The displacement or displacement tonnage of a ship is its weight based on the amount of water its hull displaces at varying loads. It is measured indirectly using Archimedes' principle by first calculating the volume of water displaced by the ship converting that value into weight displaced. Traditionally, various measurement rules have been in use. Today, metric tonnes are more used. Ship displacement varies by a vessel's degree of load, from its empty weight as designed to its maximum load. Numerous specific terms are detailed below. Ship displacement should not be confused with measurements of volume or capacity used for commercial vessels, such as net tonnage, gross tonnage, or deadweight tonnage; the process of determining a vessel's displacement begins with measuring its draft This is accomplished by means of its "draft marks". A merchant vessel has three matching sets: one mark each on the port and starboard sides forward and astern; these marks allow a ship's displacement to be determined to an accuracy of 0.5%.
The draft observed at each set of marks is averaged to find a mean draft. The ship's hydrostatic tables show the corresponding volume displaced. To calculate the weight of the displaced water, it is necessary to know its density. Seawater is more dense than fresh water; the density of water varies with temperature. Devices akin to slide rules have been available, it is done today with computers. Displacement is measured in units of tonnes or long tons. There are terms for the displacement of a vessel under specified conditions: Loaded displacement is the weight of the ship including cargo, fuel, stores and such other items necessary for use on a voyage; these bring the ship down to its "load draft", colloquially known as the "waterline". Full load displacement and loaded displacement have identical definitions. Full load is defined as the displacement of a vessel when floating at its greatest allowable draft as established by a classification society. Warships have arbitrary full load condition established.
Deep load condition means stores, with most available fuel capacity used. Light displacement is defined as the weight of the ship excluding cargo, water, stores, crew, but with water in boilers to steaming level. Normal displacement is the ship's displacement "with all outfit, two-thirds supply of stores, etc. on board." Standard displacement known as "Washington displacement", is a specific term defined by the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922. It is the displacement of the ship complete manned and equipped ready for sea, including all armament and ammunition, outfit and fresh water for crew, miscellaneous stores, implements of every description that are intended to be carried in war, but without fuel or reserve boiler feed water on board. Naval architecture Hull Hydrodynamics Tonnage Dear, I. C. B.. Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-920568-X. George, William E.. Stability & Trim for the Ship's Officer. Centreville, Md: Cornell Maritime Press. ISBN 0-87033-564-2.
Hayler, William B.. American Merchant Seaman's Manual. Cambridge, Md: Cornell Maritime Press. ISBN 0-87033-549-9.. Turpin, Edward A.. Merchant Marine Officers' Handbook. Centreville, MD: Cornell Maritime Press. ISBN 0-87033-056-X. Navy Department. "Nomenclature of Naval Vessels". History.navy.mil. United States Navy. Retrieved 2008-03-24. Military Sealift Command. "Definitions and Equivalents". MSC Ship Inventory. United States Navy. Retrieved 2008-03-24. MLCPAC Naval Engineering Division. "Trim and Stability Information for Drydocking Calculations". United States Coast Guard. Retrieved 2008-03-24. United States of America. "Conference on the Limitation of Armament, 1922". Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: 1922. 1. Pp. 247–266. United States Naval Institute. Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute. United States Naval Institute. Retrieved 2008-03-24
General Dynamics Corporation is an American aerospace and defense multinational corporation formed by mergers and divestitures. It is the world's fifth-largest defense contractor based on 2012 revenues; the company ranked No. 99 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. It is headquartered in Fairfax County, Virginia; the company has changed markedly in the post–Cold War era of defense consolidation. It has four main business segments: Marine Systems, Combat Systems, Information Systems Technology, Aerospace. General Dynamics' former Fort Worth Division manufactured the F-16 Fighting Falcon until 1993, one of the Western world's most-produced jet fighters. Production was sold to Lockheed Martin, but GD re-entered the airframe business in 1999 with its purchase of Gulfstream Aerospace. General Dynamics traces its ancestry to John Philip Holland's Holland Torpedo Boat Company; this company was responsible for developing the U. S. Navy's first modern submarines, built at Lewis Nixon's Crescent Shipyard in Elizabethport, New Jersey.
The revolutionary submarine boat Holland VI was built there, its keel being laid down in 1896. Crescent's superintendent and naval architect Arthur Leopold Busch supervised the construction of this submarine, launched on 17 May 1897, it was purchased by the navy and renamed USS Holland. The Holland was commissioned on 12 October 1900 and became the United States Navy's first submarine known as SS-1; the Navy placed an order for more submarines, which were developed in rapid succession and were assembled at two different locations on both coasts. These submarines were known as the A-Class or Adder Class and became America's first fleet of underwater craft at the beginning of the 20th century. Holland grew short on funds due to the lengthy and expensive process of introducing the world's first practical submarines, he had to part with his company and sell his interest to financier Isaac Leopold Rice, who renamed the firm the Electric Boat Company on 7 February 1899. Holland lost control of the company and found himself earning a salary of $90 a week as chief engineer, while the company that he founded was selling submarines for $300,000 each.
Holland resigned from the company effective April 1904, Rice became Electric Boat's first president, remaining there from that time until 1915 when he stepped down just prior to his death on 2 November 1915. Electric Boat gained a reputation for unscrupulous arms dealing in 1904–05 when it sold submarines to Japan's Imperial Japanese Navy and Russia's Imperial Russian Navy, who were at war with one another. Holland submarines were sold to the British Royal Navy through the English armaments company Vickers, to the Dutch to serve in the Royal Netherlands Navy. Electric Boat was cash-flush but lacking in work following World War II, with its workforce shrinking from 13,000 to 4,000 by 1946. President and chief executive officer John Jay Hopkins started looking for companies that would fit into Electric Boat's market in hopes of diversifying. Canadair was owned by the Canadian government and was suffering from the same post-war malaise as Electric Boat, it was up for sale, Hopkins bought the company for $10 million in 1946.
The factory alone was worth more than $22 million, according to the Canadian government's calculations, excluding the value of the remaining contracts for planes or spare parts. However, Canadair's production line and inventory systems were in disorder when Electric Boat purchased the company. Hopkins hired Canadian-born mass-production specialist H. Oliver West to take over the president's role and return Canadair to profitability. Shortly after the takeover, Canadair began delivering its new Canadair North Star and was able to deliver aircraft to Trans-Canada Airlines, Canadian Pacific Airlines, British Overseas Airways Corporation well in advance of their contracted delivery times. Defense spending increased with the onset of the Cold War, Canadair went on to win many Canadian military contracts for the Royal Canadian Air Force and became a major aerospace company; these included Canadair T-33 trainer, the Canadair Argus long-range maritime reconnaissance and transport aircraft, the Canadair F-86 Sabre.
Between 1950 and 1958, 1,815 Sabres were built. Canadair produced 200 CF-104 Starfighter supersonic fighter aircraft, a license-built version of the Lockheed F-104. In 1976, General Dynamics sold Canadair to the Canadian Government for $38 million, the company was acquired by Bombardier Inc. in 1986. Aircraft production became important at Canadair, Hopkins argued that the name "Electric Boat" was no longer appropriate—so Electric Boat was reorganized as General Dynamics on 24 April 1952. General Dynamics purchased Convair from the Atlas Group in March 1953; the sale was approved by government oversight with the provision that GD would continue to operate out of Air Force Plant 4 in Fort Worth, Texas. This factory was set up in order to spread out strategic aircraft production and rented to Convair during the war to produce B-24 Liberator bombers. Over time, the Fort Worth plant became Convair's major production center. General Dynamics purchased Liquid Carbonic Corporation in September 1957 and controlled it as a wholly owned subsidiary until being forced by a Federal antitrust ruling to spin it off to shareholders in January 1969.
Liquid Carbonic was bought that same month by the Houston Natural Gas Company. Convair worked as an independent division under the General Dynamics umbrella. Over the next decade, the company introduced the F-106 Delta Dart Interceptor, the B-58 Hustler, the Convair 880 and 990 airliners. Convair introduced the Atlas missile
The Flower-class corvette was a British class of 267 corvettes used during World War II with the Allied navies as anti-submarine convoy escorts during the Battle of the Atlantic. Royal Navy ships of this class were named after hence the name of the class; the majority served during World War II with the Royal Royal Canadian Navy. Several ships built in Canada were transferred from the RN to the United States Navy under the lend-lease programme, seeing service in both navies; some corvettes transferred to the USN were manned by the US Coast Guard. The vessels serving with the US Navy were known as Temptress and Action-class patrol gunboats. Other Flower-class corvettes served with the Free French Naval Forces, the Royal Netherlands Navy, the Royal Norwegian Navy, the Royal Indian Navy, the Royal Hellenic Navy, the Royal New Zealand Navy, the Royal Yugoslav Navy, post-war, the South African Navy. After World War II many surplus Flower-class vessels saw worldwide use in other navies, as well as civilian use.
HMCS Sackville is the only member of the class to be preserved as a museum ship. The term "corvette" was a French name for a small sailing warship, intermediate between the frigate and the sloop-of-war. In the 1830s the term was adopted by the RN for sailing warships of similar size operating in the shipping protection role. With the arrival of steam power, paddle- and screw-driven corvettes were built for the same purpose, growing in power and armament over the decades. In 1877 the RN abolished the "corvette" as a traditional category; the months leading up to World War II saw the RN return to the concept of a small escort warship being used in the shipping protection role. The Flower class was based on the design of Southern Pride, a whale-catcher, were labelled "corvettes", thus restoring the title for the RN, although the Flower-class has no connection with pre-1877 cruising vessels. There are two distinct groups of vessels in this class: the original Flower-class, 225 vessels ordered during the 1939 and 1940 building programmes.
The modified Flowers were larger and somewhat better armed. All Flower-class vessels, of original or modified design, that saw service with the USN are known as Action-class gunboats, carried the hull classification symbol PG. In early 1939, with the risk of war with Nazi Germany increasing, it was clear to the Royal Navy that it needed more escort ships to counter the threat from Kriegsmarine U-boats. One particular concern was the need to protect shipping off the east coast of Britain. What was needed was something larger and faster than trawlers, but still cheap enough to be built in large numbers, preferably at small merchant shipyards, as larger yards were busy. To meet this requirement, the Smiths Dock Company of Middlesbrough, a specialist in the design and build of fishing vessels, offered a development of its 700-ton, 16 knots whale catcher Southern Pride, they were intended as small convoy escort ships that could be produced and cheaply in large numbers. Despite naval planners' intentions that they be deployed for coastal convoys, their long range meant that they became the mainstay of Mid-Ocean Escort Force convoy protection during the first half of the war.
The Flower class became an essential resource for North Atlantic convoy protection until larger vessels such as destroyer escorts and frigates could be produced in sufficient quantities. The simple design of the Flower class using parts and techniques common to merchant shipping meant they could be constructed in small commercial shipyards all over the United Kingdom and Canada, where larger warships could not be built. Additionally, the use of commercial triple expansion machinery instead of steam turbines meant the Royal Naval Reserve and Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve crews that were manning the corvettes would be familiar with their operation. Flower-class vessels were slow for a warship, with maximum speed of 16 kn, they were very armed as they were intended for anti-submarine warfare. The original Flowers had the standard RN layout, consisting of a raised forecastle, a well deck the bridge or wheelhouse, a continuous deck running aft; the crew quarters were in the foc'sle while the galley was at the rear, making for poor messing arrangements.
The modified Flowers saw the forecastle extended aft past the bridge to the aft end of the funnel, a variation known as the "long forecastle" design. Apart from providing a useful space where the whole crew could gather out of the weather, the added weight improved the ships' stability and speed and was retroactively applied to a number of the original Flower-class vessels during the mid and latter years of the war; the original Flowers had a mast located forward the bridge, a notable exception to naval practice at that time. The modified Flowers saw the mast returned to the normal position aft of the bridge. A cruiser stern finished the appearance for all vessels in the class; the RN ordered 145 Flower-class corvettes in 1939, the first 26 on 25 July with a further batch of 30 on 31 August, all under the 1939 Pre-War Pr
A corvette is a small warship. It is traditionally the smallest class of vessel considered to be a proper warship; the warship class above the corvette is that of the frigate, while the class below was that of the sloop-of-war. The modern types of ship below a corvette are coastal patrol craft and fast attack craft. In modern terms, a corvette is between 500 tons and 2,000 tons although recent designs may approach 3,000 tons, which might instead be considered a small frigate; the word "corvette" is first found in Middle French, a diminutive of the Dutch word corf, meaning a small ship, from the Latin corbis, meaning "basket". The rank "corvette captain", equivalent in many navies to "lieutenant commander", derives from the name of this type of ship; the rank is the most junior of three "captain" ranks in several European and South American navies, because a corvette, as the smallest class of rated warship, was traditionally the smallest class of vessel entitled to a commander of a "captain" rank.
During the Age of Sail, corvettes were one of many types of warships smaller than a frigate and with a single deck of guns. They were closely related to sloops-of-war; the role of the corvette consisted of coastal patrol, fighting minor wars, supporting large fleets, or participating in show-the-flag missions. The English Navy began using small ships in the 1650s, but described them as sloops rather than corvettes; the first reference to a corvette was with the French Navy in the 1670s, which may be where the term originated. The French Navy's corvettes grew over the decades and by the 1780s they were ships of 20 guns or so equivalent to the British Navy's post ships; the British Navy did not adopt the term until the 1830s, long after the Napoleonic Wars, to describe a small sixth-rate vessel somewhat larger than a sloop. The last vessel lost by France during the American War of Independence was the corvette Le Dragon, scuttled by her captain to avoid being seized by a British squadron off Monte Cristi, Haïti in January 1783.
Most corvettes and sloops of the 17th century were around 40 to 60 ft in length and measured 40 to 70 tons burthen. They carried four to eight smaller guns on a single deck. Over time, vessels of increasing size and capability were called corvettes. Ships during the steam era became more maneuverable than their sail ancestors. Corvettes during this era were used alongside gunboats during colonial missions. Battleships and other large vessels were unnecessary when fighting the indigenous people of the Far East and Africa; the modern corvette appeared during World War II as an easily-built convoy escort vessel. The British naval designer William Reed drew up a small ship based on the single-shaft Smiths Dock Company whale catcher Southern Pride, whose simple design and mercantile construction standards lent itself to rapid production in large numbers in small yards unused to naval work. First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill Prime Minister, had a hand in reviving the name "corvette". During the arms buildup leading to World War II, the term "corvette" was attached to the Tribal-class destroyer.
The Tribals were so much larger than and sufficiently different from other British destroyers that some consideration was given to resurrecting the classification of "corvette" and applying it to them. This idea was dropped, the term applied to small, mass-produced antisubmarine escorts such as the Flower class of World War II; the first modern corvettes were the Flower class. Their chief duty was to protect convoys throughout the Battle of the Atlantic and on the routes from the UK to Murmansk carrying supplies to the Soviet Union; the Flower-class corvette was designed for offshore patrol work, was not ideal as an antisubmarine escort. They were seaworthy and maneuverable, but living conditions for ocean voyages were appalling; because of this, the corvette was superseded in the Royal Navy as the escort ship of choice by the frigate, larger, better armed, had two shafts. However, many small yards could not produce vessels of frigate size, so an improved corvette design, the Castle class, was introduced in the war, with some remaining in service until the mid-1950s.
The Royal Australian Navy built 60 Bathurst-class corvettes, including 20 for the Royal Navy crewed by Australians, four for the Indian Navy. These were described as Australian minesweepers, or as minesweeping sloops by the Royal Navy, were named after Australian towns; the Bird-class minesweepers or trawlers were referred to as corvettes in the Royal New Zealand Navy, two and Moa, rammed and sank a much larger Japanese submarine, I-1, in 1943 in the Solomon Islands. In Italy, the Regia Marina, in dire need of escort vessels for its convoys, designed the Gabbiano-class corvette, of which 29 were built between 1942 and 1943. Modern navies began a trend in the late 20th and early 21st centuries towards smaller, more manoeuvrable surface capability. Corvettes have a
The Annapolis-class destroyer escort was a two-ship class of destroyer escorts that saw service with the Royal Canadian Navy and Canadian Forces from the 1960s to the 1990s. The final version of the St. Laurent-class design, the class was used extensively for anti-submarine warfare purposes. Both ships were sunk as artificial reefs after being retired, one on each coast of Canada; the Royal Canadian Navy had intended to place a six ship order under the Mackenzie class of destroyer escorts. The ships measured 366 feet with a beam of 42 feet and a draught of 13 feet 2 inches; the ships displaced 2,400 tonnes and had a complement of 228. The ships were powered by two Babcock & Wilcox boilers connected to the two-shaft English-Electric geared steam turbines providing 30,000 shaft horsepower; this gave the ships a maximum speed of 28 knots. The ships were armed with two 3-inch /50 calibre dual-purpose guns mounted in a single turret forward; the extra topweight of the helicopter required the return of the American Mk 33 3-inch gun over the heavier 3-inch/70 calibre guns used on the preceding class.
The 3-inch/50s fired a projectile that weighed 24 pounds. The guns had a muzzle velocity of a range of 14,600 yards at a 45 ° angle; the guns could fire 45 – 50 rounds per minute with a lifespan of 2,050 rounds. The guns were placed in a Mk 33 mount; the mounting allowed the guns to elevate from −15° to 85°. The elevation rate was 30 ° per second and train rate; the mounts could train 360°. For anti-submarine warfare, the ships were armed with a Mk 10 Limbo mortar; the Limbo was a British-designed three-barrel mortar capable of launching a projectile shell between 400–1,000 yards. Placed on stabilized mountings, the projectiles always entered the water at the same angle; the total weight of the shell was 390 pounds. They had a Mk.4 thrower with homing torpedoes. The ships were outfitted with one SPS-12 air search radar, one SPS-10B surface search radar, one Sperry Mk.2 navigation radar. For sensing below the surface, the class was given one SQS-501 high frequency bottom profiler sonar, one SQS-502 high frequency mortar control sonar, one SQS-503 hull mounted active search sonar and one SQS-504 VDS medium frequency active search sonar.
For fire control purposes they were given one Mk 64 GFCS fire control with SPG-48 tracker. The two Annapolis-class destroyers were built late enough to incorporate the helicopter hangar retrofitted to the St. Laurent class and the "Beartrap" haul-down device; this allowed. The DEstroyer Life EXtension refit was born out of the need to extend the life of the steam-powered destroyer escorts of the Canadian Navy in the 1980s until the next generation of surface ship was built. Encompassing all the classes based on the initial St. Laurent, the DELEX upgrades were meant to improve their ability to combat modern Soviet submarines, to allow them to continue to operate as part of NATO task forces. Nipigon underwent a DELEX refit in 1982 and Annapolis followed in 1984; the Annapolis class received the same sensor and communications upgrades that others in the St Laurent family of ships received, including the installation of a new tactical data system, updated radars and sonars, fire control and satellite navigation.
They received the new Canadian Tactical Towed Array Sensor or CANTASS, a long-range towed sonar array, affixed to the stern, which replaced the older VDS. The class received a new lattice mast; the AN/SPS-503 radar was installed, the AN/SPS-10D replaced the older, AN/SPS-10 model. The AN/SQS-502, AN/SQS-503 and SQS-10/11 sonars were removed and replaced by AN/SQS-505 in a fixed dome below the waterline; the installation of the two ADLIPS units allowed the vessels to better integrate into NATO units. They were given 12.75-inch torpedo tubes to allow them to fire Mark 46 torpedoes. However, the Limbo mortar was removed in order to install the CANTASS; this visibly altered the overall appearance of the ships. The AN/SQR-504 was replaced by the CANTASS; the Super RBOC chaff system was installed during the refit. Nipigon was laid down by Marine Industries Ltd on 5 August 1960 and Annapolis by Halifax Shipyards on 2 September 1961. Both ships commissioned in 1964. Both ships spent the majority of their career split between Canada's Pacific and Atlantic coasts with the Annapolis being at Esquimalt and Nipigon at Halifax.
They spent most of their careers participating in training exercises, such as Ocean Safari'87 or representing Canada at ceremonial situations, such as commemorating the Battle of the Atlantic in May 1993 at Liverpool. In 1994, Annapolis participated in Operation Forward Action off Haiti. In 1995, after illegal fishing had taken place in Canada's exclusive economic zone, Nipigon was sent to support Canadian Coast Guard and Fisheries vessels in apprehending the perpetrators, in what became called the Turbot War. Nipigon remained in the fleet until 1998 as a trials ship for the ETASS Mod 5 towed sonar system, a precursor to the CANTASS, fitted on the Halifax class of frigates. Both Annapolis and Nipigon were paid off on 1 July 1998. Nipigon was towed to Rimouski and sunk as an artificial reef off the coast. After years of court battles, Annapolis was sunk
The Raytheon Company is a major U. S. defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics. It was involved in corporate and special-mission aircraft until early 2007. Raytheon is the world's largest producer of guided missiles. Established in 1922, the company reincorporated in 1928 and adopted its present name in 1959; as of 2017 the company had around 64,000 employees worldwide and annual revenues of US$25.35 billion. More than 90% of Raytheon's revenues were obtained from military contracts and, as of 2012, it was the fifth-largest military contractor in the world; as of 2015, it is the third largest defense contractor in the United States by defense revenue. In 2003, Raytheon's headquarters moved from Massachusetts, to Waltham, Massachusetts; the company had been headquartered in Cambridge, from 1922 to 1928, Massachusetts, from 1928 to 1941, Waltham from 1941 to 1961 and Lexington from 1961 to 2003. In 1922, two former Tufts University School of Engineering roommates Laurence K. Marshall and Vannevar Bush, along with scientist Charles G. Smith, founded the American Appliance Company in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Its focus, on new refrigeration technology, soon shifted to electronics. The company's first product was a gaseous rectifier, based on Charles Smith's earlier astronomical research of the star Zeta Puppis; the electron tube was christened with the name Raytheon and was used in a battery eliminator, a type of radio-receiver power supply that plugged into the power grid in place of large batteries. This made it possible to convert household alternating current to direct current for radios and thus eliminate the need for expensive, short-lived batteries. In 1925, the company changed its name to Raytheon Manufacturing Company and began marketing its rectifier, under the Raytheon brand name, with commercial success. In 1928 Raytheon merged with Q. R. S. Company, an American manufacturer of electron tubes and switches, to form the successor of the same name, Raytheon Manufacturing Company. By the 1930s, it had grown to become one of the world's largest vacuum tube manufacturing companies. In 1933 it diversified by acquiring Acme-Delta Company, a producer of transformers, power equipment, electronic auto parts.
Early in World War II, physicists in the United Kingdom invented the magnetron, a specialized microwave-generating electron tube that markedly improved the capability of radar to detect enemy aircraft. American companies were sought by the US government to perfect and mass-produce the magnetron for ground-based and shipborne radar systems, with support from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Radiation Laboratory, Raytheon received a contract to build the devices. Within a few months of being awarded the contract, Raytheon had begun to mass manufacture magnetron tubes for use in radar sets and complete radar systems. At war's end in 1945 the company was responsible for about 80 percent of all magnetrons manufactured. During the war Raytheon pioneered the production of shipboard radar systems for submarine detection. Raytheon ranked 71st among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts. Raytheon's research on the magnetron tube revealed the potential of microwaves to cook food.
In 1945, Raytheon's Percy Spencer invented the microwave oven by discovering that the magnetron could heat food. In 1947, the company demonstrated the Radarange microwave oven for commercial use. In 1945, the company expanded its electronics capability through acquisitions that included the Submarine Signal Company, a leading manufacturer of maritime safety equipment. With its broadened capabilities, Raytheon developed the first guidance system for a missile that could intercept a flying target. In 1948, Raytheon began to manufacture guided missiles. In 1950, its Lark missile became the first such weapon to destroy a target aircraft in flight. Raytheon received military contracts to develop the air-to-air Sparrow and ground-to-air Hawk missiles—projects that received impetus from the Korean War. In decades, it remained a major producer of missiles, among them the Patriot antimissile missile and the air-to-air Phoenix missile. In 1959, Raytheon acquired the marine electronics company Apelco Applied Electronics, which increased its strength in commercial marine navigation and radio gear, as well as less-expensive Japanese suppliers of products such as marine/weather band radios and direction-finding gear.
In the same year, it changed its name to Raytheon Company. During the post-war years, Raytheon made low- to medium-powered radio and television transmitters and related equipment for the commercial market, but the high-powered market was solidly in the hands of larger, better financed competitors such as Continental Electronics, General Electric and Radio Corporation of America. In the 1950s, Raytheon began manufacturing transistors, including the CK722, priced and marketed to hobbyists. In 1961, the British electronics company A. C. Cossor merged with Raytheon; the new Company's name was Raytheon Cossor. The Cossor side of the organisation is still current in the Raytheon group As of 2010. In 1965, it acquired Amana Inc. a manufacturer of refrigerators and air conditioners. Using the Amana brand name and its distribution channels, Raytheon began selling the first countertop household microwave oven in 1967 and became a dominant manufacturer in the microwave oven business. In 1966, the company entered the educational publ