In architecture, a turret is a small tower that projects vertically from the wall of a building such as a medieval castle. Turrets were used to provide a defensive position allowing covering fire to the adjacent wall in the days of military fortification. As their military use faded, turrets were used for decorative purposes, a turret can have a circular top with crenellations as seen in the picture at right, a pointed roof, or other kind of apex. The size of a turret is therefore limited by technology, since it puts additional stresses on the structure of the building and it would traditionally be supported by a corbel. Bartizan, an overhanging, wall-mounted turret found particularly on French and they returned to prominence in the 19th century with their popularity in Scottish baronial style
Yarrow boilers are an important class of high-pressure water-tube boilers. They were developed by Yarrow & Co, shipbuilders and Engineers and were widely used on ships, particularly warships. The Yarrow boiler design is characteristic of the boiler, two banks of straight water-tubes are arranged in a triangular row with a single furnace between them. A single steam drum is mounted at the top between them, with water drums at the base of each bank. Circulation, both upwards and downwards, occurs within this same tube bank, the Yarrows distinctive features were the use of straight tubes and circulation in both directions taking place entirely within the tube bank, rather than using external downcomers. Early use of the water-tube boiler within the Royal Navy was controversial at times and these first boilers, such as the Belleville and Niclausse, were large-tube designs, with simple straight tubes of around 4 diameter, at a shallow angle to the horizontal. These tubes were jointed into cast iron headers and gave much trouble with leakage at these joints, at the time, an assumption was that thermal expansion in these straight tubes was straining the joints.
These boilers were large, and although fitted to many pre-dreadnought battleships, could not be fitted to the torpedo boats. To provide a lighter boiler for smaller vessels, the Express types were developed and these used smaller water-tubes of around 2 diameter, giving a greater ratio of heating area to volume. Most of these were of the pattern, particularly of the Du Temple. This gave a more vertical arrangement of the water-tubes, thus encouraging thermosyphon circulation in these narrow tubes. The previous problems of tube expansion were still a concern and so the tubes were either curved, or even convoluted into hairpins and S shapes. Alfred Yarrow developed his boiler as a response to others that had already developed water-tube boilers and this was a long process based on theoretical experiment rather than evolution of practical boilers. Work began in 1877 and the first commercial boiler was not supplied until 10 years later, despite this long gestation, the boilers origins appear to have been most direct.
Already expressed two of the three basic design principles. Early water-tube designers had been concerned with the expansion of the tubes when heated. Efforts were made to them to expand freely, particularly so that those closest to the furnace might expand relatively more than those further away. Typically this was done by arranging the tubes in large looping curves and these had difficulties in manufacturing and required support in use
It may be known as ship dismantling, ship cracking, or ship recycling. Modern ships have a lifespan of 25 to 30 years before corrosion, metal fatigue, ship breaking allows the materials from the ship, especially steel, to be recycled and made into new products. This lowers the demand for mined iron ore and reduces energy use in the steelmaking process, equipment on board the vessel can be reused. While ship breaking is sustainable, there are concerns about the use of poorer countries without stringent environmental legislation and it is considered one of the worlds most dangerous industries and very labour-intensive. In 2012, roughly 1,250 ocean ships were broken down, in 2013, the world total of demolished ships amounted to 29,052,000 tonnes, 92% of which were demolished in Asia. The largest sources of ships are states of China and Germany respectively, the ship breaking yards of India, Bangladesh and Pakistan employ 100,000 workers as well as providing a large amount of indirect jobs. In India, the steel covers 10% of the countrys needs.
As an alternative to breaking, ships may be sunk to create artificial reefs after being cleared of hazardous materials. Storage is a viable option, whether on land or afloat, though all ships will be eventually scrapped, sunk. Wooden-hulled ships were set on fire or conveniently sunk. In Tudor times, ships were dismantled and the timber re-used. This procedure was no longer applicable with the advent of metal-hulled boats, the navy vessel HMS Temeraire had her masts and guns removed and her crew paid off. She was sold by Dutch auction on 16 August 1838 to John Beatson, Beatson was faced with the task of transporting the ship 55 miles from Sheerness to Rotherhithe, the largest ship to have attempted this voyage. To accomplish this he hired two steam tugs from the Thames Steam Towing Company and employed a Rotherhithe pilot named William Scott and twenty five men to sail her up the Thames, at a cost of £58. The shipbreakers undertook a thorough dismantling, removing all the copper sheathing, rudder pintles and gudgeons, copper bolts, the timber was mostly sold to house builders and shipyard owners, though some was retained for working into specialist commemorative furniture.
The ships final voyage was immortalised by William Turners painting The Fighting ‘Temeraire’, in 1880, Denny Brothers of Dumbarton used scrap maritime steel in their shipbuilding. Many other nations began to purchase British ships for scrap by the late 19th century, including Germany, the Italian industry started in 1892, and the Japanese after an 1896 law had been passed to subsidise native shipbuilding. After being damaged or involved in a disaster, liner operators did not want the name of the ship to tarnish the brand of their passenger services
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdoms naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the medieval period. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century, from the middle decades of the 17th century and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century it was the worlds most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War. The Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the world power during the 19th. Due to this historical prominence, it is common, even among non-Britons, following World War I, the Royal Navy was significantly reduced in size, although at the onset of the Second World War it was still the worlds largest. By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the worlds largest, during the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap.
The Royal Navy is part of Her Majestys Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the power in the 10th century. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Medieval fleets, in England as elsewhere, were almost entirely composed of merchant ships enlisted into service in time of war. Englands naval organisation was haphazard and the mobilisation of fleets when war broke out was slow, early in the war French plans for an invasion of England failed when Edward III of England destroyed the French fleet in the Battle of Sluys in 1340. Major fighting was confined to French soil and Englands naval capabilities sufficed to transport armies and supplies safely to their continental destinations. Such raids halted finally only with the occupation of northern France by Henry V.
Henry VII deserves a large share of credit in the establishment of a standing navy and he embarked on a program of building ships larger than heretofore. He invested in dockyards, and commissioned the oldest surviving dry dock in 1495 at Portsmouth, a standing Navy Royal, with its own secretariat, dockyards and a permanent core of purpose-built warships, emerged during the reign of Henry VIII. Under Elizabeth I England became involved in a war with Spain, the new regimes introduction of Navigation Acts, providing that all merchant shipping to and from England or her colonies should be carried out by English ships, led to war with the Dutch Republic. In the early stages of this First Anglo-Dutch War, the superiority of the large, heavily armed English ships was offset by superior Dutch tactical organisation and the fighting was inconclusive
1st Cruiser Squadron
The First Cruiser Squadron was a Royal Navy squadron of armoured cruisers that saw service as part of the Mediterranean and Grand Fleets during the First World War. It was originally formed in 1909, but was renamed on 1 January 1913 to First Battle Cruiser Squadron. When the First World War began, the squadron was assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet where it participated in the pursuit of the German battlecruiser SMS Goeben and it joined the Grand Fleet by January 1915 where it participated in the battles of Dogger Bank and the Battle of Jutland. It was disbanded after the battle as three of its four ships had been sunk and it was reformed in 1917 with the three large light cruisers of the Courageous class. The squadron was the main British force in the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight in late 1917, defence - Flagship of Rear-Admiral Ernest C. T. Troubridge. R. N. was Rear Admiral Commanding First Cruiser Squadron, Mediterranean Fleet and he commanded the squadron from his former command HMS Gambia.
Naval Operations to the Battle of the Falklands, history of the Great War, Based on Official Documents. London and Nashville, TN, Imperial War Museum and Battery Press, history of the Great War, Based on Official Documents. London and Nashville, TN, Imperial War Museum in association with the Battery Press, history of the Great War, Based on Official Documents. London and Nashville, TN, Imperial War Museum in association with the Battery Press, history of the Great War Based on Official Documents
A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. The fluid does not necessarily boil, the heated or vaporized fluid exits the boiler for use in various processes or heating applications, including water heating, central heating, boiler-based power generation and sanitation. The pressure vessel of a boiler is usually made of steel, stainless steel, especially of the austenitic types, is not used in wetted parts of boilers due to corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. In live steam models, copper or brass is used because it is more easily fabricated in smaller size boilers. For much of the Victorian age of steam, the material used for boilermaking was the highest grade of wrought iron. In the 20th century, design practice instead moved towards the use of steel, which is stronger and cheaper, with welded construction, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be noted, that wrought iron boilers corrode far slower than their steel counterparts. This makes the longevity of older wrought-iron boilers far superior to those of welded steel boilers, cast iron may be used for the heating vessel of domestic water heaters.
Although such heaters are usually termed boilers in some countries, their purpose is usually to produce hot water, not steam, the brittleness of cast iron makes it impractical for high-pressure steam boilers. The source of heat for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, oil, electric steam boilers use resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is used as a heat source for generating steam, either directly or, in most cases. Heat recovery steam generators use the heat rejected from other such as gas turbine. 18th century Haycock boilers generally produced and stored large volumes of very low-pressure steam and these could burn wood or most often, coal. Flued boiler with one or two large flues—an early type or forerunner of fire-tube boiler, fire-tube boiler, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume left above to accommodate the steam. This is the type of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives, the heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be kept permanently surrounded by the water in order to maintain the temperature of the heating surface below the boiling point.
Fire-tube boilers usually have a low rate of steam production. Fire-tube boilers mostly burn solid fuels, but are adaptable to those of the liquid or gas variety. Water-tube boiler, In this type, tubes filled with water are arranged inside a furnace in a number of possible configurations and this type generally gives high steam production rates, but less storage capacity than the above
A bulkhead is an upright wall within the hull of a ship or within the fuselage of an aeroplane. Other kinds of elements within a ship are decks and deckheads. The word bulki meant cargo in Old Norse, sometime in the 15th century sailors and builders in Europe realized that walls within a vessel would prevent cargo from shifting during passage. In shipbuilding, any vertical panel was called a head, so walls installed abeam in a vessels hull were called bulkheads. Now, the term applies to every vertical panel aboard a ship. Bulkhead partitions are considered to have been a feature of Chinese junks, song Dynasty author Zhu Yu wrote in his book of 1119 that the hulls of Chinese ships had a bulkhead build. The 5th-century book Garden of Strange Things by Liu Jingshu mentioned that a ship could allow water to enter the bottom without sinking, texts written by Western writers such as Marco Polo, Niccolò Da Conti, and Benjamin Franklin describe the bulkhead partitions of East Asian shipbuilding. Bulkhead partitions became widespread in Western shipbuilding during the early 19th century, a 19th century book on shipbuilding attributes the introduction of watertight bulkheads to Charles Wye Williams, known for his steamships.
Some bulkheads and decks are fire-resistance rated to achieve compartmentalisation, a fire protection measure. On an aircraft, bulkheads divide the cabin into multiple areas, openings in fire-resistance rated bulkheads and decks must be firestopped to restore the fire-resistance ratings that would otherwise be compromised, if the openings were left unsealed. The authority having jurisdiction for such measures varies depending upon the flag of the ship, merchant vessels are typically subject to the regulations and inspections of the Coast Guards of the flag country. Combat ships are subject to the set out by the navy of the country that owns the ship. The term was applied to other vehicles, such as railroad cars, hopper cars, automobiles, aircraft or spacecraft, as well as to containers, intermediate bulk containers. In some of these cases bulkheads are airtight to prevent air leakage or the spread of a fire, the term may be used for the end walls of bulkhead flatcars. Mechanically, a partition or panel through which pass, or a connector designed to pass through a partition.
In architecture the term is used to denote any boxed in beam or other downstand from a ceiling. Head strikes on these elements are commonplace hence in architecture any overhead downstand element comes to be referred to as a bulkhead
The Hotchkiss gun can refer to different products of the Hotchkiss arms company starting in the late 19th century. It usually refers to the 1. 65-inch light mountain gun, there were a navy, the 42 mm gun was intended to be mounted on a light carriage or packed on two mules to accompany a troop of cavalry or an army travelling in rough country. The 1. 65-inch gun and accessories could be packed on two mules, the gun was introduced as a modern replacement for the aging twelve-pound mountain howitzer. The first gun purchased by the U. S. military from the French arms firm of Hotchkiss was employed against the Nez Percé in 1877, over the next twenty years the U. S. purchased 56. They were used at the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890, and again in Cuba for the attack on San Juan Hill, the term Hotchkiss gun refers to the Hotchkiss Revolving Cannon, a Gatling-type revolving barrel machine gun invented in 1872 by Benjamin B. Hotchkiss, founder of Hotchkiss et Cie and it was a built-up, rapid-fire gun of oil-tempered steel, having a rectangular breechblock which moved in a mortise cut completely through the jacket.
It was designed to be enough to travel with cavalry. The 1-pounder revolving Hotchkiss cannon had five 37 mm barrels, and was capable of firing 68 rounds per minute with a range of 2,000 yards. Each feed magazine held ten rounds and weighed approximately 18 pounds, the naval version was adopted by Russia and the United States, amongst others. The field cannon version was accompanied by an ammunition limber. One example is on display at the Museum of the History of the Brazilian Army at Fort Copacabana, a 3-pounder 47mm Hotchkiss revolver cannon was adopted by the US and Russian navies in the 1880s. With 3-pounder and 1-pounder weapons, it is difficult to determine from references what type of weapons a particular ship had, single-shot, revolver cannon, and Maxim-Nordenfelt 1-pounder machine gun weapons were all used on new warships 1880-1910. All of these were called quick-firing or, in the US, Hotchkiss produced a range of light naval guns and, in the 1930s, anti-tank guns. When improvements in torpedo range made them obsolete in this role, they continued to be used as small-craft armament up to, in World War I the British motor gunboats which won naval supremacy from the Germans on Lake Tanganyika were armed with the Hotchkiss 3 pounder.
The Hotchkiss 6 pounder was adopted by the British army for the first tanks
A torpedo tube is a cylinder shaped device for launching torpedoes. There are two types of torpedo tube, underwater tubes fitted to submarines and some surface ships. Thus a submarine torpedo tube operates on the principle of an airlock, the diagram on the right illustrates the operation of a submarine torpedo tube. The diagram is somewhat simplified but does show the working of a torpedo launch. A torpedo tube has a number of interlocks for safety reasons. For example, an interlock prevents the door and muzzle door from opening at the same time. The submarine torpedo launch sequence is, in simplified form, Open the breech door in the torpedo room, load the torpedo into the tube. Hook up the connection and the torpedo power cable. Shut and lock the breech door, turn on power to the torpedo. A minimum amount of time is required for torpedo warmup, fire control programs are uploaded to the torpedo. This may be manually or automatically, from sea or from tanks. The tube must be vented during this process to allow for complete filling, Open the equalizing valve to equalize pressure in the tube with ambient sea pressure.
If the tube is set up for Impulse Mode the slide valve will open with the muzzle door, if Swim Out Mode is selected, the slide valve remains closed. The slide valve allows water from the pump to enter the tube. Modern torpedoes have a safety mechanism that prevents activation of the torpedo unless the torpedo senses the required amount of G-force, the power cable is severed at launch. However, if a wire is used, it remains connected through a drum of wire in the tube. Torpedo propulsion systems vary but electric torpedoes swim out of the tube on their own and are of a smaller diameter,21 weapons with fuel-burning engines usually start outside of the tube. Once outside the tube the torpedo begins its run toward the target as programmed by the control system
Ship commissioning is the act or ceremony of placing a ship in active service, and may be regarded as a particular application of the general concepts and practices of project commissioning. The term is most commonly applied to the placing of a warship in active duty with its countrys military forces, the ceremonies involved are often rooted in centuries old naval tradition. Ship naming and launching endow a ship hull with her identity, the engineering plant and electronic systems and multitudinous other equipment required to transform the new hull into an operating and habitable warship are installed and tested. The prospective commanding officer, ships officers, the petty officers, prior to commissioning, the new ship undergoes sea trials to identify any deficiencies needing correction. USS Monitor, of American Civil War fame, was commissioned less than three weeks after launch, regardless of the type of ship in question, a vessels journey towards commissioning in its nations navy begins with process known as sea trials.
Sea trials begin when the ship in question is floated out of its dry dock, after a ship has successfully cleared its sea trial period, it will officially be accepted into service with its nations navy. At this point, the ship in question will undergo a process of degaussing and/or deperming, once a ships sea trials are successfully completed plans for the actual commissioning ceremony will take shape. If the ships ceremony is an affair the Captain may make a speech to the audience. Religious ceremonies, such as blessing the ship or the singing of hymns or songs. Once a ship has been commissioned its final step toward becoming a unit of the navy it now serves is to report to its home port. To decommission a ship is to terminate its career in service in the forces of a nation. Decommissioning of the vessel may occur due to treaty agreements or for safety reasons, vessels preserved in this manner typically do not relinquish their names to other, more modern ships that may be in the design, planning, or construction phase of the parent nations navy.
Prior to its decommissioning, the ship in question will begin the process of decommissioning by going through a preliminary step called inactivation or deactivation. The removed material from a ship usually ends up either rotating to another ship in the class with similar weapons and/or capabilities, or in storage pending a decision on equipments fate. During this time a crew may be thinned out via transfers. When a ship finishes its inactivation, it is formally decommissioned, but not always, ships that are decommissioned end up spending the next few years in a reserve fleet before their ultimate fate is decided. Commissioning in the early United States Navy under sail was attended by no ceremony, the ship was placed in commission. Commissionings were not public affairs, and unlike christening-and-launching ceremonies, were not recorded by newspapers, the first specific reference to commissioning located in naval records is a letter of November 6,1863, from Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles to all navy yards and stations
Belt armor is a layer of heavy metal armor plated onto or within the outer hulls of warships, typically on battleships and cruisers, and aircraft carriers. The belt armor is designed to prevent projectiles from penetrating to the heart of a warship, the main armor belt covers the warship from its main deck down to some distance below the waterline. If, instead of forming the hull, the armor belt is built inside the hull, it is installed at a sloped angle for improved protection. Furthermore, the spaces around the main belt in some designs were filled with storage tanks that could contain fuel oil, seawater. The liquids in these tanks absorb or scatter much of the force of warheads. To deal with the leakage from the tanks and incoming seawater and this multilayer design is featured in the cross-sectional drawings of Tirpitz and King George V. In combat, a warship can be seriously damaged underwater not only by torpedoes, to improve protection against both shells and torpedoes, an air space can be added between the armor belt and the hull to increase the buoyancy of the warship.
Some kinds of naval warships have belt armor thinner than actually necessary for protection against projectiles and this is common especially with battlecruisers and aircraft carriers to reduce their weight, thus increasing their acceleration and speed. Another possible reason is to meet treaty restrictions on ship displacement, one such method is all-or-nothing armoring, where belt armor is stripped from areas deemed non-vital to the functioning of the ship in battle. Agility gained from such processes are an asset to offensive warships that seek to quickly bring their heavy striking power to the enemy. In carriers, the maneuverability is exploited when deploying and recovering aircraft, since planes take off and land most easily when flying into the wind, the aircraft carrier steams rapidly into the wind in both maneuvers, making take-off and landing safer and easier. S. Comparison of WW2 battleship armor schemes Torpedo belt Protected cruiser Armored cruiser
The waterline is the line where the hull of a ship meets the surface of the water. Temperature affects the level, because warm water provides less buoyancy, being less dense than water, as does salinity. For vessels with displacement hulls, the speed is determined by, among other things. In a sailing boat, the length can change significantly as the boat heels. The waterline can refer to any line on a hull that is parallel to the waters surface when the ship is afloat in a normal position. Hence, all waterlines are one class of ships used to denote the shape of a hull in naval architecture plans. In aircraft design, the term refers to the vertical location of items on the aircraft. This is the Z axis of an XYZ coordinate system, the two axes being the fuselage station and buttock line. The purpose of a line is to ensure that a ship has sufficient freeboard. All commercial ships, other than in exceptional circumstances, have a load line symbol painted amidships on each side of the ship and this symbol is permanently marked, so that if the paint wears off it remains visible.
The load line makes it easy for anyone to determine if a ship has been overloaded, the exact location of the load line is calculated and verified by a classification society and that society issues the relevant certificates. This marking was invented in 1876 by Samuel Plimsoll, roman sea regulations contained similar regulations. In the Middle Ages the Venetian Republic, the city of Genoa, in the case of Venice this was a cross marked on the side of the ship, and of Genoa three horizontal lines. The first 19th century loading recommendations were introduced by Lloyds Register of British and Foreign Shipping in 1835, Lloyds recommended freeboards as a function of the depth of the hold. These recommendations, used extensively until 1880, became known as Lloyds Rule, in the 1860s, after increased loss of ships due to overloading, a British MP, Samuel Plimsoll, took up the load line cause. In 1906, laws were passed requiring foreign ships visiting British ports to be marked with a load line and it was not until 1930 that there was international agreement for universal application of load line regulations.
In 1966 the International Convention on Load Lines was concluded in London which re-examined and amended the 1930 rules, the 1966 convention has since seen amendments in 1971,1975,1979,1983,1995 and 2003, none of which have entered into force. The original Plimsoll mark was a circle with a line through it to show the maximum draft of a ship