SS Polar Chief
Polar Chief was an 8,040 GRT tanker, built in 1897 as the cargo ship Montcalm. In 1914 she was requisitioned by the Admiralty, serving as a troopship. In October 1914, she was renamed HMS Audacious. In 1915 she became a depot ship, followed by conversion to a tanker in 1916 when she was sold into Royal Fleet Auxiliary service and renamed RFA Crenella. In 1917, she survived a torpedo attack off the coast of Ireland. In 1919, she was sold into merchant service as SS Crenella. In 1923, she was renamed Rey Alfonso. In 1927, she was renamed Anglo-Norse. In 1929, she was renamed Polar Chief. Although laid up in Tønsberg in September 1939, she escaped to the United Kingdom before Germany invaded Norway. Polar Chief was requisitioned and passed to the Ministry of War Transport, renamed Empire Chief. In January 1942, she ran aground off Iceland, she was refloated and temporary repairs made to enable her to be returned to the United Kingdom for permanent repairs. In 1946, she was returned to her owners and the name Polar Chief restored.
She served until 1952. The ship was built by Palmers Shipbuilding and Iron Co Ltd, Jarrow on Tyne as yard number 724, she was launched on 17 May 1897, completed in August 1897. The ship was 445 feet 0 inches long, with a beam of 52 feet 2 inches and a depth of 27 feet 6 inches, she was propelled by a triple expansion steam engine which had cylinders of 30 inches, 50 5⁄16 inches and 81 1⁄2 inches diameter by 54 inches stroke. Three double ended; the engine could propel the ship at 12 knots. Montcalm was built for the African Steamship Company and placed under the management of Elder Dempster Lines. On 3 September 1897, she made her maiden voyage from Avonmouth, Gloucestershire to Montreal, Canada. On 13 November 1898, she was chartered to the Atlantic Transport Line. In 1899, a rebuild left her at 6,981 GRT. Montcalm made eleven trans-atlantic voyages between 1898 and 1900. On 5 April 1900, she sailed from Liverpool for Cape Town as a transport ship in support of the Second Boer War. Montcalm made six return voyages from Cape Town to New Orleans, carrying horses or mules.
In June 1902, she was placed in service on the Avonmouth - Montreal route. In 1903, she passed to Elder Dempster Lines when that company absorbed the African Steamship Company. In August 1914, Montcalm was requisitioned by the Admiralty, she was used as a troopship carrying members of the British Expeditionary Force. In October 1914, she was converted to a dummy battleship, mimicking HMS Audacious, whose name she carried, it was intended that she be used as a blockship in 1915. On 9 January 1916, she was transferred to the control of the British Shipping Controller and placed under the management of Frederick Leyland Ltd, Liverpool; the United Kingdom Official Number 106869 was allocated. Between August and October 1916 she was converted to a tanker and placed under the management of Lane and MacAndrews. On 18 November 1916 she entered service with the Royal Fleet Auxiliary as RFA Crenella, under the management of the Anglo Saxon Petroleum Company. On 26 November 1917, Crenella was on a voyage from Queenstown to Montreal when she was torpedoed by U-101 when 146 nautical miles west of Queenstown, at 49°47′N 10°58′W.
Crenella was in ballast for this voyage. Although damaged in the attack, Crenella managed to reach port; the United States Navy's O'Brien-class destroyer USS Cushing assisted in damaged control and escorted Crenella back to Queenstown. In 1919, Crenella was sold to the Anglo Saxon Petroleum Co Ltd. On 19 October 1920, she was sold to the Velefa Shipping Co Ltd and placed under the management of Runciman & Co Ltd although she was laid up. In 1923, Crenella was sold to Christian Nielson & Co, Larvik and renamed Rey Alfonso, she was used as a whale oil depot ship. In 1925, she was sold to H M Wrangell & Co, Haugesund and in 1927 she was sold to the Anglo-Norse Company, Tønsberg. Rey Alfonso was renamed Anglo-Norse, she was placed under the management of Hans Borge. In 1925, she was sold to the Falkland Whaling Company and renamed Polar Chief. At this time she was 7,166 GRT, 5,512 NRT, her port of registry was Jersey. Polar Chier was rebuilt as a pelagic whaler in Sweden, she was placed under the management of the South Georgia Company.
Polar Chief was laid up during the 1930 whaling season. She was returned to service. By 1934, the Code Letters QFMT had been allocated; these were changed to GFMT in 1937. In 1939, her she was recorded as 8,040 GRT and 6,279 NRT. Polar Chief was laid up at Tønsburg in September 1939, but managed to escape to the United Kingdom before the German invasion of Norway in April 1940. In April 1941, Polar Chief was requisioned by the MoWT, she was placed under the management of Leith. Polar Chief was a member of Convoy HX 156, which departed Halifax, Nova Scotia on 22 October 1941 and arrived at Liverpool on 5 November. Polar Chief was renamed Empire Chief in November 1941. On 16 January 1942, Empire Chief ran aground at Iceland, she was refloated on 7 March and temporary repairs were made before she was towed back to the United Kingdom in May 1942. Empire Chief was a member of Convoy HX 251, which departed New York on 7 August 1943, she was carrying fuel oil and armoured fighting vehicles. She was a member of Convoy HX 266, which departed New York on 13 November 1943.
Empire Chief was carrying fuel depth charges. In 1946, Empire Chief was retur
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
HMS Audacious (1869)
HMS Audacious was the lead ship of the Audacious-class ironclads built for the Royal Navy in the late 1860s. They were designed as second-class ironclads suitable for use on foreign stations and the ship spent the bulk of her career on the China Station, she was hulked in 1902 for use as a training ship. The ship was towed to Scapa Flow after the beginning of the First World War to be used as a receiving ship and to Rosyth after the war ended. Audacious was sold for scrap in 1929; the Audacious-class ironclads were laid out as central battery ironclads with the armament concentrated amidships. They were the first British ironclads to have a two-deck battery with the upper deck guns sponsoned out over the sides of the hull; the ships were fitted with a short, plough-shaped ram and their crew numbered 450 officers and men. HMS Audacious was 280 feet long between perpendiculars, she had a draught of 23 feet. The ship was first British ironclad to be completed below her designed displacement. Audacious, her sisters, were the steadiest gun platforms among the large British ironclads of their era.
Audacious was given an experimental zinc sheath for her hull in an attempt to reduce biofouling that proved unsuccessful. Audacious had two 2-cylinder horizontal return connecting rod steam engines made by Ravenhill, each driving a single 16-foot-2-inch propeller; the bronze four-bladed Mangin propellers were not arranged in the usual radial cross shape, but rather in two pairs, one behind the other, on an elongated boss in an attempt to reduce their drag when the ship used her sails. They were replaced by two-bladed Griffiths propellers. Six rectangular boilers provided steam to the engine at a working pressure of 31 psi; the engines produced a total of 4,021 indicated horsepower during sea trials on 21 October 1870 and Audacious reached a maximum speed of 12.83 knots. The ship carried 460 long tons of coal, enough to steam 1,260 nautical miles at 10 knots; the Audacious-class ironclads were ship rigged and had a sail area of 25,054 square feet. After the loss of HMS Captain in a storm in 1870, the ships were modified with a barque rig which reduced their sail area to 23,700 square feet.
They were slow under sail, only 6.5 knots due to the drag of the twin screws, their shallow draft and flat bottom meant that they were leewardly when close-hauled. The three ships, Audacious and Invincible, with balanced rudders were described as unmanageable under sail alone. HMS Audacious was armed with four 64-pounder rifled muzzle-loading guns. Six of the 9-inch guns were mounted on the main deck, three on each side, while the other four guns were fitted above them on the upper deck, their gun ports were in each corner of the upper battery and could be worked in all weathers, unlike like the guns on the main deck below them. The 64-pounder guns were mounted on the upper deck, outside the battery, as chase guns; the ship had six 20-pounder Armstrong guns for use as saluting guns. The shell of the 14-calibre 9-inch gun weighed 254 pounds, it had a muzzle velocity of 1,420 ft/s and was credited with the ability to penetrate a nominal 11.3 inches of wrought iron armour at the muzzle. The 16-calibre 64-pounder gun weighed 3.2 long tons and fired a 6.3-inch, 64-pound shell that had a muzzle velocity of 1,125 ft/s.
In 1878 Audacious received four 14-inch torpedo launchers that were carried on the main deck, outside the armoured battery. When the ship was refitted in 1889–90 she received eight 4-inch breech-loading guns as well as four quick-firing 6-pounder Hotchkiss and six 3-pounder Hotchkiss guns for defence against torpedo boats. Audacious had a complete waterline belt of wrought iron, 8 inches thick amidships and tapered to 6 inches thick at the bow and stern, it only protected the main deck and reached 3 feet above the waterline at full load and 5 feet below. The guns were protected by a section of 8-inch armour, 59 feet long, with a 5-inch transverse bulkhead forward and a 8-inch bulkhead to the rear; the armour was backed by 8–10 inches of teak. The total weight of her armour was 924 long tons. HMS Audacious was ordered on 29 April 1867 from Robert Napier in Glasgow, she was launched on 27 February 1869 in a gale. The winds caught the rear of the ship as she was about halfway down the slipway and twisted her enough that some plates and frames of her bottom were damaged.
The ship was commissioned the following month. She cost £256,291 to build. Upon completion she became guard ship of the First Reserve at Kingstown, but was transferred the following year to Hull where she remained until 1874; the ship was ordered to the Far East that year to serve as the flagship for the China Station under the flag of Vice-Admiral Sir Alfred Phillips Ryder. Despite the presence of escorting tugs, Audacious grounded twice while she was transiting through the Suez Canal, she relieved her sister Iron Duke in Singapore, collided with a merchant ship during a typhoon in Yokohama. Iron Duke relieved her in turn in 1878. Audacious returned to her previous post in Hull in 1879, she served there until she began a lengthy refit which included new boilers and the addition of a poo
HMS Eagle (R05)
HMS Eagle was an Audacious-class aircraft carrier of the Royal Navy, in service 1951–1972. With her sister ship Ark Royal, she was one of the two largest, she was laid down on 24 October 1942 at Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast as one of four ships of the Audacious class. These were laid down during World War II as part of the British naval buildup during that conflict. Two were cancelled at the end of hostilities, the remaining two were suspended. Designated Audacious, she was renamed as Eagle, taking the name of the cancelled third ship of the class on 21 January 1946, she was launched by Princess Elizabeth on 19 March 1946. Although Eagle was commissioned in October 1951 without an angled flight deck, one was added three years later. In 1952 she took part in Exercise Mainbrace; the Audacious-class aircraft carriers were intended as a larger follow-on to the Implacable-class of aircraft carriers with armoured hangars, with the design being modified prior to orders being placed to accommodate larger and heavier aircraft, which lead to the displacement growing from the planned 27,000 long tons to 32,500 long tons by the time the ships were ordered.
Four ships were ordered, although one, was cancelled before construction began. The first of the class, Audacious was laid down at Harland & Wolff's Belfast shipyard on 24 October 1942. Construction was slowed by the need to concentrate resources on more urgent requirements, such as the construction of landing craft, none of the ships of the class had been launched when end of the Second World War brought large cuts in the shipbuilding programme for the Royal Navy; the third ship of the class, only 26% complete, was cancelled in December 1945, with Audacious being renamed Eagle on 21 January 1946. The newly renamed Eagle was launched by Princess Elizabeth on 19 March 1946, but construction of the two carriers was slowed for three years while the Royal Navy's requirements for aircraft carriers was reviewed, it being decided to complete Eagle to a similar standard to that planned in 1945, while Ark Royal would be completed to an improved design. Eagle was completed on 1 October 1951; as built, Eagle was 803 feet 9 inches long overall, 750 feet 0 inches at the waterline and 720 feet 0 inches between perpendiculars, with a beam of 112 feet 9 inches and a draught of 36 feet 0 inches at deep load.
Displacement was 43,060 long tons standard, with full load of up to 53,390 long tons. Eight Admiralty three-drum water-tube boilers fed steam to Parsons single-reduction geared steam turbines rated at 152,000 shaft horsepower which in turn drove four propeller shafts; this gave a speed of 31.5 knots at deep load. Eagle started Sea trials on 31 October 1951, with initial flying trials starting on 14 February 1952 and the ship being accepted into service on 1 March 1952. Eagle continued to work up her crew, embarking an initial air wing equipped with two squadrons of Supermarine Attacker jet fighters, two squadrons of Fairey Firefly anti-submarine aircraft and a squadron of Blackburn Firebrand attack aircraft, in September 1952, took part in the big NATO naval exercise, Exercise Mainbrace off the coast of Norway and Denmark. In early 1953 Eagle visited the Mediterranean, before returning to home waters when in June she took part in the Fleet Review at Spithead to celebrate the Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.
She joined the Mediterranean Fleet in February 1954, before returning to British waters in May. Eagle was refitted at Devonport Dockyard from June 1954 to February 1955. In order to ease operations with jet aircraft, the ship was fitted with a 5.5 degree angled flight deck, which owing to the width of Eagle's flight deck, could be accommodated without major structural changes, although it required the ship's arrestor gear to be rearranged, removal of nine Bofors guns. A mirror landing aid was fitted. Following work-up, Eagle deployed to the Mediterranean before taking part in the autumn NATO exercises in the North Atlantic. In May 1956, Eagle was deployed to Malta to work up for another stint in the Mediterranean Fleet. Eagle's first wartime service came in 1956; the ship's aircraft of that period included Westland Wyverns, Douglas Skyraiders, Hawker Sea Hawks and de Havilland Sea Venoms. The Admiralty had planned to give Eagle a complete rebuild on the lines of HMS Victorious, but due to high costs, plans to fit new geared steam turbines and a stretched hull were abandoned.
Eagle was instead given a more austere but extensive modernization that provided greater radar and processing capability than the systems fitted to Victorious. The changes included major improvements to the accommodation, including the installation of air conditioning; the island was rebuilt and a 3D Type 984 radar was installed, with processing capacity to track and rank 100 targets, twice the capability of the early 984 system fitted to Hermes and Victorious. The flight deck was modified and included a new 2½ inch armoured deck with a full 8.5 degree angle, two new steam catapults were fitted as well as new arrester gear and mirror sights. As well as an overhaul of the DC electrical systems, AC generators were fitted to give additional power, it was decided that Eagle would have her anti-aircraft guns removed and replaced by the Seacat missile system, though her aft four 4.5 inch gun turrets were retained, all o
National Maritime Museum
The National Maritime Museum in Greenwich, London, is a maritime museum in London. The historic buildings form part of the Maritime Greenwich World Heritage Site, it incorporates the Royal Observatory and 17th-century Queen's House. In 2012, Her Majesty the Queen formally approved Royal Museums Greenwich as the new overall title for the National Maritime Museum, Queen’s House, the Royal Observatory and the Cutty Sark; the museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture and Sport. Like other publicly funded national museums in the United Kingdom, the National Maritime Museum does not levy an admission charge, although most temporary exhibitions do incur admission charges; the museum was created by the National Maritime Act of 1934 Chapter 43, under a Board of Trustees, appointed by H. M. Treasury, it is based on the generous donations of Sir James Caird. King George VI formally opened the museum on 27 April 1937 when his daughter Princess Elizabeth accompanied him for the journey along the Thames from London.
The first Director was Sir Geoffrey Callender. Since earliest times Greenwich has had associations with the navigation, it was a landing place for the Romans. The home of Greenwich Mean Time and the Prime Meridian since 1884, Greenwich has long been a centre for astronomical study, while navigators across the world have set their clocks according to its time of day; the Museum has the most important holdings in the world on the history of Britain at sea comprising more than two million items, including maritime art, manuscripts including official public records, ship models and plans and navigational instruments, instruments for time-keeping and astronomy. Its holdings including paintings relating to Vice-Admiral Horatio Nelson and Captain James Cook. An active loans programme ensures; the museum aims to achieve a greater understanding of British economic, social and maritime history and its consequences in the world today. The museum plays host to various exhibitions, including Ships Clocks & Stars in 2014, Samuel Pepys: Plague, Revolution in 2015 and Emma Hamilton: Seduction and Celebrity in 2016.
The collection of the National Maritime Museum includes items taken from the German Naval Academy Mürwik after World War II, including several ship models and flags. The museum has been criticized for possessing what has been described as "looted art"; the museum regards these cultural objects as "war trophies", removed under the provisions of the Potsdam Conference. The museum awards the Caird Medal annually in honour of Sir James Caird. In late August 2018, several groups were vying for the right to purchase the 5,500 RMS Titanic relics that were an asset of the bankrupt Premier Exhibitions; the National Maritime Museum, Titanic Belfast and Titanic Foundation Limited, as well as the National Museums Northern Ireland, joined together as a consortium, raising money to purchase the 5,500 artifacts. The group intended to keep all of the items together as a single exhibit. Oceanographer Robert Ballard said he favored this bid since it would ensure that the memorabilia would be permanently displayed in Belfast and in Greenwich.
The museums were critical of the bid process set by the Bankruptcy Court in Florida. The minimum bid for the 11 October 2018 auction was set at US$21.5 million and the consortium did not have enough funding to meet that amount. The museum was established in 1934 within the 200 acres of Greenwich Royal Park in the buildings occupied by the Royal Hospital School, before it moved to Holbrook in Suffolk, it includes the Queen's House, an early classical building designed by Inigo Jones, the keystone of the historic "park and palace" landscape of maritime Greenwich. It includes the Royal Observatory, an active scientific institution until the 1950s, when it was removed to Herstmonceux Castle in East Sussex; the gardens to the north of the museum were reinstated in the late 1870s following construction of the cut-and-cover tunnel between Greenwich and Maze Hill stations. The tunnel comprised part of the final section of the London and Greenwich Railway and opened in 1878. Flamsteed House, the original part of the Royal Observatory, was designed by Sir Christopher Wren and Robert Hooke and was the first purpose-built scientific institution in Britain.
All the museum buildings have been subsequently upgraded. A full redevelopment of the main galleries, centring on what is now the Neptune Court, designed by Rick Mather Architects and funded by the Heritage Lottery Fund, was completed in 1999. In May 2007 a major capital project, "Time and Space", opened up the entire Royal Observatory site for the benefit of visitors; the £16 million transformation features three new modern astronomy galleries, four new time galleries, facilities for collections conservation and research, a learning centre and the 120-seat Peter Harrison Planetarium designed to introduce the world beyond the night sky. In 2008, the museum announced that Israeli shipping magnate Sammy Ofer had donated £20m for a new gallery. 1937 to 1946 – Geoffrey Callender 1947 to 1966 – Frank George Griffith Carr 1967 to 1983 – Basil Jack Greenhill 1983 to 1986 – Neil Cossons 1986 to 2000 – Richard Louis Ormond CBE 2000 to 2007 – Rear Admiral Roy Clare 200