Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus, independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater. Scuba divers carry their own source of breathing gas compressed air, allowing them greater independence and freedom of movement than surface-supplied divers, longer underwater endurance than breath-hold divers. Although the use of compressed air is common, a new mixture called enriched air has been gaining popularity due to its benefit of reduced nitrogen intake during repetitive dives. Open circuit scuba systems discharge the breathing gas into the environment as it is exhaled, consist of one or more diving cylinders containing breathing gas at high pressure, supplied to the diver through a regulator, they may include additional cylinders for range extension, decompression gas or emergency breathing gas. Closed-circuit or semi-closed circuit rebreather scuba systems allow recycling of exhaled gases; the volume of gas used is reduced compared to that of open circuit, so a smaller cylinder or cylinders may be used for an equivalent dive duration.
Rebreathers extend. Scuba diving may be done recreationally or professionally in a number of applications, including scientific and public safety roles, but most commercial diving uses surface-supplied diving equipment when this is practicable. Scuba divers engaged in armed forces covert operations may be referred to as frogmen, combat divers or attack swimmers. A scuba diver moves underwater by using fins attached to the feet, but external propulsion can be provided by a diver propulsion vehicle, or a sled pulled from the surface. Other equipment includes a mask to improve underwater vision, exposure protection, equipment to control buoyancy, equipment related to the specific circumstances and purpose of the dive; some scuba divers use a snorkel. Scuba divers are trained in the procedures and skills appropriate to their level of certification by instructors affiliated to the diver certification organisations which issue these certifications; these include standard operating procedures for using the equipment and dealing with the general hazards of the underwater environment, emergency procedures for self-help and assistance of a equipped diver experiencing problems.
A minimum level of fitness and health is required by most training organisations, but a higher level of fitness may be appropriate for some applications. The history of scuba diving is linked with the history of scuba equipment. By the turn of the twentieth century, two basic architectures for underwater breathing apparatus had been pioneered. Closed circuit equipment was more adapted to scuba in the absence of reliable and economical high pressure gas storage vessels. By the mid twentieth century, high pressure cylinders were available and two systems for scuba had emerged: open-circuit scuba where the diver's exhaled breath is vented directly into the water, closed-circuit scuba where the carbon dioxide is removed from the diver's exhaled breath which has oxygen added and is recirculated. Oxygen rebreathers are depth-limited due to oxygen toxicity risk, which increases with depth, the available systems for mixed gas rebreathers were bulky and designed for use with diving helmets; the first commercially practical scuba rebreather was designed and built by the diving engineer Henry Fleuss in 1878, while working for Siebe Gorman in London.
His self contained breathing apparatus consisted of a rubber mask connected to a breathing bag, with an estimated 50–60% oxygen supplied from a copper tank and carbon dioxide scrubbed by passing it through a bundle of rope yarn soaked in a solution of caustic potash, the system giving a dive duration of up to about three hours. This apparatus had no way of measuring the gas composition during use. During the 1930s and all through World War II, the British and Germans developed and extensively used oxygen rebreathers to equip the first frogmen; the British adapted the Davis Submerged Escape Apparatus and the Germans adapted the Dräger submarine escape rebreathers, for their frogmen during the war. In the U. S. Major Christian J. Lambertsen invented an underwater free-swimming oxygen rebreather in 1939, accepted by the Office of Strategic Services. In 1952 he patented a modification of his apparatus, this time named SCUBA, which became the generic English word for autonomous breathing equipment for diving, for the activity using the equipment.
After World War II, military frogmen continued to use rebreathers since they do not make bubbles which would give away the presence of the divers. The high percentage of oxygen used by these early rebreather systems limited the depth at which they could be used due to the risk of convulsions caused by acute oxygen toxicity. Although a working demand regulator system had been invented in 1864 by Auguste Denayrouze and Benoît Rouquayrol, the first open-circuit scuba system developed in 1925 by Yves Le Prieur in France was a manually adjusted free-flow system with a low endurance, which limited its practical usefulness. In 1942, during th
Saturation diving is a diving technique that allows divers to reduce the risk of decompression sickness when they work at great depths for long periods of time. Saturation divers breathe a helium–oxygen mixture to prevent nitrogen narcosis. In saturation diving, the divers live in a pressurized environment, which can be a saturation system on the surface, or an ambient pressure underwater habitat when not in the water. Transfer to and from the pressurised surface living quarters to the equivalent depth is done in a closed, pressurised diving bell; this may be maintained for up to several weeks, they are decompressed to surface pressure only once, at the end of their tour of duty. By limiting the number of decompressions in this way, the risk of decompression sickness is reduced, the time spent decompressing is minimised, it is a specialized form of diving. On December 22, 1938, Edgar End and Max Nohl made the first intentional saturation dive by spending 27 hours breathing air at 101 feet sea water in the County Emergency Hospital recompression facility in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Their decompression lasted five hours leaving Nohl with a mild case of decompression sickness that resolved with recompression. Albert R. Behnke proposed the idea of exposing humans to increased ambient pressures long enough for the blood and tissues to become saturated with inert gases in 1942. In 1957, George F. Bond began the Genesis project at the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory proving that humans could in fact withstand prolonged exposure to different breathing gases and increased environmental pressures. Once saturation is achieved, the amount of time needed for decompression depends on the depth and gases breathed; this was the beginning of the US Navy's Man-in-the-Sea Program. The first commercial saturation dives were performed in 1965 by Westinghouse to replace faulty trash racks at 200 feet on the Smith Mountain Dam. Peter B. Bennett is credited with the invention of trimix breathing gas as a method to eliminate high pressure nervous syndrome. In 1981, at the Duke University Medical Center, Bennett conducted an experiment called Atlantis III, which involved subjecting volunteers to a pressure of 2250 fsw, decompressing them to atmospheric pressure over a period of 31-plus days, setting an early world record for depth-equivalent in the process.
A experiment, Atlantis IV, encountered problems as one of the volunteers experienced euphoric hallucinations and hypomania. Saturation diving has applications in commercial offshore diving. Commercial offshore diving, sometimes shortened to just offshore diving, is a branch of commercial diving, with divers working in support of the exploration and production sector of the oil and gas industry in places such as the Gulf of Mexico in the United States, the North Sea in the United Kingdom and Norway, along the coast of Brazil; the work in this area of the industry includes maintenance of oil platforms and the building of underwater structures. In this context "offshore" implies that the diving work is done outside of national boundaries. Saturation diving is standard practice for bottom work at many of the deeper offshore sites, allows more effective use of the diver's time while reducing the risk of decompression sickness. Surface oriented air diving is more usual in shallower water. Underwater habitats are underwater structures in which people can live for extended periods and carry out most of the basic human functions of a 24-hour day, such as working, eating, attending to personal hygiene, sleeping.
In this context'habitat' is used in a narrow sense to mean the interior and immediate exterior of the structure and its fixtures, but not its surrounding marine environment. Most early underwater habitats lacked regenerative systems for air, food and other resources; however some new underwater habitats allow for these resources to be delivered using pipes, or generated within the habitat, rather than manually delivered. An underwater habitat has to meet the needs of human physiology and provide suitable environmental conditions, the one, most critical is breathing air of suitable quality. Others concern the physical environment, the chemical environment and the biological environment. Much of the science covering underwater habitats and their technology designed to meet human requirements is shared with diving, diving bells, submersible vehicles and submarines, spacecraft. Numerous underwater habitats have been designed and used around the world since the early 1960s, either by private individuals or by government agencies.
They have been used exclusively for research and exploration, but in recent years at least one underwater habitat has been provided for recreation and tourism. Research has been devoted to the physiological processes and limits of breathing gases under pressure, for aquanaut and astronaut training, as well as for research on marine ecosystems. Access to and from the exterior is vertically through a hole in the bottom of the structure called a moon pool; the habitat may include a decompression chamber, or personnel transfer to the surface may be via a closed diving bell. Saturation diving work in support of the offshore oil and gas industries is contract based. Decompression sickness is a fatal condition caused by bubbles of inert gas, which can occur in divers' bodies following
Babcock & Wilcox
Babcock & Wilcox Enterprises Inc. Babcock, Wilcox & Company and The Babcock & Wilcox Company, is a global leader in advanced energy and environmental technologies and services for the power and industrial markets. B&W is headquartered in Ohio; the company is best known for their steam boilers and as a provider of emissions control equipment, waste-to-energy facilities and aftermarket parts and services for a host of industries. Technologies & Products: BoilersWaste-to-Energy technologies Emissions Control Equipment Boiler Aftermarket Products & Services Cooling Systems Boiler Cleaning Equipment ASH handling and conveying Biomass-to-Energy ConstructionIndustries & Markets: Power Generation Industrial Pulp & Paper Chemical Processing Cement Carbon Black Food & Beverage Metals & Mining Renewables Waste-to-Energy The company was founded in 1867 in Providence, Rhode Island by partners Stephen Wilcox and George Babcock to manufacture and market Wilcox’s patented water-tube boiler. B&W's list of innovations and firsts include the world’s first installed utility boiler.
S. built NS Savannah. The company provided design, manufacturing and facilities management services to nuclear, fossil power and government customers worldwide. B&W's boilers supply more than 300,000 megawatts of installed capacity in over 90 countries around the world. During World War II, over half of the US Navy fleet was powered by Wilcox boilers; the company has its headquarters in Ohio. It has major operations in Virginia. B&W has joint major joint venture companies in Beijing and the Indian city of Pune. On June 30, 2015, Babcock & Wilcox completed a spinoff from BWX Technologies, its former parent, now headquartered in Lynchburg, Virginia; the two companies began trading separately on July 1. B&W employs 4,000 people, in addition to several thousand joint venture employees. Babcock & Wilcox is based in Barberton and provides engineering, design and manufacturing services to the fossil and renewable power generation sectors and to heavy industry worldwide. B&W and its subsidiaries have facilities in Ohio.
B&W SPIG Diamond Power International, Inc. B&W Vølund Allen-Sherman-Hoff® Babcock & Wilcox Loibl GmbH B&W Vølund AB / GMAB The year 2017 marked the 150th anniversary of Babcock & Wilcox, the company that began in 1867 with one patent, two friends and an unwavering commitment to reliable and effective innovation; when Stephen Wilcox first avowed that “there must be a better way” to safely generate power, he and George Babcock responded with the design for the first inherently safe water-tube boiler, the company was born. In 1867, Rhode Island, residents Stephen Wilcox and his partner George Herman Babcock patented the Babcock & Wilcox Non-Explosive Boiler, which used water filled tubes and de-nucleate boiling to generate steam more safely than either under-fire or fire-tube boilers; the boilers more safely generated higher pressure steam and was more efficient than existing designs. In 1891, Babcock & Wilcox Ltd is established as a separate United Kingdom company, to be responsible for all sales outside the US and Cuba.
In 1898, Robert Jurenka and Alois Seidl signed an agreement with the British division of Babcock & Wilcox Ltd to make the Berlin, Germany Babcock sales office into a subsidiary of the British company. In 1902 the New York City's first subway is powered by B&W boilers. During 1907 and 1909 Theodore Roosevelt's Great White Fleet were powered by B&W Boilers. In 1923 both Babcock & Wilcox Ltd and The Babcock & Wilcox Company buy into The Goldie & McCulloch Company Ltd of Cambridge, Ontario, to form Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCulloch Ltd in Canada. In 1929 B&W installs the world's first commercial size recovery boiler using the magnesium bisulfite process in Quebec, Canada. Between 1941 and 1945 B&W designed and delivered 4,100 marine boilers for combat and merchant ships, including 95 percent of the US fleet in Tokyo Bay at Japanese surrender. In 1942, the company developed the cyclone furnace. Between 1943 and 1945 B&W provided components and process development for Manhattan Project. Between 1949 and 1952 B&W provided the 8 boilers for the SS United States, the fastest ocean liner constructed.
Between 1953 and 1955 B&W designed and fabricated components for USS Nautilus, world’s first nuclear-powered submarine. In 1961 B&W supplied reactors for world's first commercial nuclear ship NS Savannah. In 1962 B&W designed and furnished reactor systems for B&W's first commercial reactor, Indian Point, using HEU 233. In 1967 the name of Babcock-Wilcox & Goldie-McCulloch Ltd is changed to Wilcox Canada Ltd.. In 1975 B&W built components for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. In 1975 the long term business agreements with the British Babcock & Wilcox Ltd were ended. Subsequently, the British com
Atmospheric diving suit
An atmospheric diving suit is a small one-person articulated anthropomorphic submersible which resembles a suit of armour, with elaborate pressure joints to allow articulation while maintaining an internal pressure of one atmosphere. The ADS can be used for deep dives of up to 2,300 feet for many hours, eliminates the majority of physiological dangers associated with deep diving. Divers do not need to be skilled swimmers. Atmospheric diving suits in current use include the Newtsuit and the WASP, all of which are self-contained hard suits that incorporate propulsion units; the hardsuit is constructed from cast aluminum. The WASP is of glass-reinforced plastic body tube construction. In 1715, British inventor John Lethbridge constructed a "diving suit". A wooden barrel about 6 feet in length with two holes for the diver's arms sealed with leather cuffs, a 4-inch viewport of thick glass, it was used to dive as deep as 60 feet, was used to salvage substantial quantities of silver from the wreck of the East Indiaman Vansittart, which sank in 1719 off the Cape Verde islands.
The first armored suit with real joints, designed as leather pieces with rings in the shape of a spring, was designed by Englishman W. H. Taylor in 1838; the diver's hands and feet were covered with leather. Taylor devised a ballast tank attached to the suit that could be filled with water to attain negative buoyancy. While it was patented, the suit was never produced, it is considered that its bulk would have rendered it nearly immobile underwater. Lodner D. Phillips designed the first enclosed ADS in 1856, his design comprised a barrel-shaped upper torso with domed ends and included ball and socket joints in the articulated arms and legs. The arms had joints at shoulder and elbow, the legs at knee and hip; the suit included a ballast tank, a viewing port, entrance through a manhole cover on top, a hand-cranked propeller, rudimentary manipulators at the ends of the arms. Air was to be supplied from the surface via hose. There is no indication, Phillips' suit was constructed; the first properly anthropomorphic design of ADS, built by the Carmagnolle brothers of Marseilles, France in 1882, featured rolling convolute joints consisting of partial sections of concentric spheres formed to create a close fit and kept watertight with a waterproof cloth.
The suit had 22 of these joints: four in each leg, six per arm, two in the body of the suit. The helmet possessed 25 individual 2-inch glass viewing ports spaced at the average distance of the human eyes. Weighing 830 pounds, the Carmagnole ADS never worked properly and its joints never were waterproof, it is now on display at the French National Navy Museum in Paris. Another design was patented in 1894 by inventors John Buchanan and Alexander Gordon from Melbourne, Australia; the construction was based on a frame of spiral wires covered with waterproof material. The design was improved by Alexander Gordon by attaching the suit to the helmet and other parts and incorporating jointed radius rods in the limbs; this resulted in a flexible suit. The suit was manufactured by British firm Siebe Gorman and trialed in Scotland in 1898. American designer MacDuffy constructed the first suit to use ball bearings to provide joint movement in 1914. A year Harry L. Bowdoin of Bayonne, New Jersey, made an improved ADS with oil-filled rotary joints.
The joints use a small duct to the interior of the joint to allow equalization of pressure. The suit was designed to have four joints in each arm and leg, one joint in each thumb, for a total of eighteen. Four viewing ports and a chest-mounted lamp were intended to assist underwater vision. There is no evidence that Bowdoin's suit was built, or that it would have worked if it had been. Atmospheric diving suits built by German firm Neufeldt and Kuhnke were used during the salvage of gold and silver bullion from the wreck of the British ship SS Egypt, an 8,000 ton P&O liner that sank in May 1922; the suit was relegated to duties as an observation chamber at the wreck's depth, was used to direct mechanical grabs which opened up the bullion storage. In 1917, Benjamin F. Leavitt of Traverse City, dived on the SS Pewabic which sank to a depth of 182 feet in Lake Huron in 1865, salvaging 350 tons of copper ore. In 1923, he went on to salvage the wreck of the British schooner Cape Horn which lay in 220 feet of water off Pichidangui, salvaging $600,000 worth of copper.
Leavitt's suit was of his own construction. The most innovative aspect of Leavitt's suit was the fact that it was self-contained and needed no umbilical, the breathing mixture being supplied from a tank mounted on the back of the suit; the breathing apparatus incorporated a scrubber and an oxygen regulator and could last for up to a full hour. In 1924 the Reichsmarine tested the second generation of the Neufeldt and Kuhnke suit to 530 feet, but limb movement was difficult and the joints were judged not to be fail-safe, in that if they were to fail, there was a possibility that the suit's integrity would be violated. However, these suits were used by the Germans as armored divers during World War II and were taken by the Western Allies aft
USS Mount Vernon (LSD-39)
USS Mount Vernon was an Anchorage-class dock landing ship of the United States Navy. She was the fifth ship of the U. S. Navy to bear the name, she was built in Massachusetts in 1972 and homeported in Southern California for 31 years until being decommissioned on 25 July 2003. Mount Vernon acted as the control ship for the cleanup of the Exxon Valdez oil spill. In 2005, she was intentionally destroyed off the coast of Hawaii as part of a training exercise. Mount Vernon was awarded to General Dynamics Quincy Shipbuilding Division in Quincy, Massachusetts on 25 February 1966. After commissioning in Boston Naval Shipyard in 1972, she was homeported in California. In April 1975, Mount Vernon participated in Operation Frequent Wind, the evacuation of Saigon, Vietnam. Under the command of Commander James N. Goodwin USN, USS Mount Vernon sailed on 12 November 1981 from San Diego for a Westpac/Indian Ocean deployment as part of Amphibious Ready Group Alpha/Amphibious Squadron One during which USS Mount Vernon and Amphibious Squadron One visited Perth/Fremantle, Western Australia for R&R from 28 January to 3 February 1982.
USS Mount Vernon returned home to San Diego, CA, on 15 May 1982 Beginning 1984 through July 22, 1994, Mount Vernon was homeported in Long Beach, California before returning to San Diego. In her 31 years of service, Mount Vernon completed 15 deployments in the U. S. Seventh Fleet in the Far East; because of the remote location of the cleanup sites of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, there was a desperate need for floating facilities to house shoreline cleanup workers. In response, the Navy provided amphibious dock landing ships. Juneau arrived in Alaska on 24 April 1989 followed by Fort McHenry on 4 May 1989. Over the summer months the Navy replaced Juneau first with Cleveland and Ogden, with Duluth. Meanwhile, Mount Vernon relieved Fort McHenry and left the cleanup operations on 18 July without a replacement, reducing the naval presence to one ship. Duluth sailed without replacement on 16 September, ending the naval ship presence in the oil spill cleanup operations; the ships functioned as floating hotels, providing medical, housing and sleeping facilities for shoreline cleanup workers.
They provided communications support and functioned as command and control platforms and helipads for the forward deployment of helicopters. They supported base operations of the landing craft, providing maintenance and docking. Deployed with the ships were United States Marine Corps CH-46 helicopters and Army medical evacuation helicopters, which performed a variety of essential missions. Naval ship operations centered in Prince William Sound and were important in open sea areas because commercial berthing vessels could not operate in the rough water. During her career, Mount Vernon accumulated many awards, including: Joint Meritorious Unit Award, Navy Meritorious Unit Commendation, Navy Battle "E" Ribbon, National Defense Service Medal, Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal, Southwest Asia Service Medal, Humanitarian Service Medal, Coast Guard Special Operations Service Medal, the Kuwait Liberation Medal. Mount Vernon was decommissioned on 25 July 2003. Afterwards, she stayed in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
On 16 June 2005, she was sunk in a fleet training exercise for P-3 Orion squadrons VP-1, VP-9, VP-46, VP-47. The sinking was part of operation "Patrolling Thunder" and took place off the northwest coast of Kauai, Hawaii. Expended in the sinking were 3 Harpoon missiles, 4 Maverick missiles, 18 bombs of 500 pounds apiece. Dock landing ships support amphibious operations including landings via Landing Craft Air Cushion, conventional landing craft and helicopters, onto hostile shores; the Anchorage-class combined a well-deck with a flight deck to support both small-craft and airborne operations. These ships featured the facilities necessary to provide services to small boats, including dry docking and repairs. Mount Vernon was the first West coast ship to be modified to support LCAC operations. Naval Sea Logistics Center Detachment Pacific. "MOUNT VERNON DOCK LANDING SHIP". Naval Vessel Register. United States Navy. Retrieved 2008-04-05. Pike, John. "LSD 39 Mount Vernon". GlobalSecurity.org. GlobalSecurity.org.
Retrieved 2008-04-05. Pike, John. "LSD-36 Anchorage class". GlobalSecurity.org. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2008-04-05. Priolo, Gary. "LSD-39 Mount Vernon". Amphibious Photo Archive. NavSource Online. Retrieved 2008-04-05. McDonnell, Janet. "II: Department of Defense/Corps of Engineers Response". The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Response to the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. P. 28. Northern Edge 2003 USS Anchorage
Island Bay, New Zealand
Island Bay is a coastal suburb of Wellington, the capital of New Zealand, situated 5 km south of the city centre. Island Bay lies on the bay which shares its name, one of numerous small bays off Cook Strait and west of Lyall Bay. 500m offshore in Island Bay lies Tapu Te Ranga Island, which forms a natural breakwater and provides a sheltered anchorage for local fishing boats. Noted current Island Bay residents include Minister of Justice Andrew Little MP, Celia Wade-Brown, former Mayor of Wellington. Former residents include Bruce Stewart and dramatist at Tapu Te Ranga Marae. C. and All Whites striker Chris Killen. In pre-European times, Island Bay was home to several pa, including Te Mupunga Kainga, today represented with a pou in Shorland Park. A succession of iwi occupied Island Bay, including Ngati Ira. A famous battle which took place on the beach of Island Bay has been well documented by Elsdon Best. A raiding taua from Muau-poko were making their way to the Ngai Tara stronghold of Te Whetu-Kairangi, a fortified pa on what is now Miramar peninsular.
In the morning, Ngai Tara warriors came down from Uruhau fort and engaged Muau-poko in battle on the beach. Two muaupoko chiefs were killed, cremated in Haewai; this battle is commemorated with a pou on the zig-zag leading from Liffey street to Orchy crescent. During a battle in which Ngati Mutunga drove Ngati Ira from Wellington in 1827, the wife of the Ngati Ira chief, is said to have sought refuge on Tapu te Ranga Island with her children, fleeing by canoe when Tapu te Ranga Island was besieged. In Treaty of Waitangi settlements, both Te Atiawa and Ngati Toa have claimed tangata whenua status over Tapu te Ranga Island. Ngati Toas case was proven in the Maori Land Court In the early days of European settlement George Hunter was the chief proprietor of the Island Bay Estate, where he bred stock on his stud farm; the Island Bay portion was subdivided and auctioned in March 1879. In the late 19th century, Island Bay was settled by Shetlander fishermen. In 1905, Wellington's tramline was extended to Island Bay, increasing the area's popularity, transforming it into a seaside suburb.
Many Island Bay villas and shops date from the 1920s, a period of rapid development for the area. This included the subdivision of the Island Bay Racecourse, once bounded by Clyde Street on the East and Ribble Street on the West. Many streets in Island Bay were named after European rivers. Designed by John Sydney Swan and built in 1904-6, The Convent of the Sacred Heart, a Catholic girls' boarding school, was renamed Erskine College in the late 1960s after the former Superior General Mother Janet Erskine Stuart; the adjacent Erskine Chapel of the Sacred Heart designed by John Sydney Swan, was built in 1930 in the French Gothic style. Erskine Chapel is considered to have one of the finest chapel interiors in New Zealand, is listed as Category I in New Zealand's Historic Places Trust; the school closed in 1985 and today the complex is owned. Erskine College was used as a location in Peter Jackson's 1996 film The Frighteners; the chapel was refurbished in 2003, is now a popular venue for weddings and concerts.
The Island Bay Marine Education Centre on the foreshore has a small aquarium and touch tank, is open to the public on alternate Sundays. There are five churches in Island Bay; the oldest is the Anglican church, over 100 years old. It has a traditional brick front design, some stained glass windows honouring the early settlers, it is named after St Hilda of Whitby, as the early settlers felt the coastline resembled Northumbria. The Baptist, Serbian Orthodox and Presbyterian churches are younger; the churches have facilities. Church activities include a full range of programmes for all ages, including the annual Teddy Bears' Picnic for children which forms part of the Island Bay festival. Many local streets are named after rivers around the world, including the following: Great Britain: Avon, Dee, Dover, Foyle, Liddel, Mersey, Tamar, Trent, Tyne and Wye. Ireland: Liffey. Europe: Volga, Rhine, Seine and Don New Zealand: Waikato Australia: Erskine and Carlisle. North America: Hudson Two diving companies operate in Island Bay, offer trips within the local Taputeranga Marine Reserve and to the wreck of HMNZS Wellington, a decommissioned Royal New Zealand Navy frigate, sunk off the coast of Island Bay in November 2005 to create an artificial reef.
Shorland Park is a small public park at Island Bay Beach. The playground is a favourite for children's birthday parties. Shorland Park contains a Band Rotunda near the waterfront. Plaques record the 152 local soldiers who died in World War I and World War II, the loss of American submarines and their crew in the Pacific. In the 1930s, local brass bands and the Salvation Army played in the rotunda; the rotunda is now used for occasional concerts, notably during the annual Island Bay Festival. Situated in 50 acres of replanted native forest on a hill near Rhine Street, Tapu Te Ranga Marae is a living Marae and was the home of Bruce Stewart; the 2500 square metre wooden house extends over 10 levels, was built with recycled materials. The waters surrounding Island Bay are under th
HMAS Brisbane (D 41)
HMAS Brisbane was one of three Perth-class guided missile destroyers to serve in the Royal Australian Navy. The United States-designed ship was laid down at Bay City, Michigan in 1965, launched in 1966 and commissioned into the RAN in 1967, she is named after the city of Queensland. During her career, Brisbane made two deployments to the Vietnam War, was involved in the post-Cyclone Tracy disaster relief operation Navy Help Darwin, deployed to the Persian Gulf during the first Gulf War. Brisbane was decommissioned in 2001, was sunk as a dive wreck off the Queensland coast in 2005. Brisbane was one of three Perth-class guided missile destroyers built for the RAN. Based on the United States Navy's Charles F. Adams class, Brisbane had a displacement of 3,370 tons at standard load, 4,551 tons at full load, a length of 437 feet overall and 420 feet between perpendiculars, a beam of 47 feet 1 inch, a maximum draught of 15 feet 3 inches. Propulsion was provided by two General Electric turbines, which provided 70,000 shaft horsepower to the destroyer's two propeller shafts.
Brisbane could achieve speeds of 35 knots. The ship's company consisted of 312 sailors; as a guided missile destroyer, Brisbane's main armament consisted of a Mark 13 missile launcher firing Tartar missiles and two Ikara anti-submarine missile launchers. This was supplemented by two 5"/54 calibre Mark 42 guns and two Mark 32 triple torpedo tube sets. Over the course of the ship's career, the Mark 13 launcher was modified to fire Standard missiles, two Phalanx CIWS units were installed in 1990, the Ikara launchers were removed in 1991. Brisbane was laid down by the Defoe Shipbuilding Company at Bay City, Michigan on 15 February 1965; the ship was launched on 5 May 1966 by the wife of Sr. the Minister for the Navy. Brisbane was handed over to the RAN at Boston Navy Yard on 7 December 1967, was commissioned into the RAN nine days later; the cost of the destroyer was A$50 million. The ship was given the nicknames Fighting Forty-One. During construction, the ship was assigned the United States Navy hull number DDG-27.
Brisbane spent the first nine months of her career undergoing exercises in US waters, before sailing for Australia on 28 September 1968. After visits to Pearl Harbor and Suva, Brisbane arrived in her namesake city on 17 October. During the mid-1960s, the United States government pressured Australia to increase the resources it was committing to the Vietnam War; the idea of deploying a RAN combat ship to the Vietnam War was hampered by the number of ships available with commitments to the Far East Strategic Reserve and involvement in the Indonesia-Malaysia Confrontation, along with the difficulty of operating and maintaining British-designed ships with USN resources. On 14 December 1966, the Australian Cabinet approved the deployment of Hobart as part of increases to Australian military commitment to the conflict. Brisbane operated in one of three roles: Naval gunfire support operations to assist ground forces the United States Marine Corps units operating closest to the North Vietnam border.
Seven ships were stationed on the'gunline', attacks fell into two categories:'unspotted' shelling of areas where North Vietnamese or Viet Cong forces and facilities were known or believed to be, and'spotted' fire missions in direct support of ground troops. In this role, Brisbane operated under the callsign "Flamboyant". Anti-infiltration operations under Operation Market Time, which aimed to stop the logistic supply and reinforcement of Viet Cong units operating in South Vietnam by tracking and searching coastal shipping. RAN destroyers were never formally assigned to Market Time, but the overlap of the gunline and Market Time operational areas meant the ships were called on to assist by tracking suspicious ships or participating in raids. Escort of USN aircraft carriers involved in Operation Rolling Thunder airstrikes. Sister ships Hobart and Perth had been involved in shipping interdiction patrols along the coast of North Vietnam as part of Operation Sea Dragon, but this operation had ended by the time of Brisbane's first deployment.
Although RAN ships on deployment were expected to fulfil all duties of an equivalent American destroyer, they were forbidden by the Australian government from operating outside the Vietnam theatre on unrelated Seventh Fleet duties. After the invasion of Cambodia in 1970, RAN ships were prohibited from entering Cambodian waters. While deployed to Vietnam, the destroyers were placed under the administrative control of Commander Australian Forces Vietnam in addition to that of the Flag Officer Commanding Australian Fleet. Operationally, the RAN vessels were under the command of the United States Seventh Fleet. Arrangements were made to provide logistic support through the United States Pacific Fleet. A USN lieutenant was assigned to each ship during deployments to act as a liaison with the Seventh Fleet; the deployment of HMAS Hobart in March 1967 began a pattern of six-month deployments for RAN destroyers, with a constant RAN presence with the Seventh Fleet. Australia was the only allied nation to provide naval support to the United States Navy during the Vietnam War.
After time in Australian waters to prepare for wartime service, Brisbane arrived in Subic on 28 March 1969 to be deployed to the Vietnam War. Responsibility was handed over from Perth on 31 March, the ship spent the