Bofors 40 mm gun
The Bofors 40 mm gun, often referred to simply as the Bofors gun, is an anti-aircraft/multi-purpose autocannon designed in the 1930s by the Swedish arms manufacturer AB Bofors. It was one of the most popular medium-weight anti-aircraft systems during World War II, a small number of these weapons remain in service to this day, and saw action as late as the Gulf War. In the post-war era the original design was not suitable for action against jet powered aircraft, so Bofors introduced a new model of more power. In spite of sharing almost nothing with the design other than the calibre and the distinctive conical flash hider. Although not as popular as the original L/60 model, the L/70 remains in service to this day, especially as a weapon for light armored vehicles. Bofors itself has been part of BAE Systems AB since March 2005, the Swedish Navy purchased a number of 2 pounder Pom-Poms from Vickers as anti-aircraft guns in 1922. The Navy approached Bofors about the development of a capable replacement.
Bofors signed a contract in late 1928, Bofors produced a gun that was a smaller version of a 57 mm semi-automatic gun developed as an anti-torpedo boat weapon in the late 19th century by Finspong. Their first test gun was a re-barreled Nordenfelt version of the Finspong gun, testing of this gun in 1929 demonstrated that a problem existed feeding the weapon in order to maintain a reasonable rate of fire. A mechanism that was enough to handle the stresses of moving the large round was too heavy to move quickly enough to fire rapidly. One attempt to solve this problem used zinc shell cases that burned up when fired and this proved to leave heavy zinc deposits in the barrel, and had to be abandoned. This seemed to be the solution they needed, improving firing rates to a level. During this period Krupp purchased a share of Bofors. Krupp engineers started the process of updating the Bofors factories to use equipment and metallurgy. The prototype was completed and fired in November 1931, and by the middle of the month it was firing strings of two and three rounds.
Changes to the mechanism were all that remained, and by the end of the year it was operating at 130 rounds per minute. Continued development was needed to turn it into a suitable for production. Since acceptance trials had been passed the year before, this known as the 40 mm akan M/32
Jane's Fighting Ships
Its annual editions cover the warships used by the different national naval and paramilitary forces, and provide data on their characteristics. It was originally published by John F. T, jane in London in 1898 as Janes All the Worlds Fighting Ships, in order to assist the public in playing naval wargames. Its success launched a number of military publications carrying the name Janes and it is a unit of Janes Information Group, which is now owned by IHS. Brasseys Naval Annual, competing publication Combat Fleets of the World, competing publication Defence & Security Intelligence & Analysis
A patrol boat is a relatively small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defence duties. There have been designs for patrol boats. They may be operated by a navy, coast guard, police force or customs. They are commonly engaged in various border protection roles, including anti-smuggling, anti-piracy, fisheries patrols. They are called upon to participate in rescue operations. Vessels of this include the original yacht, a light, fast-sailing vessel used by the Dutch navy to pursue pirates and other transgressors around. They may be classified as inshore patrol vessels and offshore patrol vessels. They are warships typically smaller in size than a corvette and can include fast attack craft, torpedo boats and missile boats, the offshore patrol vessels are usually the smallest ship in a navys fleet that are large and seaworthy enough to patrol off-shore in the open ocean. In larger militaries, such as in the United States military, offshore patrol vessels usually serve in the coast guard, some modern patrol vessels are still based on fishing and leisure boats.
Depending on role, vessels in this class may have more sophisticated sensors and fire control systems that would enable them to carry torpedoes, anti-ship, most modern designs are powered by gas turbine arrangements such as CODAG, and speeds are generally in the 25–30 knots range. They are primarily used for patrol in a countrys Exclusive Economic Zone, common tasks are fisheries inspection, anti-smuggling duties, illegal immigration patrols, anti-piracy patrols and search and rescue. The largest OPVs might have a deck and helicopter embarked. In times of crisis or war, these vessels are expected to support the vessels in the navy. Their small size and relatively low cost make them one of the most common type of warship in the world, almost all navies operate at least a few offshore patrol vessels, especially those with only green water capabilities. They are useful in smaller seas such as the North Sea as well as in open oceans, similar vessels for exclusively military duties include torpedo boats and missile boats.
The United States Navy operated the Pegasus class of armed hydrofoils for years, the River Patrol Boat is a U. S. design of small patrol boat type designed to patrol waters of large rivers. 4 units built under license by ASMAR, OPV-81 Piloto Pardo OPV-82 Comandante Toro OPV-83 Marinero Fuentealba and this unit has reinforced hull for Antarctic operations. OPV-84 Cabo Odger with characteristics similar to the previous ship 06 MICALVI Class Patrol vessels built in ASMAR,18 Protector Class Patrol crafts built under license by ASMAR
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
Australian Broadcasting Corporation
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation is Australias national public broadcaster and funded by the government. The ABC plays a role in the history of broadcasting in Australia. With a total budget of A$1. Founded in 1929 as the Australian Broadcasting Company, it was made a state-owned corporation on 1 July 1932 as the Australian Broadcasting Commission. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983 changed the name of the organisation to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, although funded and owned by the government, the ABC remains editorially independent as ensured through the Australian Broadcasting Corporation Act 1983. The ABC is sometimes referred to as Aunty, originally in imitation of the British Broadcasting Corporations nickname. The first public station in Australia opened in Sydney on 23 November 1923 under the call sign 2SB with other stations in Melbourne, Adelaide, Perth. It nationalised the Australian Broadcasting Company which had created by entertainment interests to supply programs to various radio stations.
Over the next four years the stations were reformed into a broadcasting organisation through regular program relays. The Australian broadcast radio spectrum was constituted of the ABC and the commercial sector, in 1942 The Australian Broadcasting Act was passed, giving the ABC the power to decide when, and in what circumstances, political speeches should be broadcast. Directions from the Minister about whether or not to broadcast any matter now had to be made in writing and it was used only once, in 1963. In the same year, Kindergarten of the Air began on ABC Radio in Perth, cater argues that reform was urgently needed in 1945, By the end of World War II, the ABC was a decadent, hollow institution. Its authority had been compromised by a poorly drafted charter and further undermined by timid management, poor governance, in April 1945, Boyer refused to accept the post of chairman until Prime Minister Curtin issued a mandate of independence which Boyer drafted itself. The ABC commenced television broadcasting in 1956, and followed the earlier practice of naming the station after the first letter of the base state.
ABN-2 Sydney was inaugurated by Prime Minister Robert Menzies on 5 November 1956, with the first broadcast presented by Michael Charlton, aBV-2 followed two weeks later, on 18 November 1956. Stations in other cities followed, ABQ-2, ABS-2, ABW-2. ABC-3 Canberra opened in 1961, and ABD-6 started broadcasting in 1971, although radio programs could be distributed nationally by landline, television relay facilities were not in place until the early 1960s. This meant that news bulletins had to be sent to each city by teleprinter, to be prepared and presented separately in each city, with filmed materials copied manually
HMAS Assail (P 89)
HMAS Assail was an Attack class patrol boat of the Royal Australian Navy. Initially, nine were ordered for the RAN, with five for Papua New Guineas Australian-run coastal security force. Propulsion machinery consisted of two 16-cylinder Paxman YJCM diesel engines, which supplied 3,460 shaft horsepower to the two propellers, the vessels could achieve a top speed of 24 knots, and had a range of 1,200 nautical miles at 13 knots. The ships company consisted of three officers and sixteen sailors, main armament was a bow-mounted Bofors 40 mm gun, supplemented by two.50 calibre M2 Browning machine guns and various small arms. Assail was built by Evans Deakin and Company at Brisbane, launched on 18 November 1967, Assail paid off on 18 October 1985, and was transferred to the Indonesian Navy and renamed KRI Sigurot. The patrol boat was listed in Janes Fighting Ships as still operational in 2011, Raymond, ed. Janes Fighting Ships, 1968–69. Australian and New Zealand Warships since 1946
HMAS Ladava (P 92)
HMAS Ladava was an Attack class patrol boat of the Royal Australian Navy. It was named after the village of Ladava situated on the shore of Milne Bay in Alotau District. Completed in 1968, the vessel was one of five assigned to the RANs Papua New Guinea Division, the patrol boat was transferred to the Papua New Guinea Defence Force in 1974 as HMPNGS Ladava. The patrol boat was decommissioned in 1988, although her fate is unknown, fourteen were ordered for the RAN, five of which were intended for the Papua New Guinea Division of the RAN, although another six ships were ordered to bring the class to twenty vessels. Propulsion machinery consisted of two 16-cylinder Paxman YJCM diesel engines, which supplied 3,460 shaft horsepower to the two propellers, the vessels could achieve a top speed of 24 knots, and had a range of 1,200 nautical miles at 13 knots. The ships company consisted of three officers and sixteen sailors, main armament was a bow-mounted Bofors 40 mm gun, supplemented by two.50 calibre M2 Browning machine guns and various small arms.
Ladava was built by Walkers Limited at Maryborough, launched on 11 May 1968, HMAS Ladava arrived at the RAN base HMAS Tarangau at Los Negros Island, Manus Province in December 1968, joining the previously delivered Aitape and Lae. Primary roles of the new boats were fisheries protection and sea training. The ships company was made up of both Australian and PNG servicemen, in February 1968, Ladava and sister ship Aitape traveled 231 miles up the Sepik River in western Papua New Guinea. In a first for the PNG Division, HMAS Ladava became the first patrol boat to be completely PNG-manned on 18 June 1974 and they formed the PNGDF Patrol Boat Squadron based at Manus. Blackman, Raymond, ed. Janes Fighting Ships, 1968–69, Australian and New Zealand Warships since 1946. Sharpe, Richard, ed. Janes Fighting Ships 1998–99
Royal Australian Navy
The Royal Australian Navy is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the colonial navies were integrated into a national force. Originally intended for defence, the navy was granted the title of Royal Australian Navy in 1911. Britains Royal Navy continued to support the RAN and provided additional blue-water defence capability in the Pacific up to the years of World War II. Then, rapid expansion saw the acquisition of large surface vessels. In the decade following the war, the RAN acquired a number of aircraft carriers. Today, the RAN consists of 47 commissioned vessels,3 non-commissioned vessels, the current Chief of Navy is Vice Admiral Tim Barrett. The Commonwealth Naval Forces were established on 1 March 1901, two months after the federation of Australia, when the forces of the separate Australian colonies were amalgamated. As a result, the force structure was set at one battlecruiser. On 10 July 1911, King George V granted the service the title of Royal Australian Navy.
The first of the RANs new vessels, the destroyer Yarra, was completed in September 1910, in this time the focus of Australias naval policy shifted from defence against invasion to trade protection, and several fleet units were sunk as targets or scrapped. By 1923, the size of the navy had fallen to eight vessels, following the outbreak of the Pacific War and the virtual destruction of British naval forces in south-east Asia, the RAN operated more independently, or as part of United States Navy formations. As the navy took on a greater role, it was expanded significantly and at its height the RAN was the fourth-largest navy in the world. A total of 34 vessels were lost during the war, including three cruisers and four destroyers, after the Second World War, the size of the RAN was again reduced, but it gained new capabilities with the acquisition of two aircraft carriers and Melbourne. The RAN saw action in many Cold War–era conflicts in the Asia-Pacific region and operated alongside the Royal Navy and United States Navy off Korea and Vietnam.
Since the end of the Cold War, the RAN has been part of Coalition forces in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, operating in support of Operation Slipper and it was deployed in support of Australian peacekeeping operations in East Timor and the Solomon Islands. The strategic command structure of the RAN was overhauled during the New Generation Navy changes, the RAN is commanded through Naval Headquarters in Canberra. The professional head is the Chief of Navy, who holds the rank of Vice Admiral, NHQ is responsible for implementing policy decisions handed down from the Department of Defence and for overseeing tactical and operational issues that are the purview of the subordinate commands
HMAS Advance (P 83)
HMAS Advance was an Attack-class patrol boat of the Royal Australian Navy. Constructed during 1967 and commissioned into the RAN in 1968, Advance operated from Darwin, Advance was replaced in 1980, but continued to operate as a training ship until she was decommissioned in 1988. Advance was donated to the Australian National Maritime Museum, which have maintained her in an operational condition, the vessel remains part of the museums collection as of 2014. Initially, nine were ordered for the RAN, with five for Papua New Guineas Australian-run coastal security force. Propulsion machinery consisted of two 16-cylinder Paxman YJCM diesel engines, which supplied 3,460 shaft horsepower to the two propellers, the vessels could achieve a top speed of 24 knots, and had a range of 1,200 nautical miles at 13 knots. The ships company consisted of three officers and sixteen sailors, main armament was a bow-mounted Bofors 40 mm gun, supplemented by two.50 calibre M2 Browning machine guns and various small arms.
Advance was laid down by Walkers Limited at Maryborough, Queensland in March 1967, launched on 16 August 1967 and it was the third ship of its class. Advance operated out of HMAS Coonawarra in Darwin, Northern Territory between 1968 and 1980, as well as the standard duties for her class, Advance was used for surveillance, search-and-rescue, and hydrographic survey. During 1968, Advance and sister ship Attack shadowed the Soviet trawler Van Gogh and three other patrol boats were in Darwin Harbour on 25 December 1974, when Cyclone Tracy hit. Advance and Assail managed to escape damage, but Attack was forced aground and suffered hull damage. During 1975 and 1976, Advance regularly operated as part of Operation Trochus, from late 1977, the patrol boat was assigned to HMAS Waterhen in Sydney for patrols along Australias eastern coast, but was redeployed elsewhere when necessary. In 1979, Advance was one of two Attack class vessels used to portray the fictional HMAS Ambush, setting of the ABC television series Patrol Boat, following her replacement by a Fremantle-class patrol boat in 1980, Advance was reassigned as a training ship.
She was assigned to the Sydney Port Division of the Royal Australian Navy Reserve in February 1982, the patrol boat participated in the 1986 Naval Review. Advance was decommissioned on 6 February 1988, and was transferred to the Australian National Maritime Museum, the patrol boat has been maintained in operational condition by the ANMM, as of 2011 it was not open for public inspection. In October 2013 Advance participated in the International Fleet Review 2013 in Sydney, as of October 2014, the vessel is on permanent exhibition and open to the public for visiting. Books Blackman, Raymond, ed. Janes Fighting Ships, 1968–69, no Pleasure Cruise, the story of the Royal Australian Navy. Crows Nest, NSW, Allen & Unwin and New Zealand Warships since 1946. The Australian Centenary History of Defence, the Royal Australian Navy, Historic Naval Events Year by Year
Walkers Limited was an Australian engineering company, based in Maryborough, Queensland. It built ships and railway locomotives, the Walkers factory still produces railway locomotives and rolling stock as part of Downer Rail. In 1863 John Walker and three set up the Union Foundry of John Walker & Co in Ballarat. In 1867 a branch was opened in Maryborough, the Ballarat assets were disposed of in 1879 and in 1884, the business became a limited company under the title John Walker & Co Limited, being renamed Walkers Limited in 1888. The company produced most of the parts for machinery at sugar mills, in 1980 Walkers Limited was sold to Evans Deakin Industries. It was included in the purchase of Evans Deakin by Downer Group in March 2001, in 2003 Bundaberg Foundry Engineers completed the acquisition of the Walkers Sugar Business and moved to change the operating name to Bundaberg Walkers Engineering in January 2008. In 1884, the firm began work on 5 hopper barges for the Queensland Department of Harbours & Rivers, during construction the decision was taken to convert them to serve as Auxiliary Gunboats, which made them the largest warships built in Australia before federation.
During World War II, Walkers constructed two River class frigates, a Bay class frigate and seven Bathurst class corvettes, in addition to smaller vessels. Post war naval contracts included seven Attack class patrol boats in the late 1960s, after the completion of the latter, Walkers Maryborough shipyard closed in 1974. The first major contract for locomotives came in 1896, when an order for thirty B15 class steam locomotives was placed by Queensland Railways, in the 1960s Walkers offered a diesel-hydraulic unit to Queenslands sugar operators. Although not successful, it did six to BHP, Whyalla from 1962. It had more success with its DH class shunter with over 130 built for Queensland Rail, the New South Wales Government Railways, Emu Bay Railway and Western Australian Government Railways
The M2 Machine Gun or Browning.50 Caliber Machine Gun is a heavy machine gun designed toward the end of World War I by John Browning. Its design is similar to Brownings earlier M1919 Browning machine gun, the M2 uses the much larger and much more powerful.50 BMG cartridge, which was developed alongside and takes its name from the gun itself. It has been referred to as Ma Deuce, in reference to its M2 nomenclature, the design has had many specific designations, the official designation for the current infantry type is Browning Machine Gun, Cal.50, M2, HB, Flexible. It is effective against infantry, unarmored or lightly armored vehicles and boats, light fortifications, the M2 has been produced longer than any other machine gun. The Browning.50 caliber machine gun has been used extensively as a vehicle weapon and it was heavily used during World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, the Falklands War, the Iraq War and the War in Afghanistan in the 2000s and 2010s. It is the heavy machine gun of NATO countries, and has been used by many other countries as well.
The M2 has been in use longer than any firearm in U. S. inventory except the.45 ACP M1911 pistol. The current M2HB is manufactured in the U. S. by General Dynamics, Ordnance for use by the U. S. government, and for allies via Foreign Military Sales, as well as foreign manufacturers such as FN Herstal. Machine guns were used in World War I, and weapons of larger than rifle caliber were appearing. Both the British and French had large caliber machine guns, the larger rounds were needed to defeat the armor that was being introduced to the battlefield. Armor was appearing in the skies, during World War I, the Germans introduced a heavily armored airplane, the Junkers J. I. The armor made aircraft machine guns using conventional rifle ammunition ineffective, the American Expeditionary Forces commander General John J. Pershing asked for a larger caliber machine gun. Pershing asked the Army Ordnance Department to develop a gun with a caliber of at least 0.50 inches. U. S. Col. John Henry Parker, commanding a machine gun school in France, the Army Ordnance Department ordered eight experimental Colt machine guns rechambered for the French 11 mm cartridge.
The French had developed a machine gun for an even larger caliber. The French 11 mm round was found to be unsuitable because its velocity was too low, Pershing wanted a bullet of at least 670 gr and a muzzle velocity of 2,700 ft/s. Development with the French round was dropped, around July 1917, John M. Browning started redesigning his.30 caliber machine gun for a larger caliber. Winchester worked on the cartridge, which was a version of the. 30-06
HMAS Madang (P 94)
HMAS Madang, named for the settlement of Madang in New Guinea, was an Attack class patrol boat of the Royal Australian Navy. Completed in 1968, the vessel was one of five assigned to the RANs Papua New Guinea Division, the patrol boat was transferred to the Papua New Guinea Defence Force in 1974 as HMPNGS Madang. The Attack class was ordered in 1964 to operate in Australian waters as patrol boats, and to replace a variety of old patrol, search-and-rescue, and general-purpose craft. Initially, fourteen were ordered for the RAN, five of which were intended for the Papua New Guinea Division of the RAN, propulsion machinery consisted of two 16-cylinder Paxman YJCM diesel engines, which supplied 3,460 shaft horsepower to the two propellers. The vessels could achieve a top speed of 24 knots, and had a range of 1,200 nautical miles at 13 knots, the ships company consisted of three officers and sixteen sailors. Main armament was a bow-mounted Bofors 40 mm gun, supplemented by two.50 calibre M2 Browning machine guns and various small arms, Madang was built by Evans Deakin at Brisbane, launched on 10 August 1968, and commissioned on 28 November 1968.
Madang arrived in Port Moresby in March 1969, the last of the five Attack-class boats to be delivered to the PNG Division and her home port was the RAN base HMAS Tarangau at Los Negros Island, Manus Province. Primary roles of the new boats were fisheries protection and sea training. The ships company was made up of both Australian and PNG servicemen and they formed the PNGDF Patrol Boat Squadron based at Manus. Blackman, Raymond, ed. Janes Fighting Ships, 1968–69, Australian and New Zealand Warships since 1946. Sharpe, Richard, ed. Janes Fighting Ships 1998–99