Conservative government, 1957–1964
The Conservative government of the United Kingdom that began in 1957 and ended in 1964 consisted of three ministries: the first Macmillan ministry, second Macmillan ministry, the Douglas-Home ministry. They were led by Harold Macmillan and Sir Alec Douglas-Home, who were appointed by Queen Elizabeth II. Sir Anthony Eden resigned from his positions of Leader of the Conservative Party and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom on 10 January 1957; this was a consequence of the Suez Crisis fiasco of the previous autumn, but was owing to his failing health. Harold Macmillan Foreign Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer, was chosen over Rab Butler as the new party leader and as Prime Minister. Harold Macmillan tried to placate Butler, who had stood against Macmillan as leader, by appointing him to the senior position of Home Secretary. Peter Thorneycroft became Chancellor of the Exchequer, but caused embarrassment for Macmillan when he resigned only a year later, he was replaced by Derick Heathcoat Amory Minister of Agriculture and Food.
Selwyn Lloyd was retained as Foreign Secretary, a post he held until 1960, when he succeeded Heathcoat Amory as Chancellor. Ernest Marples became Minister for Transport and the Earl of Home was promoted to Leader of the House of Lords and continued as Secretary of State for Commonwealth Affairs, before replacing Lloyd as Foreign Secretary in 1960. Lord Kilmuir and Alan Lennox-Boyd retained their offices of Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for the Colonies while Lord Hailsham became a member of the cabinet for the first time as Minister of Education. Future Chancellor Iain Macleod was appointed Minister of Labour and National Service and succeeded Lennox-Boyd as Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1961; the Conservatives comfortably won the 1959 general election, increasing their majority in the House of Commons, following a campaign slogan "Life's better with the Conservatives". This centred on the low unemployment, strong economy and rising standard of living that much of the British population was enjoying in the late 1950s.
However, a series of economic measures in the early 1960s caused the popularity of the Conservative Party to decline. Macmillan tried to remedy this by a major cabinet reshuffle in July 1962. Seven cabinet members were sacked in what became nicknamed the "Night of the Long Knives". Notably, the emerging Reginald Maudling replaced Selwyn Lloyd as Chancellor, Lord Kilmuir was replaced as Lord Chancellor by Lord Dilhorne, while Peter Thorneycroft returned to the cabinet as Minister of Defence. Rab Butler was promoted to the office of First Secretary of State; the reshuffle was controversial within the Conservative Party, was seen as a betrayal by many. Macmillan's credibility was affected by the 1963 Profumo affair; the election of Harold Wilson as Labour Party leader early in the year, following the sudden death of Hugh Gaitskell, was well received by voters, with opinion polls showing the Labour Party ascendant. However, it was still considered a surprise when Macmillan resigned in October 1963.
Macmillan's resignation saw a three-way tussle for premiership. Given that it was not considered appropriate for a Prime Minister to be a member of the House of Lords, the Earl of Home and Lord Hailsham both disclaimed their peerages under the Peerage Act 1963, became known as Sir Alec Douglas-Home and Quintin Hogg. Rab Butler was in the running for the post, but Douglas-Home was chosen to succeed Macmillan; this was seen as controversial, for it was alleged that Macmillan had pulled strings and used the party's grandees, nicknamed "The Magic Circle", to ensure that Butler was once again overlooked. In the Douglas-Home ministry, Rab Butler became Foreign Secretary, Henry Brooke replaced Butler as Home Secretary. Reginald Maudling continued as Chancellor, while Quintin Hogg remained as Lord President of the Council and Minister for Sports, he could not continue as Leader of the House of Lords, having ceased to be a member of it, but was made Minister for Education in April 1964. Selwyn Lloyd returned to the government after a one-year absence, as Leader of the House of Commons.
Douglas-Home's government was defeated in the October 1964 general election. He remained party leader until July 1965; the 1957–1964 Conservative government saw several emerging figures who would attain high office. Future Prime Minister Edward Heath became a member of the cabinet for the first time as Minister of Labour and National Service in 1959, while another future Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, held her first government post in 1961 as Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister of Pensions; the government included future Chancellor Anthony Barber, future Home Secretary and Deputy Prime Minister William Whitelaw and future Secretary of State for Education and Science Sir Keith Joseph. Other notable government members included Enoch Powell, Lord Carrington, David Ormsby-Gore, John Profumo, Christopher Soames, Bill Deedes, Airey Neave and the Marquess of Salisbury. Harold Macmillan: Prime Minister Lord Kilmuir: Lord Chancellor Lord Salisbury: Lord President of the Council Rab Butler: Lord Privy Seal and Secretary of State for the Home Department Peter Thorneycroft: Chancellor of the Exchequer Selwyn Lloyd: Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs Alan Lennox-Boyd: Secretary of State for the Colonies Lord Home: Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations Sir David Eccles: President of the Board of Trade Charles Hill: Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster Lord Hailsham: Minister of Education John Scott Maclay: Secretary of State for Scotland Derick
A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater. It differs from a submersible, it is sometimes used or colloquially to refer to remotely operated vehicles and robots, as well as medium-sized or smaller vessels, such as the midget submarine and the wet sub. Although experimental submarines had been built before, submarine design took off during the 19th century, they were adopted by several navies. Submarines were first used during World War I, are now used in many navies large and small. Military uses include attacking enemy surface ships, attacking other submarines, aircraft carrier protection, blockade running, ballistic missile submarines as part of a nuclear strike force, conventional land attack, covert insertion of special forces. Civilian uses for submarines include marine science, salvage and facility inspection and maintenance. Submarines can be modified to perform more specialized functions such as search-and-rescue missions or undersea cable repair. Submarines are used in tourism, for undersea archaeology.
Most large submarines consist of a cylindrical body with hemispherical ends and a vertical structure located amidships, which houses communications and sensing devices as well as periscopes. In modern submarines, this structure is the "sail" in American usage and "fin" in European usage. A "conning tower" was a feature of earlier designs: a separate pressure hull above the main body of the boat that allowed the use of shorter periscopes. There is a propeller at the rear, various hydrodynamic control fins. Smaller, deep-diving and specialty submarines may deviate from this traditional layout. Submarines use diving planes and change the amount of water and air in ballast tanks to change buoyancy for submerging and surfacing. Submarines have one of the widest ranges of capabilities of any vessel, they range from small autonomous examples and one- or two-person vessels that operate for a few hours, to vessels that can remain submerged for six months—such as the Russian Typhoon class, the biggest submarines built.
Submarines can work at greater depths than are practical for human divers. Modern deep-diving submarines derive from the bathyscaphe, which in turn evolved from the diving bell. Whereas the principal meaning of "submarine" is an armed, submersible warship, the more general meaning is for any type of submersible craft; the definition as of 1899 was for any type of "submarine boat". By naval tradition, submarines are still referred to as "boats" rather than as "ships", regardless of their size. In other navies with a history of large submarine fleets they are "boats". According to a report in Opusculum Taisnieri published in 1562: Two Greeks submerged and surfaced in the river Tagus near the City of Toledo several times in the presence of The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, without getting wet and with the flame they carried in their hands still alight. In 1578, the English mathematician William Bourne recorded in his book Inventions or Devises one of the first plans for an underwater navigation vehicle.
A few years the Scottish mathematician and theologian John Napier wrote in his Secret Inventions the following: "These inventions besides devises of sayling under water with divers, other devises and strategems for harming of the enemyes by the Grace of God and worke of expert Craftsmen I hope to perform." It's unclear whether he carried out his idea. The first submersible of whose construction there exists reliable information was designed and built in 1620 by Cornelis Drebbel, a Dutchman in the service of James I of England, it was propelled by means of oars. By the mid-18th century, over a dozen patents for submarines/submersible boats had been granted in England. In 1747, Nathaniel Symons patented and built the first known working example of the use of a ballast tank for submersion, his design used leather bags. A mechanism was used to cause the boat to resurface. In 1749, the Gentlemen's Magazine reported that a similar design had been proposed by Giovanni Borelli in 1680. Further design improvement stagnated for over a century, until application of new technologies for propulsion and stability.
The first military submarine was the Turtle, a hand-powered acorn-shaped device designed by the American David Bushnell to accommodate a single person. It was the first verified submarine capable of independent underwater operation and movement, the first to use screws for propulsion. In 1800, France built a human-powered submarine designed by the Nautilus; the French gave up on the experiment in 1804, as did the British when they considered Fulton's submarine design. In 1864, late in the American Civil War, the Confederate navy's H. L. Hunley became the first military submarine to sink an enemy vessel, the Union sloop-of-war USS Housatonic. In the aftermath of its successful attack against the ship, the Hunley sank because it was too close to its own exploding torpedo. In 1866, the Sub Marine Explorer was the first submarine to dive, cruise underwater, resurface under the control of the crew; the design by German American Julius H. Kroehl incorporated elements that are still used in modern submarines.
In 1866, the Flach was built at the request of the Chilean government, by Karl Flach, a German engineer and immigrant
North Sulawesi is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the northern peninsula of the island of Sulawesi, on the Minahasa Peninsula, lies south of Philippines and southeast of Malaysia, it borders Philippines to the north, the Maluku Sea to the east, Gorontalo to the west and the Gulf of Tomini to the south. The province's capital and largest city is Manado, its population was 4,135,526 according to the 2010 census. Manado is the main gateway and the economic center of the province. Other major towns includes Bitung. There are 41 mountains with an altitude ranging from 1,112–1,995 metres. Most geologic conditions are the young volcanic region, a large number of eruptions and the active cone shape of the active volcanoes that adorn the central Minahasa, Bolaang Mongondow and Sangihe Islands. North Sulawesi in the past was an area of potential spices and gold which became a battleground for the interests of economic hegemony between the Portuguese, Spanish and the Kingdoms around this area, which led to political and military struggles.
The past of this region became the trading route between west and east and the spread of Christianity and belief or religion brought by Chinese merchants. The Portuguese first landed on the area at the 16th century. Following decades of war between the Portuguese, the Spanish and the Dutch to control the area, the area fell to the Dutch at the 17th century; the Dutch ruled the area for three centuries, before being ousted by the Japanese on the eve of World War II. Following the Japanese surrender in 1945, the Dutch regained possession of the area, before leaving for good in 1949, following the Round Table Conference, in which the Dutch recognized the newly created United States of Indonesia. Thus, North Sulawesi was incorporated into the territory of the State of East Indonesia; because it was not in accordance with the will of the people, NIT was dissolved and merged into the Republic of Indonesia. On 17 August 1950, the RIS was disbanded and re-formed as the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.
The island of Sulawesi was governed as a single province, before being separated into several different provinces. Thus, the province of North Sulawesi was created on 14 August 1959; the area in what is now known as North Sulawesi is used to be called Minahasa. The name is still used sometime to refer to the province; the word Minahasa is etymologically derived from the words Mina-Esa or Maesa which means being one or uniting, meaning hope to unite various sub-ethnic groups of Minahasa consisting of Tontemboan, Tonsea, Tonsawang, Pasan, And Bantik. The word "Minahasa" itself was only used during the colonial eta. "Minahasa" is interpreted as "having become one". Based on several historical documents, the word "Minahasa" it firstly used by J. D. Schierstein, the Dutch regent of Manado, in his report to the Governor of Maluku on 8 October 1789; the word "Minahasa" in his report is defined as Landraad or "State Council" or "Regional Council". Archaeological research has revealed signs of human life in North Sulawesi since 30,000 years ago, based on evidence in the cave Liang Sarru on the island of Salibabu.
Other evidence shows life about 6,000 years ago on the Passo Hillside Site in Kakas Sub-district and 4,000 years ago to early AD at the Liang Tuo Mane'e cave in Arangkaa on Karakelang Island. At the end of the 16th century and Spanish arrived in North Sulawesi; as Europeans arrived, the Ternate Sultanate had an influence in North Sulawesi, frequented by Bugis traders from South Sulawesi. The wealth of Minahasa's natural resources makes Manado a strategic port for European traders going to and from Maluku; the Portuguese nation was the first western nation to arrive in North Sulawesi, a Portuguese ship anchored on the island of Manado in the Kingdom of Manado in 1521. The northern islands of the peninsula were under the control of the Sultanate of Maguindanao during the time; the Spanish ship docked on to Ternate. The Portuguese built the fort at Amurang. Spain built the Fort in Manado, since Minahasa started in control of Spain; the resistance against the Spanish occupation culminated in 1660–1664.
The Dutch ship landed in Manado City in 1660 in assisting the struggle of the Minahasa Confederation against Spain. The United Nations republican association of members of the Minahasa Confederation entered into a Trade Agreement with the VOC; this trade cooperation agreement made the VOC monopolize the trade, which began to impose its will leading to the 1700s resistance in Ratahan which culminated in the Dutch Minahasa-War in 1809–1811 at Tondano. The Spanish had colonized the Philippine Islands at the time and Minahasa was made a coffee plantation imported from South America because of its fertile Minahasa land. Manado was further developed by Spain to become a center of coffee trade for Chinese merchants. With the help of Minahasan tribes who became allies, Spain captured the Portuguese fort at Amurang in the 1550s, the Spanish colonists built the fort in Manado, so that Spain controlled all Minahasa. In the 16th century one of the first Indo-Eurasian communities in the archipelago appeared in Manado.
The first king of Manado, Muntu Untu is a half Spanish ancestry. Spain handed over Minahasa to the Portuguese in exchange for 350,000 ducats in a treaty; the rulers of Minahasa sent Supit, Pa'at, Lontoh to ally with the Dutch to expel the Portuguese from Minahasa. In 1655 they excelled, built their own fortress in 1658 and drove out the
Central Intelligence Agency
The Central Intelligence Agency is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States, tasked with gathering and analyzing national security information from around the world through the use of human intelligence. As one of the principal members of the United States Intelligence Community, the CIA reports to the Director of National Intelligence and is focused on providing intelligence for the President and Cabinet of the United States. Unlike the Federal Bureau of Investigation, a domestic security service, the CIA has no law enforcement function and is focused on overseas intelligence gathering, with only limited domestic intelligence collection. Though it is not the only agency of the Federal government of the United States specializing in HUMINT, the CIA serves as the national manager for coordination of HUMINT activities across the U. S. intelligence community. Moreover, the CIA is the only agency authorized by law to carry out and oversee covert action at the behest of the President.
It exerts foreign political influence through its tactical divisions, such as the Special Activities Division. Before the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004, the CIA Director concurrently served as the head of the Intelligence Community. Despite transferring some of its powers to the DNI, the CIA has grown in size as a result of the September 11 attacks. In 2013, The Washington Post reported that in fiscal year 2010, the CIA had the largest budget of all IC agencies, exceeding previous estimates; the CIA has expanded its role, including covert paramilitary operations. One of its largest divisions, the Information Operations Center, has shifted focus from counter-terrorism to offensive cyber-operations; when the CIA was created, its purpose was to create a clearinghouse for foreign policy intelligence and analysis. Today its primary purpose is to collect, analyze and disseminate foreign intelligence, to perform covert actions. According to its fiscal 2013 budget, the CIA has five priorities: Counterterrorism, the top priority Nonproliferation of nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction.
Warning/informing American leaders of important overseas events. Counterintelligence Cyber intelligence; the CIA has an executive office and five major directorates: The Directorate of Digital Innovation The Directorate of Analysis The Directorate of Operations The Directorate of Support The Directorate of Science and Technology The Director of the Central Intelligence Agency is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation and reports directly to the Director of National Intelligence. The Deputy Director is formally appointed by the Director without Senate confirmation, but as the President's opinion plays a great role in the decision, the Deputy Director is considered a political position, making the Chief Operating Officer the most senior non-political position for CIA career officers; the Executive Office supports the U. S. military by providing it with information it gathers, receiving information from military intelligence organizations, cooperates on field activities. The Executive Director is in charge of the day-to-day operation of the CIA.
Each branch of the military service has its own Director. The Associate Director of military affairs, a senior military officer, manages the relationship between the CIA and the Unified Combatant Commands, who produce and deliver to the CIA regional/operational intelligence and consume national intelligence produced by the CIA; the Directorate of Analysis, through much of its history known as the Directorate of Intelligence, is tasked with helping "the President and other policymakers make informed decisions about our country's national security" by looking "at all the available information on an issue and organiz it for policymakers". The Directorate has four regional analytic groups, six groups for transnational issues, three that focus on policy and staff support. There is an office dedicated to Iraq; the Directorate of Operations is responsible for collecting foreign intelligence, for covert action. The name reflects its role as the coordinator of human intelligence activities between other elements of the wider U.
S. intelligence community with their own HUMINT operations. This Directorate was created in an attempt to end years of rivalry over influence and budget between the United States Department of Defense and the CIA. In spite of this, the Department of Defense organized its own global clandestine intelligence service, the Defense Clandestine Service, under the Defense Intelligence Agency; this Directorate is known to be organized by geographic regions and issues, but its precise organization is classified. The Directorate of Science & Technology was established to research and manage technical collection disciplines and equipment. Many of its innovations were transferred to other intelligence organizations, or, as they became more overt, to the military services. For example, the development of the U-2 high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft was done in cooperation with the United States Air
Hansard is the traditional name of the transcripts of Parliamentary Debates in Britain and many Commonwealth countries. It is named after Thomas Curson Hansard, a London printer and publisher, the first official printer to the parliament at Westminster. Though the history of the Hansard began in the British parliament, each of Britain's colonies developed a separate and distinctive history. Before 1771, the British Parliament had long been a secretive body; the official record of the actions of the House was publicly available, but there was no record of the debates. The publication of remarks made in the House became a breach of Parliamentary privilege, punishable by the two Houses of Parliament; as the populace became interested in parliamentary debates, more independent newspapers began publishing unofficial accounts of them. The many penalties implemented by the government, including fines, dismissal and investigations, are reflective of "the difficulties faced by independent newspapermen who took an interest in the development of Upper Canada, who, in varying degrees, attempted to educate the populace to the shortcomings of their rulers".
Several editors used the device of veiling parliamentary debates as debates of fictitious societies or bodies. The names under which parliamentary debates were published include Proceedings of the Lower Room of the Robin Hood Society and Debates of the Senate of Magna Lilliputia; the Senate of Magna Lilliputia was printed in Edward Cave's The Gentleman's Magazine, first published in 1732. The names of the speakers were "filleted". In 1771 Brass Crosby, Lord Mayor of the City of London, had brought before him a printer by the name of John Miller who dared publish reports of Parliamentary proceedings, he was subsequently ordered to appear before the House to explain his actions. Crosby was committed to the Tower of London, but when he was brought to trial, several judges refused to hear the case and after protests from the public, Crosby was released. Parliament ceased to punish the publishing of its debates as harshly due to the campaigns of John Wilkes on behalf of free speech. There began several attempts to publish reports of debates.
Among the early successes, the Parliamentary Register published by John Almon and John Debrett began in 1775 and ran until 1813. William Cobbett, a noted radical and publisher, began publishing Parliamentary Debates as a supplement to his Political Register in 1802 extending his reach back with the Parliamentary History. Cobbett's avocation for the freedom of the press was punished by the British Government. On June 5, 1810 William Cobbett stood trial for seditious libel for an article he wrote against the British Government, published by Thomas Curson Hansard. Cobbett was found "guilty, upon the fullest and most satisfactory evidence"; the court sentence read: "The court do adjudge that you, William Cobbett pay to our Lord the King a fine of £1000. The sentence was described by J. C. Trewin as "vindictive"; the Court argued that Thomas Curson Hansard, who had "seen the copy before it was printed, ought not to have suffered it to have been printed at all" and was sentenced to three months imprisonment in the King's Bench Prison.
Cobbett's reports were printed by Thomas Curson Hansard from 1809. Cobbett's Parliamentary Debates became Hansard Parliamentary Debates, "abbreviated over time to the now familiar Hansard". From 1829 the name "Hansard" appeared on the title page of each issue. Neither Cobbett nor Hansard employed anyone to take down notes of the debates, which were taken from a multiplicity of sources in the morning newspapers. For this reason, early editions of Hansard are not to be relied upon as a guide to everything discussed in Parliament. Hansard outlasted competitors including Almon and Debrett, the Mirror of Parliament published by J. H. Barrow from 1828 to 1843; the last attempt at a commercial rival was The Times. In 1878 a subsidy was granted at that point reporters were employed. Despite hiring contract reporters there were still widespread complaints about the accuracy of the debate reports. In 1889 Henry Hansard, the son of Thomas Hansard, broke the family connection with the debates; the Hansard of today, a comprehensive account of every speech, began in 1909 when Parliament took over the publication and established its own staff of official Hansard reporters.
At the same time the decision was made to publish debates of the two houses in separate volumes, to change the front cover from orange-red to light blue. A larger page format was introduced with new technology in 1980. Hansard is not a word-for-word transcript of debates in Parliament, its terms of reference are those set by a House of Commons Select Committee in 1893, as being a report which, though not verbatim, is the verbatim report with repetitions and redundancies omitted and with obvious mistak
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
HMS Alliance (P417)
HMS Alliance is a Royal Navy A-class, Amphion-class or Acheron-class submarine, laid down towards the end of the Second World War and completed in 1947. The submarine is the only surviving example of the class, having been a memorial and museum ship since 1981; the Amphion-class submarines were designed for use in the Far East, where the size of the Pacific Ocean made long range, high surface speed and relative comfort for the crew important features to allow for much larger patrol areas and longer periods at sea than British submarines operating in the Atlantic or Mediterranean had to contend with. Alliance was one of the seven A-class boats completed with a snort mast - the other boats all had masts fitted by 1949. From 9 October 1947 until 8 November the submarine undertook a lengthy experimental cruise in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa to investigate the limits of the snort mast, remaining submerged for 30 days. Between 1958 and 1960 Alliance was extensively modernised by having the deck gun and external torpedo tubes removed, the hull streamlined and the fin replaced with a larger, more streamlined one constructed of aluminium.
The purpose of these modifications was to make faster underwater. Following the modifications the wireless transmitting aerial was supported on a frame behind the fin; the original gun access hatch was retained however, allowing Alliance to be equipped with a small calibre deck gun again when serving in the Far East during the Indonesian Confrontation of the earlier 1960s. In May 1961 the pennant numbers of British submarines were changed so that all surviving submarines completed after the Second World War were now numbered from S01 upwards, Alliance was given the number S67. On 13 January 1968, she grounded on Bembridge Ledge off the Isle of Wight, but was subsequently refloated with the help of Admiralty tugs. On or around 30 September 1971 a fatal battery explosion occurred on board, whilst at Portland. From 1973 until 1979 she was the static training boat at the shore establishment HMS Dolphin, replacing HMS Tabard in this role. In August 1979, she was towed to Vosper Ship Repairers Limited's yard at Southampton to have her keel strengthened so that she could be lifted out of the water and preserved as a memorial to those British submariners who have died in service.
Since 1981 the submarine has been a museum ship, raised out of the water and on display at the Royal Navy Submarine Museum in Gosport. Although listed as part of the National Historic Fleet, in recent years as many as 100 pigeons had been nesting in the submarine, causing extensive corrosive damage, she sat on cradles over sea water, adding to problems of corrosion and preventing easy and economical maintenance to her exterior. Urgent repairs were needed and it was announced on 30 May 2011 that HMS Alliance would share in a £11 million Heritage Lottery Fund grant. Alliance would receive £3.4 million to repair her bow and stern and address extensive surface corrosion. The restoration included reclaiming land beneath HMS Alliance using a backfill; this provides easy access for future maintenance and a new viewing platform for visitors, additionally opening up the conning tower and casing. A new HMS Alliance gallery is part of the project to help ensure visitors appreciate the significance of this submarine and what she represents.
Restoration was completed by March 2014, the submarine was opened to visitors at the Royal Navy Submarine Museum in April. In 2017, the submarine was featured in the movie Transformers: The Last Knight and appeared to be a Transformer itself. "HMS Alliance". The Royal Navy Submarine Museum. Archived from the original on 20 August 2016. HMS Alliance at Historic Naval Ships Association Google Street View Tour