South West Pacific theatre of World War II
The South West Pacific theatre, during World War II, was a major theatre of the war between the Allies and the Axis. It included the Philippines, the Dutch East Indies, Borneo and its mandate Territory of New Guinea and the western part of the Solomon Islands; this area was defined by the Allied powers' South West Pacific Area command. In the South West Pacific theatre, Japanese forces fought against the forces of the United States and Australia. New Zealand, the Netherlands, the Philippines, United Kingdom, other Allied nations contributed forces; the South Pacific became a major theatre of the war following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941. US warplans called for a counteroffensive across the Central Pacific, but this was disrupted by the loss of battleships at Pearl Harbor. During the First South Pacific Campaign, US forces sought to establish a defensive perimeter against additional Japanese attacks; this was followed by the Second South Pacific Campaign. The U. S. General Douglas MacArthur had been in command of the American forces in the Philippines in what was to become the South West Pacific theatre, but was part of a larger theatre that encompassed the South West Pacific, the Southeast Asian mainland and the North of Australia, under the short lived American-British-Dutch-Australian Command.
Shortly after the collapse of ABDACOM, supreme command of the South West Pacific theatre passed to MacArthur, appointed Supreme Allied Commander South West Pacific Area on 30 March 1942. In the other major theatre in the Pacific region, known as the Pacific Ocean theatre, Allied forces were commanded by US Admiral Chester Nimitz. Both MacArthur and Nimitz were overseen by the US Joint Chiefs and the Western Allies Combined Chiefs of Staff. Most Japanese forces in the theatre were part of the Southern Expeditionary Army, formed on November 6, 1941, under General Hisaichi Terauchi; the Nanpo gun was responsible for Imperial Japanese Army ground and air units in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific. The Combined Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy was responsible for all Japanese warships, naval aviation units and marine infantry units; as the Japanese military did not formally utilize joint/combined staff at the operational level, the command structures/geographical areas of operations of the Nanpo gun and Rengō Kantai overlapped each other and those of the Allies.
Battle of the Philippines Battle of Bataan Battle of Corregidor Dutch East Indies campaign, 1941–42 Battle of Badung Strait 19–20 February 1942 Battle of the Java Sea 27 February 1942 Battle of Sunda Strait 28 February – 1 March 1942 Second Battle of the Java Sea 1 March 1942 Solomon Islands campaign 1943–45 New Georgia Campaign, June–August 1943 Battle of Kula Gulf 6 July 1943 Battle of Kolombangara 13 July 1943 Battle of Vella Gulf 6–7 August 1943 Naval Battle of Vella Lavella 6–7 October 1943 Battle of Empress Augusta Bay 2 November 1943 Battle of Cape St. George 25 November 1943 New Guinea campaign, 1942–45 Battle of Rabaul, January–February 1942 Invasion of Salamaua–Lae, March 1942 Battle of the Coral Sea 4–8 May 1942 Invasion of Buna-Gona, July 1942 Kokoda Track campaign, July–November 1942 Battle of Goodenough Island, October 1942 Battle of Buna-Gona, November 1942 – January 1943 Battle of Wau, January 1943 Battle of the Bismarck Sea 2 March 1943 Operation Chronicle 1943 Landing at Nassau Bay 1943 Salamaua-Lae campaign, April–September 1943 Finisterre Range campaign, September 1943 – April 1944 Huon Peninsula campaign, September 1943 – March 1944 Bougainville Campaign, November 1943 – August 1945 New Britain campaign 26 December 1943 Admiralty Islands campaign 29 February 1944 Invasion of Hollandia 22 April 1944 Battle of Biak 27 May 1944 Battle of Noemfoor 2 July 1944 Battle of Morotai 15 September 1944 Aitape-Wewak campaign November 1944 Battle of Timor 1942–43 Philippines campaign Battle of Leyte, October–December 1944 Battle of Leyte Gulf, 23-26 October 1944 Battle of Mindoro, December 1944 Battle of Lingayen Gulf, January 1945 Battle of Luzon, January–August 1945 Battle of Manila, February–March 1945 Battle of Corregidor, February 1945 Invasion of Palawan, February–April 1945 Battle of the Visayas, March–July 1945 Battle of Mindanao, March–August 1945 Battle of Maguindanao, January–September 1945 Borneo campaign, 1945 Battle of Tarakan, May–June 1945 Battle of North Borneo, June–August 1945 Battle of Balikpapan, July 1945 American-British-Dutch-Australian Command Cressman, Robert J..
The Official Chronology of the U. S. Navy in World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-149-1. Dull, Paul S.. A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. Potter, E. B.. Sea Power. Prentice-Hall. Silverstone, Paul H.. U. S. Warships of World War II. Doubleday and Company. Sulzberger, C. L.. The American Heritage Picture History of World War II. Crown Publishers. Drea, Edward J.. In the Service of the Emperor: Essays on the Imperial Japanese Army. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1708-0. Eichelberger, Robert. Our Jungle Road to Tokyo. New York: Battery Press. ISBN 0-89839-132-6. Griffith, Thomas E. Jr.. MacArthur's Airman: General George C. Kenney and the War in the Southwest Pacific. Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A.: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-0909-1. Krueger, Walter. From Down Under to Nippon: Story of the 6th Army in World War II. Zenger. ISBN 0-89201-046-0. United State
Garden Island (New South Wales)
Garden Island is an inner-city locality of Sydney and the location of a major Royal Australian Navy base. It is located to the north-east of the Sydney central business district and juts out into Port Jackson to the north of the suburb of Potts Point. Used for government and naval purposes since the earliest days of the colony of Sydney, it was a completely-detached island but was joined to the Potts Point shoreline by major land reclamation work during World War II. Garden Island today forms a major part of the RAN's Fleet Base East, it includes naval wharves and a naval heritage and museum precinct. Half of the major fleet units of the RAN use the wharves as their home port; the northern tip of Garden Island is open to the public and contains the Royal Australian Navy Heritage Centre museum and an outdoor heritage precinct. South and above Garden Island on the Potts Point ridgeline is HMAS Kuttabul, the RAN's major administrative and logistics support establishment for the Sydney area. Although HMAS Kuttabul is administratively a separate facility to Garden Island, the two names are referred to interchangeably.
Garden Island was an island in Sydney Harbour, but extension of the base and the construction of a dry dock in the channel between the island and the mainland have resulted in its connection to the mainland shore at Potts Point from the 1940s. The wharves of the naval base now stretch the length of the eastern side of Woolloomooloo Bay, from the suburb of Woolloomooloo to the end of the original island. Garden Island is so-called because it was planted in 1788, in the first months of European settlement in Australia, to serve as a kitchen-garden by officers and crew of the First Fleet vessel HMS Sirius. Initials carved into a sandstone rock on the site are believed to be the oldest colonial graffiti in Australia, comprising the letters "FM 1788," representing Frederick Meredith who served as Sirius' steward. On 7 September 1811, ownership of Garden Island was declared to have transferred to the Governor's estate with produce dedicated for the exclusive use of Government House; the transfer had practical effect but due to an administrative error it was not formally registered, leaving the land in the legal ownership of the Navy, which sought its return in 1866.
Sandstone fortifications, built on the island during the 1820s to protect Sydney from a much-feared Russian attack survive. Garden Island boasts what is claimed to be Australia's first lawn tennis court. Built in 1880, it is still in use, although the lawn was replaced in 1960. Prior to World War II, the nearest sizable naval graving dock was at Singapore Naval Base. In 1938, the Australian cabinet approved the idea of building a large naval graving dock; the cost of construction was predicted at around A£3 million. A far cheaper alternative, a second-hand floating drydock being sold by Southern Railway was considered early on. Despite the A£175,000 cost, the acquisition was opposed by Admiral Ragnar Colvin, as it would be expensive and difficult to maintain, would be unable to accommodate the draught of ships being acquired for the RAN, would be risky to tow from England to Australia. Three sites were considered, with Potts Point chosen as the cheapest location; the dock itself was built by the reclamation of 30 acres of land, connecting Garden Island to the mainland.
By September 1944, work had been completed to the stage. On 2 March 1945, the British aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious underwent an emergency docking: although the drydock was not due to open for another three weeks, the advanced state of building made the docking possible; the Captain Cook Graving Dock was formally opened by Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester in his role as the Governor-General of Australia, with the ribbon cutting performed by the bow of the frigate HMAS Lachlan. During the first year of operations, the drydock received the British battleship HMS Anson; the dock is 1,139 feet 5 inches long, with a width of 147 feet 7.5 inches. The dock is 45 feet deep at spring tide; when filled, the dock has a capacity of 50,000,000 imperial gallons. The dock can be drained in a four-hour period through the use of three 60-inch centrifugal pumps; the hammerhead crane was built between 1951 on the Fitting Out Wharf at Garden Island. The electrically powered crane had a total height of 203 feet.
The electrical and mechanical equipment was sourced from England, while the steel frame was fabricated in Sydney. Although declared completed in January 1952, the crane was operational from March 1951; the crane's primary purpose was the removal and installation of warship gun turrets, although it was used for other machinery and loads, had a lifting capacity of up to 250 tonnes. It was last used in 1996. In August 2013, the Federal Government announced the removal of the hammerhead crane, at an estimated cost of $10.3 million. Other options, such as preserving the crane as a heritage structure and tourist attraction, restoring it to working order, or converting it to a new purpose, were ruled out due to cost and the risk to security at the naval base; the removal was seen as necessar
Adelaide Steamship Company
The Adelaide Steamship Company was formed by a group of South Australian businessmen in 1875. Their aim was to control the transport of goods between Adelaide and Melbourne and profit from the need for an efficient and comfortable passenger service. For its first 100 years, the company's main activities were conventional shipping operations on the Australian coast, primary products, consumer cargoes and extensive passenger services. In the 1930s and 1940s, the company diversified into the airline operations, towage and the shipping of salt and sugar. Adelaide Airways was formed in 1935, purchased West Australian Airways before merging with Holyman's Airways to form Australian National Airways in 1936. ANA was sold to Reg Ansett in 1957. In 1964, the Interstate fleet merged with McIlwraith, McEacharn & Co, the partnership developed the world's first purpose built container ships. However, in 1973, the company ceased its shipbuilding operations, in 1977, in its 103rd year of operation, the company sold its shipping related businesses, ceased its connection with ship owning and operating.
The company did, retain its interests in tugboat operations. In the 1970s and 1980s, with John Spalvins at the helm, the company became a corporate raider with a portfolio financed by huge borrowings; the recession of the early 1990s caused lenders, over 200 banks, to demand the return of their assets. This forced the liquidation of the portfolio. With the completion of the liquidation, on 30 April 1997 the company was renamed Residual Assco Group Limited in order that the Adelaide Steamship name could be reused. Residual Assco was delisted on 24 December 1999. In June 1997, the tug boat operations were floated on the Australian Stock Exchange under the name Adsteam Marine. In 2001, Adsteam Marine acquired Howard Smith. Adsteam Marine became the largest towage operator in Australia and the United Kingdom, with further extensive operations in the South Pacific. In 2006, Adsteam Marine was acquired as the Pacific arm of the world's largest shipping company, AP Moeller-Maersk, thus removing the Adelaide Steamship name from the Australian Stock Exchange and Australian Company registers.
The company was formed in September 1875 in Adelaide, South Australia, by a group of pastoralists and businessmen, some of whom had steamship interests in the Spencer Gulf, namely Federal Wharf Co. Ltd, Port Adelaide Dredging Company Ltd and Spencer Gulf Shipping Co. Ltd, was incorporated on 8 October 1875, its promoters and founding directors included Andrew Tennant, Robert Barr Smith and Thomas Elder of Elder Smith & Co Ltd. The first ship of the new company was Flinders. In July 1876 the company's leading promoters amalgamated their private ship-owning interests to form the Spencer's Gulf Steamship Co Ltd, trading in South Australian coastal waters; the two companies amalgamated in December 1882. The fleet circled the coast from Derby in northern Western Australia to Cairns in northern Queensland. Shipping operations were supported by a large network of agency offices in every major Australian port. During World War I, several Adelaide Steamship Company ships were requisitioned, as were several other owned ships.
Yankalilla and Echunga were commandeered. Adelaide Steamship Company was liquidated and reconstructed twice for more efficient and profitable operation, first in 1900 and subsequently in 1920. On 20 January 1915 they took over Coast Steamships Limited, kept it running as a subsidiary that retained its own identity until 1968. By the start of World War II, the company owned 30 ships. With World War II, the company was again forced to surrender nine ships to the Navy, including Manoora and Manunda which became an Armed Merchant Cruiser and a hospital ship. Manunda was in Darwin harbour during the Japanese bombing and was able to bring 260 military and civilian casualties to safety in Fremantle. During the war she carried about 30,000 sick and wounded back to Australia from the Middle East and New Guinea. During the 1940s, a decline in trade necessitated the company to diversify and they began to acquire interests in other companies and projects. After the war, the company diversified into towage and the shipping of salt and sugar.
On 1 January 1964, its interstate fleet was merged with that of McIlwraith McEacharn in a new company, Associated Steamships Limited, in which Adelaide Steamship Company held 40%. In 1964, the merged company developed the world's first purpose built container ship, MV Kooringa. Bulkships Limited, in which Adelaide Steamship held a 40% interest in 1965, acquired all the shares in Associated Steamship Limited in 1968. In 1977 the company's interest in Bulkships was disposed of and Adelaide Steamship Company ceased its connection with ship owning and operating; the company did, retain its interests in Tug boats and Tug boat operations and by the late 1980s, Adelaide Steamship was one of Australia's oldest surviving industrial companies. Ships owned and operated by Adelaide Steamship Company included: Argosy Lemal Booya HMAS Bungaree SS Camira Built 1894 as SS Clan Campbell SS Cantara Built 1894 as SS Clan Ross SS Ceduna Built 1894 as SS Clan Mackay SS Ferret MV Kooringa SS Koombana HMAS Manoora TSMV Manunda MV Minnipa MV Moonta SS Paringa Polly Woodside SS Warilda HMAT Warilda SS Willochra RMS Fort Victoria SS Yongala Adelaide Airways was formed as a subsidiary of the Adelaide Steamship Company on 3 July 1935 and commenced operations on 29 October.
It had a number of different types of aircraft in its fleet, including the Short Scion, the General Aircraft Monospar S
The Commander-in-Chief, China was a senior officer position of the Royal Navy. The officer in this position was in charge of the Navy's vessels and shore establishments in China from 1865 to 1941, he thus directed a naval formation, known in official documents, as the China Station. From 1831 to 1865, the East Indies Station and the China Station were a single command known as the East Indies and China Station; the China Station, established in 1865, had as its area of responsibility the coasts of China and its navigable rivers, the western part of the Pacific Ocean, the waters around the Dutch East Indies. The navy co-operated with British commercial interests in this area; the formation had bases at Singapore, HMS Tamar in Wei Hai. The China Station complement consisted of several older light cruisers and destroyers, the Chinese rivers were patrolled by a flotilla of suitable, shallow-draught gunboats, referred to as "China gunboats". Ships on this station had a distinctive livery of white hull and superstructure and dark funnels.
In response to increased Japanese threats, the separate China Station was merged with the East Indies Station in December 1941 to form the Eastern Fleet. List of Eastern Fleet ships List of fleets and major commands of the Royal Navy
Royal Australian Navy
The Royal Australian Navy is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force, called the Commonwealth Naval Forces. Intended for local defence, the navy was granted the title of'Royal Australian Navy' in 1911, became responsible for defence of the region. Britain's Royal Navy’s Australian Squadron was assigned to the Australia Station and provided support to the RAN; the Australian and New Zealand governments helped to fund the Australian Squadron until 1913, while the Admiralty committed itself to keeping the Squadron at a constant strength. The Australian Squadron ceased on 4 October 1913, when RAN ships entered Sydney Harbour for the first time; the Royal Navy continued to provide blue-water defence capability in the Pacific up to the early years of World War II. Rapid wartime expansion saw the acquisition of large surface vessels and the building of many smaller warships.
In the decade following the war, the RAN acquired a small number of aircraft carriers, the last of, decommissioned in 1982. Today, the RAN consists of 48 commissioned vessels, 3 non-commissioned vessels and over 16,000 personnel; the navy is one of the largest and most sophisticated naval forces in the South Pacific region, with a significant presence in the Indian Ocean and worldwide operations in support of military campaigns and peacekeeping missions. The current Chief of Navy is Vice Admiral Michael Noonan; the Commonwealth Naval Forces were established on 1 March 1901, two months after the federation of Australia, when the naval forces of the separate Australian colonies were amalgamated. A period of uncertainty followed as the policy makers sought to determine the newly established force's requirements and purpose, with the debate focusing upon whether Australia's naval force would be structured for local defence or whether it would be designed to serve as a fleet unit within a larger imperial force, controlled centrally by the British Admiralty.
In 1908–09, the decision was made to pursue a compromise solution, the Australian government agreed to establish a force that would be used for local defence but which would be capable of forming a fleet unit within the imperial naval strategy, albeit without central control. As a result, the navy's force structure was set at "one battlecruiser, three light cruisers, six destroyers and three submarines". On 10 July 1911, King George V granted the service the title of "Royal Australian Navy"; the first of the RAN's new vessels, the destroyer Yarra, was completed in September 1910 and by the outbreak of the First World War the majority of the RAN's planned new fleet had been realised. The Australian Squadron was placed under control of the British Admiralty, it was tasked with capturing many of Germany's South Pacific colonies and protecting Australian shipping from the German East Asia Squadron. In the war, most of the RAN's major ships operated as part of Royal Navy forces in the Mediterranean and North Seas, later in the Adriatic, the Black Sea following the surrender of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1919, the RAN received a force of six destroyers, three sloops and six submarines from the Royal Navy, but throughout the 1920s and early 1930s, the RAN was drastically reduced in size due to a variety of factors including political apathy and economic hardship as a result of the Great Depression. In this time the focus of Australia's naval policy shifted from defence against invasion to trade protection, several fleet units were sunk as targets or scrapped. By 1923, the size of the navy had fallen to eight vessels, by the end of the decade it had fallen further to five, with just 3,500 personnel. In the late 1930s, as international tensions increased, the RAN was modernised and expanded, with the service receiving primacy of funding over the Army and Air Force during this time as Australia began to prepare for war. Early in the Second World War, RAN ships again operated as part of Royal Navy formations, many serving with distinction in the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean, off the West African coast.
Following the outbreak of the Pacific War and the virtual destruction of British naval forces in south-east Asia, the RAN operated more independently, or as part of United States Navy formations. As the navy took on an greater role, it was expanded and at its height the RAN was the fourth-largest navy in the world, with 39,650 personnel operating 337 warships. A total of 34 vessels were lost during the war, including four destroyers. After the Second World War, the size of the RAN was again reduced, but it gained new capabilities with the acquisition of two aircraft carriers and Melbourne; the RAN saw action in many Cold War–era conflicts in the Asia-Pacific region and operated alongside the Royal Navy and United States Navy off Korea and Vietnam. Since the end of the Cold War, the RAN has been part of Coalition forces in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, operating in support of Operation Slipper and undertaking counter piracy operations, it was deployed in support of Australian peacekeeping operations in East Timor and the Solomon Islands.
The strategic command structure of the RAN was overhauled during the New Generation Navy changes. The RAN is commanded through Naval Headquarters in Canberra; the professional head is the Chief of Navy. NHQ is responsible for implementing policy decisions handed down from the Department of Defence and for overseeing tactical and operational issues that are the purview of the subordinate commands. Beneath NHQ are two subordinate commands: Fleet Command: fleet comma
Indian Ocean in World War II
Prior to World War II, the Indian Ocean was an important maritime trade route between European nations and their colonial territories in East Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, British India, the East Indies, Australia for a long time. Naval presence was dominated by the Royal Navy Eastern Fleet and the Royal Australian Navy as World War II began, with a major portion of the Royal Netherlands Navy operating in the Dutch East Indies and the Red Sea Flotilla of the Italian Regia Marina operating from Massawa. Axis naval forces gave a high priority to disrupting Allied trade in the Indian Ocean. Initial anti-shipping measures of unrestricted submarine warfare and covert raiding ships expanded to include airstrikes by aircraft carriers and raids by cruisers of the Imperial Japanese Navy. A Kriegsmarine Monsun Gruppe of U-boats operated from the eastern Indian Ocean after the Persian Corridor became an important military supply route to the Soviet Union. 15 November 1939: Australian and French warships began patrolling the Indian Ocean when the German pocket battleship Admiral Graf Spee sank the tanker Africa Shell south of Madagascar.
The Regia Marina Red Sea Flotilla based at Massawa provided a focal point for Indian Ocean naval activity following Italian declaration of war on 10 June 1940. 23 March 1940: The Royal Navy established the Malaya Force of cruisers and submarines to stop German merchant ships leaving the Dutch East Indies. 11 May 1940: German merchant raider Atlantis entered the Indian Ocean from the South Atlantic. 7 June 1940: Italian warships began minelaying off Massawa and Assab. 10 June 1940: Eight Italian submarines began war patrols of the Indian Ocean from Massawa. Some of these submarines were lost because leakage of chloromethane air conditioning refrigerants caused central nervous system poisoning of their crews from recirculating air during submerged operations. 10 June 1940: Atlantis captured the freighter Tirranna in the Central Indian Ocean. 16 June 1940: Italian submarine Galileo Galilei sank the tanker James Stove. 19 June 1940: Galileo Galilei was captured by the British naval trawler Moonstone.
23 June 1940: Italian submarine Torricelli sank HMS Khartoum before being sunk by accompanying destroyers. 24 June 1940: Italian submarine Galvani sank the sloop HMIS Pathan before being sunk by the sloop HMS Falmouth. 11 July 1940: Atlantis sank the freighter City of Bagdad south of India. 13 July 1940: Atlantis sank the freighter Kemmendine south of India. 2 August 1940: Atlantis sank the freighter Tallyrand in the central Indian Ocean. 17 August 1940: Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy cruisers and destroyers covered the withdrawal of British troops from British Somaliland to Aden. 24 August 1940: Atlantis sank the freighter King City in the Central Indian Ocean. 26 August 1940: German merchant raider Pinguin sank the tanker Filefjell south of Madagascar. 27 August 1940: Pinguin sank the tanker British Commander and the freighter Morviken south of Madagascar. 6 September 1940: Italian submarine Guglielmotti sank the tanker Atlas in the Red Sea. 9 September 1940: Atlantis sank the tanker Athelking in the central Indian Ocean.
10 September 1940: Atlantis sank the freighter Benarty in the central Indian Ocean. 12 September 1940: Pinguin sank the freighter Benavon east of Madagascar. 16 September 1940: Pinguin captured the freighter Nordvard in the central Indian Ocean. 20 September 1940: Atlantis sank the liner Commissaire Ramel west of Sumatra. 7 October 1940: Pinguin captured the tanker Storstad south of Java. 21 October 1940: Italian destroyer Nullo was sunk during the battle of Mumbai to Suez Canal convoy BN 7. 22 October 1940: Atlantis captured the freighter Durmitor west of Sumatra. 9 November 1940: Atlantis sank the freighter Teddy west of Sumatra. 10 November 1940: Atlantis captured the tanker Ole Jacob west of Sumatra. 11 November 1940: Atlantis sank the freighter Automedon west of Sumatra. 18 November 1940: HMS Dorsetshire shelled Italian Somaliland. 18 November 1940: Pinguin sank the freighter Nowshera west of Australia. 20 November 1940: Pinguin sank the freighter Maioma west of Australia. 21 November 1940: Pinguin sank the freighter Port Brisbane west of Australia.
30 November 1940: Pinguin sank the freighter Port Wellington in the central Indian Ocean. Early focus was Allied neutralisation and capture of Regia Marina African naval bases, followed by invasions of Iraq in April and Iran in August, to displace governments friendly to the Axis powers. Allied focus was on destruction of Kriegsmarine commerce raiders and moving troops to defend against anticipated Japanese expansion into south-east Asia. 24 January 1941: German merchant raider Atlantis sank the freighter Mandasor north of Madagascar. 31 January 1941: Atlantis captured the freighter Speybank north of Madagascar. 2 February 1941: HMS Formidable aircraft raided Mogadishu as Operation Breach. Atlantis captured the tanker Ketty Brövig north of Madagascar. 3 February 1941: German pocket battleship Admiral Scheer entered the Indian Ocean from the South Atlantic. 10 February 1941: HMS Shropshire, Hawkins, Capetown and Kandahar formed Force T supporting the Allied offensive against Italian Somaliland from Kenya.
13 February 1941: Fourteen Fairey Albacore from HMS Formidable sank SS Monacalieri in the Operation Composition raid on Massawa. 20 February 1941: Admiral Scheer sank the freighter Grigorios C and captured the tanker British Advocate north of Madagascar. 21 February 1941: Seven Fairey Albacore from HMS Formidable raided Massawa. Admiral Scheer sank the freighter Canadian Cruiser north of Madagascar. 22 February 1941: Admiral Scheer sank the freighter Rantaupandjang north of Madagascar. 27 February 1941: Acti