QF 6-pounder Hotchkiss
The Ordnance QF Hotchkiss 6 pounder gun Mk I and Mk II or QF 6 pounder 8 cwt were a family of long-lived light 57 mm naval guns introduced in 1885 to defend against new and fast vessels such as torpedo boats and submarines. There were many variants produced under license which ranged in length from 40 to 58 calibers, but 40 caliber was the most common version. 6-pounders were used by the navies of a number of nations and used by both sides in a conflict. Due to advances in torpedo delivery and performance, 6-pounder guns were made obsolete and were replaced with larger guns aboard most larger warships; this led to their being used ashore during World War I as coastal defense guns, the first tank guns and as anti-aircraft guns, whether on improvised or specialized HA/LA mounts. During World War II 6-pounder guns were put back in service to arm small warships and as coastal defense guns; the last ships to carry 6-pounders was the Aegir-class offshore patrol vessels of the Icelandic Coast Guard which replaced them in 1990 with Bofors 40 mm autocannons.
Argentina adopted the 40 caliber Hotchkiss 6-pounder in the 1890s, to arm its four Giusepe Garibaldi-class armored cruisers, purchased from Italy. The Argentinians were at that time engaged in a naval arms race with Chile; the last ships from this class were retired from service on 2 August 1954. Brazil adopted the 40 caliber Hotchkiss 6-pounder in the 1890s, to arm its coastal defense ships, protected cruisers and torpedo-gunboats; the Brazilians used the competing Nordenfelt 6 pounders in lesser numbers. The last Brazilian ship retired was the coastal defense ship Marshal Floriano in 1936; the former Brazilian coastal defense ship Marshal Deodoro was sold to Mexico in 1924 and renamed Anáhuac, retired in 1938. Chile adopted the 40 caliber Hotchkiss 6-pounder in the 1890s, to arm a battleship, an armored cruiser, several protected cruisers; the last of these ships was retired in 1933. China adopted the Hotchkiss 6-pounder in the 1880s. During the First Sino-Japanese war, ships on both sides were armed with Hotchkiss 6-pounder guns.
Surviving 6-pounder guns were in Chinese service aboard gunboats and auxiliaries during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II. Despite originating in France the 6-pounder was not used by the French. Like the British who paired their QF 3-pounder Hotchkiss guns with the larger 6-pounder the French paired their 3-pounders with the more powerful Canon de 65 mm Modèle 1891; this gun is sometimes referred to as a 9-pounder in English publications. During World War II a few Flower-class Corvettes of the Free French Navy were armed with two 6-pounder guns. A 6-pounder gun was fitted to the single Vickers Mk. D tank used by the Irish Army between 1929-1940; when the tank was scrapped in 1940 the gun was used as an anti-tank weapon. Italy adopted the 40 caliber Hotchkiss 6-pounder in 1886 to arm its armored cruisers, protected cruisers, torpedo boats and torpedo cruisers; the Italians adopted the competing 43 caliber Nordenfelt 6 pounder gun and by 1909 the Nordenfelt had replaced the Hotchkiss in service.
This was the opposite of the British. Japan adopted the 40 caliber Hotchkiss 6-pounder in the 1880s to arm its destroyers, protected cruisers and unprotected cruisers; the Japanese versions of the 6-pounder were known as Yamanouchi guns and were identical to their British equivalents. Ships on both sides of the First Sino-Japanese war and Russo-Japanese war were armed with Hotchkiss 6-pounder guns; the 6-pounder was the standard secondary and tertiary armament on most Japanese destroyers built between 1890 and 1920, was still in service as late as the Pacific War. The Russians began purchasing 40 caliber 6-pounders from France starting in 1904 to replace its 3-pounder and 1-pounder guns in the anti-torpedo boat role. In addition to 40 caliber guns, 50 and 58 caliber guns were produced under license at the Obukhov State Plant; these were installed on torpedo cruisers and submarines built from 1905-1917. Beginning in 1909-1910 most larger surface ships began replacing their 6-pounders with 75mm 50 caliber Pattern 1892 and 102mm 60 caliber Pattern 1911 guns when combat experience in the Russo-Japanese war showed the 6-pounders were as ineffective as the 3-pounder and 1-pounder guns they had replaced.
In 1911-12 a number were turned over to the Army for use as coastal artillery and in 1914 some were converted into anti-aircraft guns. In addition to the Hotchkiss guns there were Nordenfeld Guns which were used as ranging guns for coastal defenses. Finland, a successor state to the Russian Empire, inherited a number of 6-pounders and used them throughout the Winter War and World War II in the coastal artillery role. Spain adopted both the 40-caliber Hotchkiss 6-pounder and the 42-caliber Nordenfelt 6-pounder in the 1880s to arm its armored cruisers, protected cruisers and unarmored cruisers. Seven ships carried the Hotchkiss eleven carried the Nordenfelt guns. Ships on both sides of the Spanish–American War were armed with various 6-pounder guns; the Spanish cruiser Isla de Cuba, captured by the United States during the Spanish–American War and served as the USS Isla de Cuba until sold to Venezuela in 1912 and renamed Mariscal Sucre, was the last ship decommissioned and scrapped in 1940. The UK adopted a 40 calibre version as Ordnance QF Hotchkiss 6 pounder
Medway is a conurbation and unitary authority in Kent in the region of South East England. It had a population in 2014 of 274,015; the unitary authority was formed in 1998 when the City of Rochester-upon-Medway amalgamated with Gillingham Borough Council and part of Kent County Council to form Medway Council, a unitary authority independent of Kent County Council. Over half of the unitary authority area is rural in nature; because of its strategic location by the major crossing of the River Medway, it has made a wide and significant contribution to Kent, to England, dating back thousands of years, as evident in the siting of Watling Street by the Romans and by the Norman Rochester Castle, Rochester Cathedral and the Chatham naval dockyard and its associated defences. The main towns in the conurbation are: Strood, Chatham and Rainham; these are traditionally known as the Medway Towns. Many smaller towns and villages such as Frindsbury, Walderslade, Wigmore etc. lie within the conurbation. Outside the urban area, the villages retain parish councils.
Cuxton and Wouldham are in the Medway Gap region to the south of Rochester and Strood. Hoo St Werburgh, High Halstow, St Mary Hoo, Allhallows and Grain are on the Hoo Peninsula to the north. Frindsbury Extra including Upnor borders Strood. Medway includes parts of the North Kent Marshes, an environmentally significant wetlands region with several Sites of Special Scientific Interest. Other similar areas of conservation include Ranscombe Farm on chalk grassland and woodland between Strood and Cuxton, with rare woodland flowers and orchids. Medway is one of the boroughs included in the Thames Gateway development scheme, it is the home of Universities at Medway, a tri-partite collaboration of the University of Greenwich, the University of Kent and Canterbury Christ Church University on a single campus in Chatham, together with the University for the Creative Arts, which has a campus in Rochester. The Medway area has a long and varied history dominated by the city of Rochester and by the naval and military establishments principally in Chatham and Gillingham.
Rochester was established on an Iron Age site by the Romans, who called it Durobrivae, to control the point where Watling Street crossed the River Medway. Rochester became a walled town and, under Saxon influence, a mint was established here; the first cathedral was built by Bishop Justus in 604 and rebuilt under the Normans by Bishop Gundulf, who built the castle that stands opposite the cathedral. Rochester was an important point for people travelling the Pilgrims' Way, which stretches from Winchester to the shrine of Thomas Becket at Canterbury; the Pilgrims' Way crossed the Medway near Cuxton. In Rochester, parts of the Roman city wall are still in evidence, the city has many fine buildings, such as the Guildhall, built in 1687 and is among the finest 17th-century civic buildings in Kent. In Medway there are 832 Listed buildings and 22 conservation areas; the Royal Navy opened a anchorage dockyard in Gillingham during the reign of Henry VIII, in 1567 the Royal Naval Dockyard was established in Medway.
Although it is called Chatham dockyard, two-thirds of the dockyard lie within Gillingham. The dockyard was closed in 1984, with the loss of eight thousand jobs at the dockyard itself and many more in local supply industries, contributing to a mid-1980s Medway unemployment rate of sixteen percent, it was protected by a series of forts including Fort Amherst and the Lines, Fort Pitt and Fort Borstal. The majority of surviving buildings in the Historic Dockyard are Georgian, it was here that HMS Victory, Admiral Lord Nelson's flagship at Trafalgar, was built and launched in 1765. Sir Francis Drake learned his seamanship on the Medway. Other notable sea-faring and naval figures, such as William Adams, were raised on the Medway but apprenticed elsewhere; the river was further protected by such fortifications as Upnor Castle which, in 1667 in varying accounts says it was successful in thwarting the Dutch raid on the dockyard, or the commanding officer fled without firing on the Dutch. Another warship built at Chatham that still exists is HMS Unicorn laid down in February 1822, launched 30 March 1824.
She never has been restored and is preserved afloat in Dundee, Scotland. There have been other naval disasters in Medway other than the Raid on the Medway. On 25 November 1914 the battleship HMS Bulwark was moored at buoy number 17 at Kethole Reach on the River Medway, she was taking on coal from the airship base at Kingsnorth, on the Isle of Grain when an internal explosion ripped the ship apart. In all, the explosion killed 51 officers. Five of the 14 men who survived died of their wounds, all of the others were wounded. There are mass and individual graves in Woodlands Cemetery in Gillingham for the Bulwark's dead, who were drawn from the Portsmouth area; the explosion could be heard from up to 20 mi at Whitstable. In terms of loss of l
Her Majesty's Naval Base, Devonport, is the largest naval base in Western Europe and is the sole nuclear repair and refuelling facility for the Royal Navy. It is one of three operating bases in the United Kingdom for the Royal Navy. HMNB Devonport is located in the west of the city of Plymouth, England. Having begun as Royal Navy Dockyard in the late-17th century, Shipbuilding ceased at Devonport in the early 1970s, but ship maintenance work has continued: the now privatised maintenance facilities are operated by Babcock Marine, a division of Babcock International Group, who took over the previous owner Devonport Management Limited in 2007. From 1934 until the early 21st century the naval barracks on the site was named HMS Drake; the name HMS Drake has been extended to cover the entire base. In the early 1970s the newly-styled'Fleet Maintenance Base' was itself commissioned as HMS Defiance. HM Naval Base Devonport is the home port of the Devonport Flotilla which includes the Trafalgar-class submarines.
In 2009 the Ministry of Defence announced the conclusion of a long-running review of the long-term role of three naval bases. Devonport will no longer be used as a base for attack submarines after these move to Faslane by 2017, the Type 45 destroyers are based at Portsmouth. However, Devonport retains a long-term role as the dedicated home of the amphibious fleet, survey vessels and half the frigate fleet. In 1588, the ships of the English Navy set sail for the Spanish Armada through the mouth of the River Plym, thereby establishing the military presence in Plymouth. Sir Francis Drake is now an enduring legacy in Devonport, as the naval base has been named HMS Drake. In 1689 Prince William of Orange became William III and immediately he required the building of a new Royal Dockyard west of Portsmouth. Edmund Dummer, Surveyor of the Navy, travelled the West Country searching for an area where a dockyard could be built. Having dismissed the Plymouth site as inadequate, he settled on the Hamoaze area which soon became known as Plymouth Dock renamed Devonport.
On 30 December 1690, a contract was let for a dockyard to be built: the start of Plymouth Royal Dockyard. Having selected the location, Dummer was given responsibility for designing and building the new yard. At the heart of his new dockyard, Dummer placed a stone-lined basin, giving access to what proved to be the first successful stepped stone dry dock in Europe; the Navy Board had relied upon timber as the major building material for dry docks, which resulted in high maintenance costs and was a fire risk. The docks Dummer designed were stronger with more secure foundations and stepped sides that made it easier for men to work beneath the hull of a docked vessel; these innovations allowed rapid erection of staging and greater workforce mobility. He discarded the earlier three-sectioned hinged gate, labour-intensive in operation, replaced it with the simpler and more mobile two-sectioned gate. Dummer wished to ensure that naval dockyards were efficient working units that maximised available space, as evidenced by the simplicity of his design layout at Plymouth Dock.
He introduced a centralised storage area alongside the basin, a logical positioning of other buildings around the yard. His double rope-house combined the separate tasks of spinning and laying while allowing the upper floor to be used for the repair of sails. On high ground overlooking the rest of the yard he built a grand terrace of houses for the senior dockyard officers. Most of Dummer's buildings and structures were rebuilt over ensuing years, including the basin and dry dock; the terrace survived into the 20th century, but was destroyed in the Blitz along with several others of Devonport's historic buildings. Just one end section of the terrace survives; the dockyard was established on the southern tip of the present-day site. The town that grew around the dockyard was called Plymouth Dock up to 1823, when the townspeople petitioned for it to be renamed Devonport; the dockyard followed suit twenty years becoming Devonport Royal Dockyard. In just under three centuries over 300 vessels were built at Devonport, the last being HMS Scylla in 1971.
The dockyard began in. It was here. In the 1760s a period of expansion began, leading to a configuration which can still be seen today: five slipways, four dry docks and a wet basin. One slipway survives unaltered from this period: a rare survival, it is covered with a timber superstructure of 1814, a rare and early survival of its type.
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, adopting its current name on 1 January 1788; the Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently, have only had common ownership since 1967. In 1959, the historian of journalism Allan Nevins analysed the importance of The Times in shaping the views of events of London's elite: For much more than a century The Times has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain, its news and its editorial comment have in general been coordinated, have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain.
To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street. The Times is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending it to numerous other papers around the world, such as The Times of India and The New York Times. In countries where these other titles are popular, the newspaper is referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope and distribution; the Times is the originator of the used Times Roman typeface developed by Stanley Morison of The Times in collaboration with the Monotype Corporation for its legibility in low-tech printing. In November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in Times Modern; the Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, but switched to compact size in 2004 in an attempt to appeal more to younger readers and commuters using public transport. The Sunday Times remains a broadsheet; the Times had an average daily circulation of 417,298 in January 2019. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006.
It has been used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning; the Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, with Walter in the role of editor. Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he worked went bankrupt due to losses from a Jamaican hurricane. Unemployed, Walter began a new business venture. Henry Johnson had invented the logography, a new typography, reputedly faster and more precise. Walter bought the logography's patent and with it opened a printing house to produce a daily advertising sheet; the first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain was 1 January 1785. Unhappy because the word Universal was omitted from the name, Walter changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times. In 1803, Walter handed editorship to his son of the same name.
In spite of Walter Sr's sixteen-month stay in Newgate Prison for libel printed in The Times, his pioneering efforts to obtain Continental news from France, helped build the paper's reputation among policy makers and financiers. The Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of The Times were large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig. In 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year, the paper's printer James Lawson and passed the business onto his son John Joseph Lawson. Under the editorship of Barnes and his successor in 1841, John Thadeus Delane, the influence of The Times rose to great heights in politics and amongst the City of London.
Peter Fraser and Edward Sterling were two noted journalists, gained for The Times the pompous/satirical nickname'The Thunderer'. The increased circulation and influence of the paper was based in part to its early adoption of the steam-driven rotary printing press. Distribution via steam trains to growing concentrations of urban populations helped ensure the profitability of the paper and its growing influence; the Times was the first newspaper to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. W. H. Russell, the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War, was immensely influential with his dispatches back to England. In other events of the nineteenth century, The Times opposed the repeal of the Corn Laws until the number of demonstrations convinced the editorial board otherwise, only reluctantly supported aid to victims of the Irish Potato Famine, it enthusiastically supported the Great Reform Bill of 1832, which reduced corruption and increased the electorate from 400,000 people to 800,000 people.
During the American Civil War, The Times represented the view of the wealthy classes, favouring the secessionists, but it was not a supporter of slavery. The third John Walter, the founder's grandson, succeeded his father in 1847; the paper continued as more or less independent, but from t
A torpedo tube is a cylinder shaped device for launching torpedoes. There are two main types of torpedo tube: underwater tubes fitted to submarines and some surface ships, deck-mounted units installed aboard surface vessels. Deck-mounted torpedo launchers are designed for a specific type of torpedo, while submarine torpedo tubes are general-purpose launchers, are also capable of deploying mines and cruise missiles. Most modern launchers are standardised on a 12.75-inch diameter for light torpedoes or a 21-inch diameter for heavy torpedoes, although other sizes of torpedo tube have been used: see Torpedo classes and diameters. A submarine torpedo tube is a more complex mechanism than a torpedo tube on a surface ship, because the tube has to accomplish the function of moving the torpedo from the normal atmospheric pressure within the submarine into the sea at the ambient pressure of the water around the submarine, thus a submarine torpedo tube operates on the principle of an airlock. The diagram on the right illustrates the operation of a submarine torpedo tube.
The diagram does show the working of a submarine torpedo launch. A torpedo tube has a considerable number of interlocks for safety reasons. For example, an interlock prevents the breech muzzle door from opening at the same time; the submarine torpedo launch sequence is, in simplified form: Open the breech door in the torpedo room. Load the torpedo into the tube. Hook up the wire-guide connection and the torpedo power cable. Shut and lock the breech door. Turn on power to the torpedo. A minimum amount of time is required for torpedo warmup. Fire control programs are uploaded to the torpedo. Flood the torpedo tube; this may be done manually or automatically, from sea or from tanks, depending on the class of submarine. The tube must be vented during this process to allow for complete filling and eliminate air pockets which could escape to the surface or cause damage when firing. Open the equalizing valve to equalize pressure in the tube with ambient sea pressure. Open the muzzle door. If the tube is set up for Impulse Mode the slide valve will open with the muzzle door.
If Swim Out Mode is selected, the slide valve remains closed. The slide valve allows water from the ejection pump to enter the tube; when the launch command is given and all interlocks are satisfied, the water ram operates, thrusting a large volume of water into the tube at high pressure, which ejects the torpedo from the tube with considerable force. Modern torpedoes have a safety mechanism that prevents activation of the torpedo unless the torpedo senses the required amount of G-force; the power cable is severed at launch. However, if a guidance wire is used, it remains connected through a drum of wire in the tube. Torpedo propulsion systems vary but electric torpedoes swim out of the tube on their own and are of a smaller diameter. 21" weapons with fuel-burning engines start outside the tube. Once outside the tube the torpedo begins its run toward the target as programmed by the fire control system. Attack functions are programmed but with wire guided weapons, certain functions can be controlled from the ship.
For wire-guided torpedoes, the muzzle door must remain open because the guidance wire is still connected to the inside of the breech door to receive commands from the submarine's fire-control system. A wire cutter on the inside of the breech door is activated to release the wire and its protective cable; these are drawn clear of the ship prior to shutting the muzzle door. The drain cycle is a reverse of the flood cycle. Water can be moved as necessary; the tube must be vented to drain the tube since it is by gravity. Open the breech door and remove the remnants of the torpedo power cable and the guidance wire basket; the tube must be wiped dry to prevent a buildup of slime. This process is called "diving the tube" and tradition dictates that "ye who shoots, dives". Shut and lock the breech door. Spare torpedoes are stored behind the tube in racks. Speed is a desirable feature of a torpedo loading system. There are various manual and hydraulic handling systems for loading torpedoes into the tubes. Prior to the Ohio class, US SSBNs utilized manual block and tackle which took about 15 minutes to load a tube.
SSNs prior to the Seawolf class used a hydraulic system, much faster and safer in conditions where the ship needed to maneuver. The German Type 212 submarine uses a new development of the water ram expulsion system, which ejects the torpedo with water pressure to avoid acoustic detection. List of torpedoes by diameter The Fleet Type Submarine Online 21-Inch Submerged Torpedo Tubes United States Navy Restricted Ordnance Pamphlet 1085, June 1944 Torpedo tubes of German U-Boats
North Shields is a town on the north bank of the River Tyne in North East England, eight miles north-east of Newcastle upon Tyne. Part of Northumberland, its name derives from Middle English schele meaning "temporary sheds or huts used by fishermen". North Shields is first recorded in 1225, when the Prior of Tynemouth, decided to create a fishing port to provide fish for the Priory, situated on the headland at the mouth of the River Tyne, he supplied ships anchored near the priory. A number of rudimentary houses or'shiels' were erected at the mouth of the Pow Burn where the stream enters the Tyne, as well as wooden quays which were used to unload the fishing boats; the quays were used to ship coal from local collieries owned by the Priory. Soon the population of the new township numbered 1000; the burgesses of Newcastle upon Tyne were determined to preserve the custom rights that they had enjoyed up till which covered the whole length of the river. They petitioned the king in 1290 and managed to suspend trade from the new settlement.
It was forbidden to load and unload cargoes at North Shields. The opposition of the Newcastle burgesses remained for a considerable time but despite this, North Shields continued to develop as a centre for fishing and exporting salt, produced at local saltpans. For a considerable period the Newcastle burgesses, known as the Hostmen, who controlled the export of coal from the Tyne, resisted the export of this commodity from North Shields; the town was restricted to a narrow strip of land alongside the river because of the steep bank which hemmed it in. The town became too overcrowded and in the 18th century buildings began to be erected on the plateau 60 feet above the old, insanitary dwellings alongside the river; the prosperous businessmen and shipowners occupied the New Town whereas the working people remained in the lower part of town. The low, riverside part of the town was linked to the newer, higher part of the town by a series of stairs; these stairs were populated by slum dwellings. Although these dwellings have long since been cleared away, the sets of stairs still exist.
One of the first developments of the new town was Dockwray Square, built in 1763: a set of elegant town houses that became populated by wealthy families. However, due to the poor provision of water and drainage facilities, the wealthy families soon moved to the more central part of the new town the new Northumberland Square. Dockwray Square deteriorated into slums. In the early twentieth century Stan Laurel lived at a house in Dockwray Square for a few years, before he became famous; the square has since been re-developed and a statue of Laurel stands in the middle to commemorate his stay there. Because of the difficulty of navigating ships into the mouth of the river past the dangerous Black Midden rocks, buildings were erected in the 16th century with permanent lights burning to be used as a guide by the mariners. High and Low lights are pictured on a 1655 map of the river Tyne: a pair of square castellated towers. Both lights were rebuilt in 1727, these buildings still stand today. In 1810, the Old Lights were replaced by new High and Low Lights, placed at the top and bottom of the steep bank alongside the river.
All these lights were owned and operated by Trinity House of Newcastle-upon-Tyne until they ceased operation. Today, the Old High Beacon, as well as the Low Lights, are private residences. In 2014 the black-painted Old Low Light was opened to the public following a substantial refurbishment. In 1806, a market place was opened on New Quay. In 1870, work began on constructing a fish quay to provide shelter for the docked fishing boats; this quay is still in use today. Clifford's Fort, located on the Fish Quay, was built in the 17th century as a coastal defence against the Dutch; the Fort played a role during the Napoleonic Wars. The site of the fort was used to build new fish processing facilities and little now remains of the original fort; the area is undergoing restoration. Part of the foundations of the 18th century Master Gunner’s House were found below the concrete floor of a fish processing unit. Elsewhere on the site, part of the stone edging of Cable Tanks belonging to the Submarine Mining Depot were uncovered.
One of North Shields' oldest landmarks is the "Wooden Dolly" statue. In 1814, the female figurehead of a collier brig was placed at the entrance to Custom House Quay, on Liddell Street, stood there until 1850, when it was vandalised. A second figurehead was placed on the same spot; the "Wooden Dolly", as the figurehead was known, was used by seafarers as a source of good-luck charms, by cutting pieces of wood from her to be taken with them on voyages. The figurehead was defaced beyond repair and after 14 years was replaced by Wooden Dolly No. 3. This remained until 1901. A fifth Wooden Dolly a fishwife, was placed in Northumberland Square in 1958 and still remains there. In 1992, a sixth Wooden Dolly, was placed where the first four had been, at the entrance to Custom House Quay, can still be seen there, next to the Prince of Wales public house. In 1887, the town's businesses were listed as a marine engine, chain cable and anchor manufacturer, shipbuilding yards, salt-works, an earthenware and stained glass manufacturer.
Fishing was a major employer. The Smiths Dock Compa