by Richard Mor de Burgh, who had led the invasion.
As the de Burghs became Gaelicised, the merchants of the town, the Tribes of Galway, pushed for greater control over the walled city. This led to their gaining complete control over the city and to the granting of mayoral status by the English crown in December 1484. Galway endured difficult relations with its Irish neighbours. A notice over the west gate of the city, completed in 1562 by Mayor Thomas Óge Martyn, stated "From the Ferocious O'Flahertys may God protect us". A by-law forbade the native Irish unrestricted access into Galway, saying "neither O’ nor Mac shall strutte nor swagger through the streets of Galway" without permission. During the Middle Ages, Galway was ruled by an oligarchy of fourteen merchant families; these were the "Tribes of Galway". The city thrived on international trade, in the Middle Ages, it was the principal Irish port for trade with Spain and France; the most famous reminder of those days is ceann an bhalla, now known as the Spanish Arch, constructed during the mayoralty of Wylliam Martin.
In 1477 Christopher Columbus visited Galway stopping off on a voyage to Iceland or the Faroe Islands. Seven or eight years he noted in the margin of his copy of Imago Mundi: Men of Cathay have come from the west. We have seen many signs, and in Galway in Ireland, a man and a woman, of extraordinary appearance, have come to land on two tree trunks The most explanation for these bodies is that they were Inuit swept eastward by the North Atlantic Current. During the 16th and 17th centuries Galway remained loyal to the English crown for the most part during the Gaelic resurgence for reasons of survival. However, by 1642 the city had allied itself with the Catholic Confederation of Kilkenny during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. During the resulting Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, Cromwellian forces captured the city after a nine-month siege. At the end of the 17th century the city supported the Jacobites in the Williamite war in Ireland and was captured by the Williamites after a short siege not long after the Battle of Aughrim in 1691.
The great families of Galway were ruined. The city suffered further under the potato famines of 1845–1852, it did not recover until the period of strong economic growth of the late 20th century. Like most of Ireland, has a oceanic climate according to the Köppen climate classification, being one of the world's mildest cities for latitude because it is on an island. Galway has a year-round mild, moist and changeable climate, due to the prevailing winds of the North Atlantic Current; the city does not experience temperature extremes, with temperatures below 0 °C and above 30 °C being rare. The city receives an average of 1,156 mm of precipitation annually, evenly distributed throughout the year; the average January temperature in the city is 5.9 °C and the average July temperature is 15.9 °C.system. The highest temperature recorded in Galway was 31.7 °C in July 1921, whilst the lowest temperature recorded was −11.7 °C in January 1945. While extreme weather is rare, the city and county can experience severe windstorms that are the result of vigorous Atlantic depressions that pass along the north west coast of Ireland.
Most of these storms occur between early spring. Due to the city's northerly location, Galway has long summer days. Daylight at midsummer is before 04:20 and lasts until after 23:00. In midwinter, daylight does not start until 08:49, is gone by 16:19. Lynch's Castle on Shop Street is a medieval town house, now a branch of Allied Irish Banks; the Church of Ireland St. Nicholas' Collegiate Church is the largest medieval church still in everyday use in Ireland, it was founded in enlarged in the following two centuries. The Cathedral of Our Lady Assumed into Heaven and St Nicholas was consecrated in 1965 and is a far larger building constructed from limestone, it has an eclectic style, with a Renaissance Revival dome and round arches, a Romanesque Revival portico that dominates the main façade –, an unusual feature in modern Irish church building. The original quadrangle building of NUI Galway, erected in 1
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
A card printer is an electronic desktop printer with single card feeders which print and personalize plastic cards. In this respect they differ for example, label printers which have a continuous supply feed. Card dimensions are 85.60 × 53.98 mm, standardized under ISO/IEC 7810 as ID-1. This format is used in EC-cards, telephone cards, credit cards, driver's licenses and health insurance cards; this is known as the bank card format. Card printers are controlled by corresponding printer drivers or by means of a specific programming language. Card printers are designed with laminating and punching functions, use desktop or web-based software; the hardware features of a card printer differentiate a card printer from the more traditional printers, as ID cards are made of PVC plastic and require laminating and punching. Different card printers can accept dimensions; the principle is the same for all card printers: the plastic card is passed through a thermal print head at the same time as a color ribbon.
The color from the ribbon is transferred onto the card through the heat given out from the print head. The standard performance for card printing is 300 dpi. There are different printing processes, which vary in their detail: Thermal transfer Mainly used to personalize pre-printed plastic cards in monochrome; the color is "transferred" from the color ribbon onto the card. Dye sublimation; the card to be printed passes under the print head several times each time with the corresponding ribbon panel. Each color in turn is diffused directly onto the card, thus it is possible to produce a high depth of color on the card. Afterwards a transparent overlay known as a topcoat is placed over the card to protect it from mechanical wear and tear and to render the printed image UV resistant. Reverse image technology The standard for high-security card applications that use contact and contactless smart chip cards; the technology prints images onto the underside of a special film that fuses to the surface of a card through heat and pressure.
Since this process transfers dyes and resins directly onto a smooth, flexible film, the print-head never comes in contact with the card surface itself. As such, card surface interruptions such as smart chips, ridges caused by internal RFID antennae and debris do not affect print quality. Printing over the edge is possible. Thermal rewrite print process In contrast to the majority of other card printers, in the thermal rewrite process the card is not personalized through the use of a color ribbon, but by activating a thermal sensitive foil within the card itself; these cards can be personalized and rewritten. The most frequent use of these are in chip-based student identity cards, whose validity changes every semester. Many printing problems are caused by physical defects in the card material itself, such as deformation or warping of the card, fed into the machine in the first place. Printing irregularities can result from chip or antenna embedding that alters the thickness of the plastic and interferes with the printer's effectiveness.
Other issues are caused by operator errors, such as users attempting to feed non-compatible cards into the card printer, while other printing defects may result from environmental abnormalities such as dirt or contaminants on the card or in the printer. Reverse transfer printers are less vulnerable to common printing problems than direct-to-card printers, since with these printers the card does not come into direct contact with the printhead. Broadly speaking, there are three main types of card printers available; these types refer to the printing method of which the card printer prints onto the card, they are: Near to Edge - This term classifies the cheapest type of printing. These printers print up to 5mm from the edge of the card stock. Direct to Card - Also known as Edge to Edge Printing. Direct to Card is; this printing type is the most popular today. Because of the cost factor of the printer; the majority of id card printers out there today are Direct to Card. Reverse Transfer - Also known as: High Definition Printing or Over the Edge Printing.
Reverse transfer print-head prints to a transfer film backwards and the printed film is rolled onto the card with intense heat. Over the edge is because when the printer prints onto the film it has a bleed, so when rolled onto the card it's over the edge leaving no border. Different ID Card Printers use different encoding techniques to facilitate disparate business environments and to support security initiatives. Known encoding techniques are: Contact Smart Card – The Contact Smart Cards use RFID technology and require direct contact to a conductive plate to register admission or transfer of information; the transmission of commands and card status held between the two physical contact points. Contactless Smart Card – Contactless Smart Cards exhibit integrated circuit that can store and process data while communicating with the terminal via Radio Frequency. Unlike Contact Smart Card, contact less cards feature intelligent re-writable microchip that can be transcribed through radio waves. HiD Proximity – HID’s proximity technology allows fast, accurate reading while offering card or key tag read ranges from 4” to 24” inches, dependant on the type of proximity reader being used.
Since these cards and key tags do not require physical contact with the reader, they are maintenance and wear-f
Denver the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Colorado. Denver is located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains; the Denver downtown district is east of the confluence of Cherry Creek with the South Platte River 12 mi east of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Denver is named after James W. Denver, a governor of the Kansas Territory, it is nicknamed the Mile High City because its official elevation is one mile above sea level; the 105th meridian west of Greenwich, the longitudinal reference for the Mountain Time Zone, passes directly through Denver Union Station. Denver is ranked as a Beta world city by World Cities Research Network. With an estimated population of 704,621 in 2017, Denver is the 19th-most populous U. S. city, with a 17.41% increase since the 2010 United States Census, it has been one of the fastest-growing major cities in the United States.
The 10-county Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated 2017 population of 2,888,227 and is the 19th most populous U. S. metropolitan statistical area. The 12-city Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area had an estimated 2017 population of 3,515,374 and is the 15th most populous U. S. metropolitan area. Denver is the most populous city of the 18-county Front Range Urban Corridor, an oblong urban region stretching across two states with an estimated 2017 population of 4,895,589. Denver is the most populous city within a 500-mile radius and the second-most populous city in the Mountain West after Phoenix, Arizona. In 2016, Denver was named the best place to live in the United States by U. S. News & World Report. In the summer of 1858, during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush, a group of gold prospectors from Lawrence, Kansas established Montana City as a mining town on the banks of the South Platte River in what was western Kansas Territory; this was the first historical settlement in what was to become the city of Denver.
The site faded however, by the summer of 1859 it was abandoned in favor of Auraria and St. Charles City. On November 22, 1858, General William Larimer and Captain Jonathan Cox, both land speculators from eastern Kansas Territory, placed cottonwood logs to stake a claim on the bluff overlooking the confluence of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek, across the creek from the existing mining settlement of Auraria, on the site of the existing townsite of St. Charles. Larimer named the townsite Denver City to curry favor with Kansas Territorial Governor James W. Denver. Larimer hoped the town's name would help make it the county seat of Arapaho County but, unbeknownst to him, Governor Denver had resigned from office; the location was accessible to existing trails and was across the South Platte River from the site of seasonal encampments of the Cheyenne and Arapaho. The site of these first towns is now the site of Confluence Park near downtown Denver. Larimer, along with associates in the St. Charles City Land Company, sold parcels in the town to merchants and miners, with the intention of creating a major city that would cater to new immigrants.
Denver City was a frontier town, with an economy based on servicing local miners with gambling, saloons and goods trading. In the early years, land parcels were traded for grubstakes or gambled away by miners in Auraria. In May 1859, Denver City residents donated 53 lots to the Leavenworth & Pike's Peak Express in order to secure the region's first overland wagon route. Offering daily service for "passengers, mail and gold", the Express reached Denver on a trail that trimmed westward travel time from twelve days to six. In 1863, Western Union furthered Denver's dominance of the region by choosing the city for its regional terminus; the Colorado Territory was created on February 28, 1861, Arapahoe County was formed on November 1, 1861, Denver City was incorporated on November 7, 1861. Denver City served as the Arapahoe County Seat from 1861 until consolidation in 1902. In 1867, Denver City became the acting territorial capital, in 1881 was chosen as the permanent state capital in a statewide ballot.
With its newfound importance, Denver City shortened its name to Denver. On August 1, 1876, Colorado was admitted to the Union. Although by the close of the 1860s, Denver residents could look with pride at their success establishing a vibrant supply and service center, the decision to route the nation's first transcontinental railroad through Cheyenne, rather than Denver, threatened the prosperity of the young town. A daunting 100 miles away, citizens mobilized to build a railroad to connect Denver to the transcontinental railroad. Spearheaded by visionary leaders including Territorial Governor John Evans, David Moffat, Walter Cheesman, fundraising began. Within three days, $300,000 had been raised, citizens were optimistic. Fundraising stalled before enough was raised, forcing these visionary leaders to take control of the debt-ridden railroad. Despite challenges, on June 24, 1870, citizens cheered as the Denver Pacific completed the link to the transcontinental railroad, ushering in a new age of prosperity for Denver.
Linked to the rest of the nation by rail, Denver prospered as a service and supply center. The young city grew during these years, attracting millionaires with their mansions, as well as the poverty and crime of a growing city. Denver citizens were proud when the rich chose Denver and were thrilled when Horace Tabor, the Leadville mining millionaire, built an impressive business block at 16th and Larimer as well as the el