Attack-class patrol boat
The Attack-class patrol boats were small coastal defence vessels built for the Royal Australian Navy and operated between 1967 and 1985. Following their Australian service, twelve ships were transferred to Indonesia. Twenty boats were ordered by the Department of Defence in November 1965 at a cost of around A$800,000 each from two Queensland shipyards, Evans Deakin in Brisbane and Walkers in Maryborough. Five were marked for the formation of a "New Guinea coastal security force", while the other fifteen were for patrols and general duties in Australian waters; the first vessel was scheduled to be commissioned in August 1966, but she was not launched until March 1967. The inclusion of the Attack class in the RAN fleet led to a second version of the ship's badge design to be created, as it was not deemed appropriate for such small vessels to use the full-size badge; the badge used by the patrol boats was scaled down from 755 by 620 millimetres to 440 by 365 millimetres, with no other alterations.
The Attack class was replaced in RAN service by the larger and more capable Fremantle-class patrol boats. In 1975, Ladava, Lae and Samarai were transferred to the Papua New Guinea Defence Force. All five were paid off during the late 1980s, with Aitape sunk as a dive wreck off Port Moresby in 1995. Acute, Assail, Barbette, Bandolier and Bombard were transferred to the Indonesian Navy between 1974 and 1985, are listed in Jane's Fighting Ships as still operational in 2011. Arrow was destroyed in Darwin on 25 December 1974 during Cyclone Tracy. Advance was donated to the Australian National Maritime Museum in the late 1980s for preservation as a museum ship. Ardent was to be preserved as a memorial in Darwin, but was instead sold into civilian service in 2001 and converted into a pleasure craft. Aware was sold to a private owner during the 1990s, who modified her for use as a diving and salvage mothership was resold in to new owners in 2006. Bayonet was scuttled in Bass Strait in 1999 and has been dived.
Adroit paid off on 28 March 1992 and was sunk as a target by A-4 Skyhawk aircraft of the Royal New Zealand Air Force west of Rottnest Island on 8 August 1994. The remainder of the class were broken up for scrap. Two Attack-class boats represented the fictional HMAS Ambush in the first series of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation TV series Patrol Boat; the 1998 edition of Jane's Fighting Ships reports that two vessels of a similar design, pennant numbers 860 and 861, were being operated by the Indonesian Navy. It speculates. Media related to Attack class patrol boat at Raymond. Jane's Fighting Ships, 1968–69. London: Jane's Publishing Company. OCLC 123786869. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Cassells, Vic; the Capital Ships: their battles and their badges. East Roseville, NSW: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7318-0941-6. OCLC 48761594. Frame, Tom. No Pleasure Cruise: the story of the Royal Australian Navy. Crows Nest, NSW: Allen & Unwin. ISBN 1-74114-233-4. OCLC 55980812. Godley, Peter J.. "Twenty of the Best".
Australian Warship. Sydney: Topmill. Sharpe, Richard, ed.. Jane's Fighting Ships 1998–99. Coulsdon, Surrey: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 071061795X. OCLC 39372676
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
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In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
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HMAS Cairns (naval base)
HMAS Cairns is a Royal Australian Navy base located adjacent to the Trinity Inlet on the shore of Trinity Bay in Cairns, Australia. Although used as a port-of-call since before World War II, a permanent RAN presence was not established until 1971, when a maintenance and support base for patrol boats was set up; the base was formally commissioned in 1971 as a minor war vessel base. The current commander of the base is Commander David Hannah, RAN. HMAS Cairns is responsible for all Australian naval activity off north-eastern Australia, is the home base for one Armidale class patrol boat, two Cape class patrol boats and the ships of the Royal Australian Navy Hydrographic Service; the RAN had been using Cairns as a regular stop since before World War II, during the war, Cairns was the principal port-of-call for many ships prior to heading to Pacific destinations. There was no official RAN presence in Cairns until 1971, when facilities for the maintenance of the RAN's patrol boats were established.
In 1974, HMAS Cairns was commissioned as the parent establishment for patrol vessels and hydrographic ships based at Cairns. In 2016 the Australian Government announced plans to redevelop Carins as northern Australia’s key strategic naval base; the plans announced projected that the number of personnel would increase from 900 to 3,000 by 2020, via an A$120 million injection over ten years. Cairns is responsible for all Australian naval activity from Rockhampton to Thursday Island and serves as a home base for one of the navy's thirteen Armidale class patrol boats and two Cape class patrol boats; the base berths the RAN's entire hydrographic fleet, consisting of two Leeuwin class survey vessels and four Paluma class survey motor launches. Cairns has operational responsibility for the LADS Flight based at Cairns Airport. List of Royal Australian Navy bases
The M2 Machine Gun or Browning.50 Caliber Machine Gun is a heavy machine gun designed toward the end of World War I by John Browning. Its design is similar to Browning's earlier M1919 Browning machine gun, chambered for the.30-06 cartridge. The M2 uses the much larger and much more powerful.50 BMG cartridge, developed alongside and takes its name from the gun itself. It has been referred to in reference to its M2 nomenclature; the design has had many specific designations. It is effective against infantry, unarmored or armored vehicles and boats, light fortifications and low-flying aircraft; the Browning.50 caliber machine gun has been used extensively as a vehicle weapon and for aircraft armament by the United States from the 1930s to the present. It was used during World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Falklands War, the Soviet–Afghan War, the Gulf War, the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan in the 2000s and 2010s, it is the primary heavy machine gun of NATO countries, has been used by many other countries as well.
The M2 has been in use longer than any other firearm in U. S. inventory except the.45 ACP M1911 pistol designed by John Browning. The current M2HB is manufactured in the U. S. by General Dynamics and U. S. Ordnance for use by the U. S. government, for allies via Foreign Military Sales, as well as foreign manufacturers such as FN Herstal. Machine guns were used in World War I, weapons of larger than rifle caliber began appearing on both sides of the conflict; the larger rounds were needed to defeat the armor, being introduced to the battlefield, both on the ground and in the air. During World War I, the Germans introduced a armored airplane, the Junkers J. I; the armor made aircraft machine guns using conventional rifle ammunition ineffective. The American Expeditionary Force's commander General John J. Pershing asked for a larger caliber machine gun. Pershing asked the Army Ordnance Department to develop a machine gun with a caliber of at least 0.50 inches and a muzzle velocity of at least 2,700 feet per second.
U. S. Col. John Henry Parker, commanding a machine gun school in France, observed the effectiveness of a French 11 mm incendiary armor-piercing round; the Army Ordnance Department ordered eight experimental Colt machine guns rechambered for the French 11 mm cartridge. The French 11 mm round was found to be unsuitable. Pershing wanted a muzzle velocity of 2,700 ft/s. Development with the French round was dropped. Around July 1917, John M. Browning started redesigning his.30-06 M1917 machine gun for a larger and more powerful round. Winchester worked on the cartridge, a scaled-up version of the.30-06. Winchester added a rim to the cartridge because the company wanted to use the cartridge in an anti-tank rifle, but Pershing insisted the cartridge be rimless; the first.50 machine gun underwent trials on 15 October 1918. It fired at less than 500 rounds per minute, the muzzle velocity was only 2,300 ft/s. Cartridge improvements were promised; the gun was heavy, difficult to control, fired too for the anti-personnel role, was not powerful enough against armor.
While the.50 was being developed, some German T Gewehr 1918 anti-tank rifles and ammunition were seized. The German rounds had a muzzle velocity of 2,700 ft/s, an 800 gr bullet, could pierce1 in at 250 yd. Winchester improved the.50 caliber round to have similar performance. The muzzle velocity was 2,750 ft/s. Efforts by John M. Browning and Fred T. Moore resulted in the water-cooled Browning machine gun, caliber.50, M1921. An aircraft version was termed the Browning aircraft machine gun, caliber.50, M1921. These guns were used experimentally from 1921 until 1937, they had the ammunition fed only from the left side. Service trials raised doubts whether the guns would be suitable for aircraft or for anti-aircraft use. A heavy barrel M1921 was considered for ground vehicles. John M. Browning died in 1926. Between 1927 and 1932, S. H. Green studied the design problems of the needs of the armed services; the result was a single receiver design that could be turned into seven types of.50 caliber machine guns by using different jackets and other components.
The new receiver allowed left side feed. In 1933, Colt manufactured several prototype Browning machine guns. With support from the Navy, Colt started manufacturing the M2 in 1933. FN Herstal has manufactured the M2 machine gun since the 1930s. General Dynamics, U. S. Ordnance and Ohio Ordnance Works Inc. are other current manufacturers. A variant without a water jacket, but with a thicker-walled, air-cooled barrel was designated the M2 HB; the added mass and surface area of the heavy barrel compensated somewhat for the loss of water-cooling, while reducing bulk and weight: the M2 weighs 121 lb with a water jacket, but the M2 HB weighs 84 lb. Due to the long procedure for changing the barrel, an improved system was developed called QCB; the lightweight "Army/Navy" prefixed AN/M2 "light-barrel" version of the Browning M2 weighing 60 pounds was developed, became the standard.50-caliber aviation machine gun of the World War II-era for American military aircraft of nearly every type replacing Browning's own air-cooled.30 caliber machine gun design in nearly
Royal Australian Navy
The Royal Australian Navy is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force, called the Commonwealth Naval Forces. Intended for local defence, the navy was granted the title of'Royal Australian Navy' in 1911, became responsible for defence of the region. Britain's Royal Navy’s Australian Squadron was assigned to the Australia Station and provided support to the RAN; the Australian and New Zealand governments helped to fund the Australian Squadron until 1913, while the Admiralty committed itself to keeping the Squadron at a constant strength. The Australian Squadron ceased on 4 October 1913, when RAN ships entered Sydney Harbour for the first time; the Royal Navy continued to provide blue-water defence capability in the Pacific up to the early years of World War II. Rapid wartime expansion saw the acquisition of large surface vessels and the building of many smaller warships.
In the decade following the war, the RAN acquired a small number of aircraft carriers, the last of, decommissioned in 1982. Today, the RAN consists of 48 commissioned vessels, 3 non-commissioned vessels and over 16,000 personnel; the navy is one of the largest and most sophisticated naval forces in the South Pacific region, with a significant presence in the Indian Ocean and worldwide operations in support of military campaigns and peacekeeping missions. The current Chief of Navy is Vice Admiral Michael Noonan; the Commonwealth Naval Forces were established on 1 March 1901, two months after the federation of Australia, when the naval forces of the separate Australian colonies were amalgamated. A period of uncertainty followed as the policy makers sought to determine the newly established force's requirements and purpose, with the debate focusing upon whether Australia's naval force would be structured for local defence or whether it would be designed to serve as a fleet unit within a larger imperial force, controlled centrally by the British Admiralty.
In 1908–09, the decision was made to pursue a compromise solution, the Australian government agreed to establish a force that would be used for local defence but which would be capable of forming a fleet unit within the imperial naval strategy, albeit without central control. As a result, the navy's force structure was set at "one battlecruiser, three light cruisers, six destroyers and three submarines". On 10 July 1911, King George V granted the service the title of "Royal Australian Navy"; the first of the RAN's new vessels, the destroyer Yarra, was completed in September 1910 and by the outbreak of the First World War the majority of the RAN's planned new fleet had been realised. The Australian Squadron was placed under control of the British Admiralty, it was tasked with capturing many of Germany's South Pacific colonies and protecting Australian shipping from the German East Asia Squadron. In the war, most of the RAN's major ships operated as part of Royal Navy forces in the Mediterranean and North Seas, later in the Adriatic, the Black Sea following the surrender of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1919, the RAN received a force of six destroyers, three sloops and six submarines from the Royal Navy, but throughout the 1920s and early 1930s, the RAN was drastically reduced in size due to a variety of factors including political apathy and economic hardship as a result of the Great Depression. In this time the focus of Australia's naval policy shifted from defence against invasion to trade protection, several fleet units were sunk as targets or scrapped. By 1923, the size of the navy had fallen to eight vessels, by the end of the decade it had fallen further to five, with just 3,500 personnel. In the late 1930s, as international tensions increased, the RAN was modernised and expanded, with the service receiving primacy of funding over the Army and Air Force during this time as Australia began to prepare for war. Early in the Second World War, RAN ships again operated as part of Royal Navy formations, many serving with distinction in the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean, off the West African coast.
Following the outbreak of the Pacific War and the virtual destruction of British naval forces in south-east Asia, the RAN operated more independently, or as part of United States Navy formations. As the navy took on an greater role, it was expanded and at its height the RAN was the fourth-largest navy in the world, with 39,650 personnel operating 337 warships. A total of 34 vessels were lost during the war, including four destroyers. After the Second World War, the size of the RAN was again reduced, but it gained new capabilities with the acquisition of two aircraft carriers and Melbourne; the RAN saw action in many Cold War–era conflicts in the Asia-Pacific region and operated alongside the Royal Navy and United States Navy off Korea and Vietnam. Since the end of the Cold War, the RAN has been part of Coalition forces in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, operating in support of Operation Slipper and undertaking counter piracy operations, it was deployed in support of Australian peacekeeping operations in East Timor and the Solomon Islands.
The strategic command structure of the RAN was overhauled during the New Generation Navy changes. The RAN is commanded through Naval Headquarters in Canberra; the professional head is the Chief of Navy. NHQ is responsible for implementing policy decisions handed down from the Department of Defence and for overseeing tactical and operational issues that are the purview of the subordinate commands. Beneath NHQ are two subordinate commands: Fleet Command: fleet comma
Armidale-class patrol boat
The Armidale class is a class of patrol boats built for the Royal Australian Navy. Planning for a class of vessels to replace the fifteen Fremantle-class patrol boats began in 1993 as a joint project with the Royal Malaysian Navy, but was cancelled when Malaysia pulled out of the process; the project was reopened in 1999 under the designation SEA 1444, with the RAN as the sole participant. Of the seven proposals tendered, the Austal Ships/Defence Maritime Services proposal for twelve vessels based on an enlarged Bay-class patrol boat was selected. Two additional patrol boats were ordered in 2005 to provide a dedicated patrol force for the North West Shelf Venture. All fourteen vessels were constructed by Austal Ships at Western Australia; the first vessel, HMAS Armidale, was commissioned into the RAN in June 2005, the last, HMAS Glenelg, entered service in February 2008. The Armidale-class ships are operated by the Australian Patrol Boat Group, based in Cairns and Darwin, they are tasked with border protection, fisheries patrols, the interception of unauthorised arrivals by sea.
The Armidales are longer and heavier than their Fremantle-class predecessors, with improved seakeeping ability and increased range, allowing them to reach Australia's offshore territories. The ships are multi-crewed, with three ship's companies available for every two vessels, allowing the patrol boats to spend more time at sea without cutting into sailors' rest or training time. During their early service life, there were problems with the fuel systems across the class, a 20-bunk auxiliary accommodation compartment has been banned from use after toxic fumes were found in the compartment on multiple occasions; the high operational tempo from the Operation Resolute and Operation Sovereign Borders border protection and asylum seeker interception operations, combined with design flaws and poor maintenance, resulted in the ships suffering from hull fracturing around the engineering spaces, mechanical defects, corrosion issues. DMS's contract to provide in-service support will be terminated in 2017, the patrol boats are undergoing a major refit in Singapore to reinforce the hull.
Two Cape-class patrol boats have been chartered to supplement naval patrol boat availability during the refit cycle, plans to replace the Armidales with an enlarged class of offshore combatant vessel have been accelerated to bring them into service by the early 2020s. After extensive damage from an onboard fire, HMAS Bundaberg was decommissioned at the end of 2014. A fictional Armidale-class boat, HMAS Hammersley, appears in the Australian military drama series Sea Patrol from the second season onwards, with filming occurring aboard multiple ships of the class. Planning for the Armidale class began in 1993, as a plan to replace the Fremantle class, due for retirement in 1998; this evolved into a joint program with Malaysia to construct an offshore patrol craft. When Malaysia pulled out, the plan was scrapped, the Fremantles underwent a life-extending refit; the cost of maintaining the aging vessels prompted the Department of Defence to create the Replacement Patrol Boat program, which received the procurement project designation SEA 1444.
SEA 1444 marked several departures from the Department's standard acquisition requirements. Instead of specifying a number of vessels, the coverage of 3,000 ship-days per year was given, with the producer to determine how many ships were needed to meet this; the ships had to meet specific performance parameters, such as the ability to conduct boarding operations in conditions up to Sea State 4, to maintain surveillance capability up to Sea State 5. The producer was required in the contract to provide support and maintenance for the ships, for fifteen years after construction completed. Nine companies expressed interest in the project; these seven were narrowed down to three based on each tender's merit, competitiveness with the other tenders, successful meeting of Australian industry involvement targets for both construction and long-term support. Austal Ships and Defence Maritime Services partnered to offer twelve ships based on an expanded version of the latter's Bay-class patrol boat, in use with the Australian Customs Service.
The companies submitted two proposals for a 56-metre vessel, one with a steel hull, one with an aluminium hull. Australian Defence Industries tendered a design based on the Royal Danish Navy's Flyvefisken-class patrol vessel; the vessel was to be built with a glass-reinforced plastic hull, similar to ADI's Huon-class minehunters. The Tenix proposal was a variant of a 56-metre search and rescue vessel constructed for the Philippine Coast Guard; the tender was awarded to the Austal/DMS partnership in December 2003. The contract was valued at A$553 million, with each ship costing between A$24 million and A$28 million to construct. During the 2004 federal election, the Coalition promised to acquire two more patrol boats to provide a dedicated patrol force for the oil and gas producing facilities located off the north-west coast of Australia; these were ordered in 2005. All fourteen ships were constructed by Austal at their shipyard in Western Australia. Lead ship HMAS Armidale was commissioned into the RAN in June 2005.
Two other patrol boats were delivered to the RAN in 2005, six in 2006, five in 2007, with the final ship in the class, HMAS Glenelg, delivered in October 2007 and commissioned in February 2008. At one stage, six vessels were being constructed simultaneously; each patrol boat has a length of 56.8 metres, a beam of 9.7
Fremantle-class patrol boat
The Fremantle-class patrol boats were coastal patrol vessels operated by the Royal Australian Navy from 1979 to 2007. Designed by British shipbuilder Brooke Marine and constructed in Australia by North Queensland Engineers and Agents, the Fremantle class were larger, more powerful, more capable than the preceding Attack class, the two primary patrol boat bases required infrastructure upgrades to support them. Although up to 30 vessels were planned, fifteen were ordered and constructed, with an unexercised option for five more, their retirement was announced in 2001 and a decommissioning schedule published in 2004. From May 2005 they were replaced by the Armidale-class patrol boats with the last two Fremantles decommissioning in May 2007. Most of the class were scrapped, with two marked for preservation as museum ships; the Fremantle class has appeared in two drama television series based on the Royal Australian Navy. The concept for the Fremantle class began somewhere between 1967 and 1969, as the Attack-class patrol boats entered service, areas for improvement were observed.
In September 1970, the RAN announced the intention to construct ten new patrol boats, which would operate in tandem with the Attack class and replace two general purpose vessels. These new vessels were intended to enter service between 1976 and 1980; the number of vessels to be built fluctuated, peaking at thirty vessels, settling at fifteen. Plans of acquisition were announced in April 1975, with eleven shipbuilders submitting tenders, of which two were shortlisted in 1976. Brooke Marine won the contract to design and produce the lead ship, with North Queensland Engineers and Agents contracted to build the other fourteen vessels. An option for an additional five vessels existed, but they were placed on indefinite hold in 1982. There was a separate acquisition plan for six missile-armed variants, but this was suspended due to the lack of available funding, the belief that such ships could be constructed on short notice if required; the design of the Fremantle class called for ships with improved seakeeping, newer equipment and weapons than those fitted to the Attack class.
The Fremantles had a full load displacement of 220 tonnes, were 137.6 feet long overall, had a beam of 24.25 feet, a maximum draught of 5.75 feet. The Fremantles were 50 % heavier than their predecessors. During sea trials, NUSHIP Fremantle was revealed to be 20 tons over the contracted limit. Main propulsion machinery consisted of two MTU series 538 diesel engines, which supplied 3,200 shaft horsepower to the two propeller shafts. Exhaust was not expelled like most ships, but through vents below the waterline; the patrol boat could reach a maximum speed of 30 knots, had a maximum range of 5,000 nautical miles at 5 knots. The ship's company consisted of 22 personnel; each patrol boat was armed with a single, bow-mounted 40 mm L/60 Bofors gun as main armament, supplemented by two.50 cal Browning machineguns and an 81-mm mortar, although the mortar was removed from all ships sometime in the late 1990s. The main weapon was to be two 30-mm guns on a twin-mount, but the reconditioned Bofors were selected to keep costs down.
Early on in the construction program, it was realised that the two main patrol boat bases, HMAS Cairns in Cairns, Queensland and HMAS Coonawarra in Darwin, Northern Territory, were not capable of supporting ships of this size on a permanent basis. This resulted in a $10 million infrastructure upgrade for the two bases, completed in 1981 and 1982, respectively; this included modern maintenance and administrative facilities at both bases, the installation of a synchro-lift at Coonawarra. Construction of Fremantle began in October 1977, she was launched on 16 February 1979, commissioned on 17 March 1980. During sea trials, Fremantle received distinction for locating and rescuing a British sailor thrown from a commercial trawler following its collision with an oil tender. Construction of the first Australian-built vessel, HMAS Warrnambool, began in September 1978, with Warrnambool launched on 25 October 1980 and commissioned on 14 March 1981; the final ship of the class, HMAS Bunbury, was commissioned on 15 December 1984.
The Australian-built vessels were built through an assembly-line method. Hulls were built upside-down from the keel to the second-uppermost deck rolled over and built to the top of the hull. After this, the superstructure, fabricated at the same time, was welded onto the hull. Construction of the class cost $150 million. All fifteen vessels were named after Bathurst-class corvettes; the first ship of the class, HMAS Fremantle, arrived in Australia on 27 August 1980, after an 82-day voyage covering 14,509 nautical miles. North Queensland Engineers and Agents completed three patrol boats in both 1981 and 1982, four in both 1983 and 1984. By the end of 1984, four Fremantles were located at HMAS Coonawarra, HMAS Cairns, Fleet Base East, two at HMAS Stirling, one at HMAS Cerberus. By 1984, all of the Attack class had left active service, with many transferring to the RAN Reserve or the Indonesian Navy. On 31 May 1985, Wollongong grounded on rocks at Gabo Island, she was repaired by the builder, returned to service in late 1986.
From May 2005 onwards, the Fremantles were replaced in serv