Balclutha, known as Star of Alaska, Pacific Queen, or Sailing Ship Balclutha, is a steel-hulled full rigged ship that was built in 1886. She is the square rigged ship left in the San Francisco Bay area and is representative of several different commercial ventures, including lumber, salmon. She is a U. S. National Historic Landmark and is preserved at the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park in San Francisco. She was added to the National Register of Historic Places on 7 November 1976, Balclutha was built in 1886 by Charles Connell and Company of Scotstoun in Glasgow, for Robert McMillan, of Dumbarton, Scotland. Designed as a trader, Balclutha rounded Cape Horn 17 times in thirteen years. During this period she carried cargoes such as wine, case oil, and coal from Europe and these included Chile for nitrate and New Zealand for wool, Burma for rice, San Francisco for grain, and the Pacific Northwest for timber. In 1899 Balclutha transferred to the registry of Hawaii, and traded timber from the Pacific Northwest to Australia, in 1902 Balclutha was chartered to the Alaska Packers Association.
After having struck a reef off of Sitkinak Island near Kodiak Island on May 16,1904, for this trade she carried over 200 crew and passengers, as compared to the 26-man crew she carried as the Balclutha. In 1911 the poop deck was extended to the main mast to accommodate Italian and Scandinavian workers and this expansion is called the shelter deck. In the tween deck, bunks for Chinese workers were built and her last voyage in this trade was in 1930, when she was laid up after her return home. In 1933, Star of Alaska was renamed Pacific Queen by her new owner Frank Kissinger, in this guise she appeared in the film Mutiny on the Bounty starring Clark Gable and Charles Laughton. She eked out an existence as a ship, gradually deteriorating. In 1954, Pacific Queen was acquired by the San Francisco Maritime Museum, in 1985 she was designated a National Historic Landmark. In 1988, she was moved to her present mooring at Hyde Street Pier of the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park and she is host to a monthly Chantey Sing in the shelter deck 8pm to midnight on the first Saturday of every month.
List of large sailing vessels National Park Service, archived from the original on 2005-02-05. Retrieved 2006-04-06. com Comedian Jonathan Winters Detained In San Francisco
Af Chapman (ship)
Af Chapman, formerly Dunboyne and G. D. Kennedy, is a full-rigged steel ship moored on the western shore of the islet Skeppsholmen in central Stockholm, now serving as a youth hostel. The ship was constructed by the Whitehaven Shipbuilding Company, located in Whitehaven and she was originally known as Dunboyne, after a town in County Meath, Ireland. Her maiden voyage was from Maryport, England, to Portland, the Swedish Navy used her as a training ship and as such she made several trips around the world, running aground at Port Aleza, Puerto Rico, on 13 July 1934. Her final voyage was in 1934, but she served as a ship during World War II. In 1947 the Stockholm City Museum saved the ship from being broken up and it serves as a youth hostel with 285 beds. During 2008 the ship underwent a comprehensive restoration, while the ship was being worked on in a drydock, the adjacent youth hostel Skeppsholmen remained open. The ship is docked on the next to the Admiralty House
Coronet, a wooden-hull schooner yacht built in 1885, is one of the oldest and largest schooner yachts in the world. The 131-foot schooner Coronet was designed by William Townsend and built for Rufus T. Bush by the C. & R. Poillon shipyard in Brooklyn, Bush put forth a $10,000 challenge against any other yacht for a transatlantic race. After winning the 3, 000-mile race and the $10,000 purse, Rufus T. Bush decided to sell Coronet and his son Irving T. Bush circumnavigated the globe on Coronet in 1888. Coronet was the first registered yacht to cross Cape Horn from East to West, after crossing the Pacific Ocean and stopping in Hawaii, Coronet made port in China, Calcutta and elsewhere. Coronet was sold before Rufuss death in 1890 The vessel passed through six different owners by 1905, the Coronet circumnavigated the globe several times and was used for a Japanese-American scientific excursion during an eclipse. The Kingdom, an organization founded by Frank Sandford, purchased the ship in 1905 for $10,000 and took it around the world on prayer missions.
Coronet took a poorly planned missionary voyage to Africa in 1911 which resulted in six persons on board dying of scurvy, after the voyage, The Kingdom kept the yacht moored at Portland, Maine as well as Gloucester and owned her until 1995. The International Yacht Restoration School, in Newport, Rhode Island acquired the boat in the 1995, IYRS added Coronet to the National Register of Historic Places in 2004. National Register of Historic Places listings in Newport County, Rhode Island Coronets History with The Kingdom Page that details Coronets ongoing restoration Historic American Engineering Record No, rI-59, Schooner Yacht Coronet, International Yacht Restoration School, Thames Street, Newport County, RI
Polly Woodside is a Belfast-built, three-masted, iron-hulled barque, preserved in Melbourne and forming the central feature of the South Wharf precinct. The ship was built in Belfast by William J. Woodside and was launched in 1885. Polly Woodside is typical of thousands of smaller iron barques built in the last days of sail, intended for deep water trade around the world and designed to be operated as economically as possible. Polly Woodside was built at the shipbuilding yard of Workman, Clark and Co, Queens Island, Belfast during 1885, for William J. Woodside. She was launched on 7 November 1885, the performed by the owners wife, Mrs Marian Woodside. In sixteen voyages between December 1885 and August 1903 she made a number of arduous passages around Cape Horn, the Polly Woodsides operating crew, including master and mate was generally less than 20. In 1904 Polly Woodside was sold to A. H. Turnbull of New Zealand and renamed Rona after Miss Rona Monro, valued in 1906 at £4,300, Rona generally operated on the New Zealand–Australian run, carrying timber, cement and coal.
The ship changed hands in 1911 for £3000 to Captain Harrison Douglas, of New Zealand, because of the heavy loss of shipping in the 1914–1918 war, Rona traded between New Zealand ports and San Francisco, carrying case oil and copra. Two mishaps occurred in the last years of the ships sailing career, in March 1920 the schooner W. J. Pirie, under tow in San Francisco harbour, collided with Rona at anchor, carrying away her headgear. Then in June 1921 the Rona, carrying a cargo of coal, grounded on Steeple Rock, the shingle bottom caused little damage and she was able to be towed into Wellington harbour. However, some slight stress fractures to the hull plating could still be seen when the ship was dry-docked in 1974, maritime historian Georg Kåhre has described the early 1920s as the final abandonment of sail by most of the worlds maritime nations. In the hectic economic climate of the war there had been no question of scrap prices. However, by 1922 this had changed, World freight rates were sliding in the post war slump, what had been marginal before was now uneconomic.
A few larger sailing ships defied this trend, but not the relatively small Rona, in September 1921 the ship was laid up, sold to Adelaide Steamship Company for service as a coal hulk in Australia. She arrived in Sydney on 8 October 1922, and by early 1923 had been stripped down, in March 1925 the Lammeroo towed Rona to Melbourne for this purpose. She spent the next 40 years quite unremarkably, bunkering coal-burning ships in the Port of Melbourne, an exception was her war service, during the Second World War. In 1943 she was requisitioned as a lighter by the Royal Australian Navy for service with other hulks in New Guinea waters. She was taken under tow of ST Tooronga on 28 October 1943 and she was taken in tow by ST Wato and towed to Milne Bay in New Guinea waters
Charles W. Morgan (ship)
Charles W. Morgan is an American whaling ship built in 1841 whose active service period was during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Ships of this type were used to harvest the blubber of whales for whale oil. The ship has served as a ship since the 1940s. She is the worlds oldest surviving merchant vessel, and the surviving wooden whaling ship from the 19th century American merchant fleet. She was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1966, Charles Waln Morgan chose Jethro and Zachariah Hillmans shipyard in New Bedford, Massachusetts to construct a new ship. Charles W. Morgans live oak keel was laid down in February 1841, the bow and stern pieces of live oak were secured to the keel by an apron piece. The sturdy stern post was strengthened with hemlock root and white oak, yellow pine shipped from North Carolina was used for the ships beams and hemlock or hackmatack was used for the hanging knees. Construction of Charles W. Morgan proceeded until April 19,1841, the strike gathered support until it encompassed the shipyard, the oil refineries, and the cooper shops, Morgan was appointed chairman of the employers and given the task of resolving the strike.
Morgan opposed their demands, and a meeting with four master mechanics ended in failure, on May 6, an agreement was reached when the workers accepted a ten-and-a-half-hour workday. Work resumed on the ship without incident and she was launched on July 21,1841, the ship was registered as a caravel of 106 1⁄2 feet in length,27 feet 2 1⁄2 inches inches in breadth, and 13 feet 7 1⁄4 inches in depth. The ship was outfitted at Rotchs Wharf for the two months while preparations were made for its first voyage. The eponymous name, Charles W. Morgan, was rejected by her namesake builder before being used. Captain Thomas Norton sailed Charles W. Morgan into the Atlantic alongside Adeline Gibbs, a stop was made at Porto Pim on Faial Island to gather supplies before crossing the Atlantic. The ship passed Cape Horn, charted a course to the north, on December 13, the men launched in their whaling boats and took their first whale and killing it with the thrust of a lance under the side fin. Charles W. Morgan entered the port of Callau in early February, in 1844, the ship sailed to the Kodiak Grounds before sailing for home on August 18.
Charles W. Morgan returned to her port in New Bedford on January 2,1845.56. In her 80 years of service from her port of New Bedford, Massachusetts. Charles W. Morgan, in total, brought home 54,483 barrels of sperm and she sailed in the Indian and South Atlantic Oceans, surviving ice and snow storms
Falls of Clyde (ship)
Falls of Clyde is the last surviving iron-hulled, four-masted full-rigged ship, and the only remaining sail-driven oil tanker. Designated a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1989, she is now a museum ship in Honolulu and she is currently not open to the public. In September 2008, ownership was transferred to a new organization, the Friends of Falls of Clyde. Efforts to raise $1.5 million to get the ship into drydock have not succeeded as of 2015, an additional $30 million may be needed to fully restore the ship. In August,2016, the Harbors Division of the State of Hawaii impounded the ship, efforts are underway to convince the Governor to preserve the ship, including an online petition. Falls of Clyde was built in 1878 by Russell and Company in Port Glasgow, Scotland, launched as the first of nine iron-hulled four-masted ships for Wright and Breakenridges Falls Line. She was named after the Falls of Clyde, a group of waterfalls on the River Clyde and her maiden voyage took her to Karachi, now in Pakistan, and her first six years were spent engaged in the India trade.
She became a tramp pursuing general cargo such as lumber, jute and wheat from ports in Australia, India, New Zealand, and the British Isles. To economize on crew, Matson rigged Falls of Clyde down as a barque, at the same time, he added a deckhouse and rearranged the after quarters to accommodate paying passengers. From 1899 to 1907, she made over sixty voyages between Hilo and San Francisco, carrying general merchandise west, sugar east and she developed a reputation as a handy and commodious vessel, averaging 17 days each way on her voyages. In 1907, the Associated Oil Company bought Falls of Clyde, ten large steel tanks were built into her hull, and a pump room and generator fitted forward of an oil-tight bulkhead. In this configuration she brought kerosene to Hawaii and returned to California with molasses for cattle feed, in 1927, she was sold to the General Petroleum Company, her masts cut down, and converted into a floating fuel depot in Alaska. In 1959 she was purchased by William Mitchell, who towed her to Seattle, Washington, in 1963, the bank holding the mortgage on Falls of Clyde decided to sell her to be sunk as part of a breakwater at Vancouver, British Columbia.
Kortum and Klebingat aroused interest in the ship in Hawaii, at the end of October 1963, Falls of Clyde was taken under tow bound for Honolulu. Falls of Clyde was given to the Bishop Museum and opened to the public in 1968, in 1970 the grandson of original 19th century designer William Lithgow was engaged to assist in her restoration as a full-rigged ship. Support came from Sir William Lithgow, the shipbuilder and industrialist, whose Port Glasgow shipyard donated new steel masts, in 1973 the ship was entered into the National Register of Historic Places, and declared a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1989. The ship is now in poor condition, causes of the deterioration of the ship are multiple. The ship has not been dry docked for a long time, preventive maintenance was not performed, although it would have been relatively inexpensive
Edwin Fox is the worlds second oldest surviving merchant sailing ship and the only surviving ship that transported convicts to Australia. She is unique in that she is the only intact hull of a wooden sailing ship built to British specifications surviving in the world outside the Falkland Islands. Edwin Fox carried settlers to both Australia and New Zealand and carried troops in the Crimean War, the ship is dry-docked at The Edwin Fox Maritime Centre at Picton in New Zealand. She was built of teak in Calcutta in 1853 and her voyage was to London via the Cape of Good Hope. She went into service in the Crimean War as a troop ship, on 14 February 1856 she began her first voyage to Melbourne, carrying passengers, moved to trading between Chinese ports. In 1858 she was chartered by the British Government as a ship bound for Fremantle. Conditions on board for the four to six-month voyage were harsh and luggage strictly limited, on arrival they often found conditions much harsher than expected, and were faced with being cut off from family and friends in distant Europe, sometimes for life.
Edwin Fox was overtaken by the age of steam, and in the 1880s she was refitted as a floating freezer hulk for the sheep industry in New Zealand. She was towed to Picton in the South Island on 12 January 1897 where she continued as a freezer ship. By this time she had long since lost her rigging and masts, and suffered holes cut in her sides, the ship was in use until 1950, abandoned to rot at her moorings. In 1965 she was bought by the Edwin Fox Society for the sum of one shilling. In 1967 she was towed to Shakespeare Bay where she remained for the next 20 years, after much further fundraising the ship was refloated and towed to her final home, a dry dock on the Picton waterfront. She floated in and the dock was drained to begin restoration, initially it was planned to restore the ship completely, replacing rigging and refurbishing the interior. It has since decided that this is not practical, not only for reasons of finance. She is thus preserved as a hull with an adjacent informative museum, the trust are looking for sponsors to continue their work on this unique vessel.
She has been given a category I registration from Heritage New Zealand, the Edwin Fox, New Zealand from H2G2
Brooke Marine was a Lowestoft-based shipbuilding firm. The company was founded in 1874 as a foundry by John Walter Brooke, until 1911 the company, which produced engines and motor cars, sub-contracted its boat building operations to another firm in Oulton Broad. In 1911 it opened a shipyard on the side of Lake Lothing and began to produce its own craft. Car production stopped in 1913, although the company continued producing engines until 1938, during World War I the company established a munitions factory. Following the war, the shipyard was expanded to produce boats up to 52 feet in length, during World War II, the company produced and serviced motor launches and landing craft for the Royal Navy and other Allied forces. In 1940, the company was acquired by Harry Dowsett and renamed Brooke Marine, in 1954, a new shipyard was built on the south side of Lake Lothing. The old yard was closed in 1955, and in 1975 was sold, the first ships produced at the new yard were twenty fishing trawlers ordered by the Russian government.
Over 300 craft were produced in the yard. In 1968 the company won the Queens Award to Industry for Export Achievement, in July 1977 the company was nationalised and became part of British Shipbuilders until a management buy-out in 1985. In 1987, Brooke Marine closed down and was put up for sale, the dockyard and facilities were purchased in May, with the new owners trading under the name Brooke Yachts. The company continued until September 1992, when it ceased trading, receivers sold off all shipbuilding equipment in 1993. The name and some assets of Brooke Marine were acquired in 2006 by Michael Fenton, Brooke Marine Yachts Ltd traded until 2009. The shipyard was purchased by an investment company which now leases many of the original buildings to a diverse range of businesses many of which are marine orientated. In October 2014, an application for Brook Peninsula & Jeld Wen submitted by Cardy Construction Ltd to Waveney District Council for a £150 million was granted consent development. Demolition of the industrial units and residential-led mixed use redevelopment for residential use of up to 850 dwellings or 950,000 sqft, up to 1774sqm commercial.
Most craft produced by the company were steel, ranging in size from 20 to 93 metres, in 1964-65, the shipyard built 4 patrol crafts for the Pakistan Navy namely PN Ships Sylhet, Jessore and Rajshahi. During the Bangladesh Liberation War all but Rajshahi was sunk with Rajshahi escaping from the East Pakistan to West Pakistan, via Penang, Jessore was salvaged and, after refurbishment, was commissioned into the Bangladesh Navy as BNS Bishkhali. Other notable vessels include the Virgin Atlantic Challenger II and the first Al Said, the Mincarlo, a trawler, is a floating museum based in the Port of Lowestoft for much of the year
City of Adelaide (1864)
City of Adelaide is a clipper ship, built in Sunderland and launched on 7 May 1864. The ship was commissioned in the Royal Navy as HMS Carrick between 1923 and 1948 and, after decommissioning, was known as Carrick until 2001. At a conference convened by HRH The Duke of Edinburgh in 2001, the decision was made to revert the name to City of Adelaide. City of Adelaide was built by William Pile, Hay and Co. for transporting passengers, between 1864 and 1887 the ship made 23 annual return voyages from London and Plymouth to Adelaide, South Australia. During this period she played an important part in the immigration of Australia, on the return voyages she carried passengers and copper from Adelaide and Port Augusta to London. From 1869 to 1885 she was part of Harrold Brothers Adelaide Line of clippers, after 1887 the ship carried coal around the British coast, and timber across the Atlantic. In 1893 she became a hospital in Southampton, and in 1923 was purchased by the Royal Navy. Converted as a ship, she was renamed HMS Carrick to avoid confusion with the newly commissioned HMAS Adelaide.
HMS Carrick was based in Scotland until 1948 when she was decommissioned and donated to the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve Club, Carrick remained on the River Clyde until 1989 when she was damaged by flooding. In order to safeguard the vessel she was protected as a listed building, Carrick was recovered by the Scottish Maritime Museum the following year, and moved to a private slipway adjacent to the museums site in Irvine. Restoration work began, but funding ceased in 1999, and from 2000 the future of the ship was in doubt, in 2010, the Scottish Government decided that the ship would be moved to Adelaide, to be preserved as a museum ship. In September 2013 the ship moved by barge from Scotland to the Netherlands to prepare for transport to Australia. In late November 2013, loaded on the deck of a ship, City of Adelaide departed Europe bound for Port Adelaide, Australia. City of Adelaide is the worlds oldest surviving clipper ship, of two that survive — the other is Cutty Sark. With Cutty Sark and HMS Gannet, City of Adelaide is one of three surviving ocean-going ships of composite construction to survive.
City of Adelaide is one of three surviving sailing ships, and the only of these a passenger ship, to have taken emigrants from the British Isles, City of Adelaide is the only surviving purpose-built passenger sailing ship. Adding to her significance as an emigrant ship, City of Adelaide is the last survivor of the trade between North America and the United Kingdom. Having been built in the prior to Lloyds Register publishing their rules for composite ships
Star of India (ship)
Star of India was built in 1863 at Ramsey in the Isle of Man as Euterpe, a full-rigged iron windjammer ship. After a full career sailing from Great Britain to India and New Zealand, retired in 1926, she was not restored until 1962–63 and is now a seaworthy museum ship home-ported at the Maritime Museum of San Diego in San Diego, California. She is the oldest ship still sailing regularly and the oldest iron-hulled merchant ship still floating, the ship is both a California Historical Landmark and United States National Historic Landmark. She was launched on 14 November 1863, and assigned British Registration No.47617, euterpes career had a rough beginning. She sailed for Calcutta from Liverpool on 9 January 1864, under the command of Captain William John Storry, a collision with an unlit Spanish brig off the coast of Wales carried away the jib-boom and damaged other rigging. The crew became mutinous, refusing to continue, and she returned to Anglesey to repair,17 of the crew were confined to the Beaumaris Jail at hard labor.
Then, in 1865, Euterpe was forced to cut away her masts in a gale in the Bay of Bengal off Madras and limped to Trincomalee, Captain Storry died during the return voyage to England and was buried at sea. In late 1871 she began twenty-five years of carrying passengers and freight in the New Zealand emigrant trade, the fastest of her 21 passages to New Zealand took 100 days, the longest 143 days. She made ports of call in Australia, California, a baby was born on one of those trips en route to New Zealand, and was given the middle name Euterpe. Another child, John William Philips Palmer, was born on the 1873 journey to Dunedin, New Zealand and she was registered in the United States on 30 October 1900. In 1906, the Association changed her name to be consistent with the rest of their fleet and she was laid up in 1923 after 22 Alaskan voyages, by that time, steam ruled the seas. In 1926, Star of India was sold to the Zoological Society of San Diego, the Great Depression and World War II caused that plan to be canceled, and it was not until 1957 that restoration began.
Alan Villiers, a captain and author, came to San Diego on a lecture tour. Seeing Star of India decaying in the harbor, he publicized the situation, progress was still slow, but in 1976, Star of India finally put to sea again. She houses exhibits for the Maritime Museum of San Diego, is kept fully seaworthy, unlike many preserved or restored vessels, her hull and equipment are nearly 100% original. This location is slightly west of downtown San Diego, the other ships belonging to the Maritime Museum are always docked to the north of Star of India. Her nearest neighbor – since 2007 – is HMS Surprise, a replica of a British frigate, when she sails, Star of India often remains within sight of the coast of San Diego County, and usually returns to her dock within a day. She is sailed by a volunteer crew of Maritime Museum members
Lady Elizabeth (1879)
Lady Elizabeth was an iron barque of 1,155 tons built by Robert Thompson Jr. of Southwick and launched on 4 June 1879. Robert Thompson Jr. was one of the sons of Robert Thompson Sr. who owned and operated the family ran shipyard J. L. Thompson & Sons, Thompson Jr. eventually left the family business in 1854 to start his own shipbuilding business in Southwick, Sunderland. The ship was built for John Wilson as a replacement for the 658-ton, 1869-built barque Lady Elizabeth which sank off Rottnest Island, the builders of the second Lady Elizabeth had built the first ship. The ship had three masts and was just under average size compared to barques built by Robert Thompson, the Lady Elizabeth was still the seventh largest ship the firm built. John Wilson remained owner of Lady Elizabeth and was captained by Alexander Findley from Montrose until 15 March 1884 when he took out a number of loans from G. Oliver, eventually John Wilson declared bankruptcy and all of his ships, including Lady Elizabeth were sold off.
The new owner was George Christian Karran who purchased the ship a few months later, Karrans family owned a number of ships but this was George Christian Karrans first ship. George Christian Karran captained the ship for a few years, after owning the ship for a few years, Georges elder brother Robert Gick Karran died leading George to take command of Manx King. However, he remained owner of Lady Elizabeth until 1906, in 1906 Lady Elizabeth was purchased by the Norwegian company Skibasaktieselskabet for £3,250. The company was managed by L. Lydersen and Lady Elizabeth was captained by Peter Julius Hoigh, on 23 February 1884, Lady Elizabeth suffered substantial damage from a hurricane. She sustained damage to the front of the deck after it was stoved in. Many of her sails were lost or severely damaged, despite the damage, the ship was able to make it to port in Sydney, Australia where six crew members jumped ship. Another death occurred on the voyage when William Leach fell from aloft and this was the third voyage under the command of Captain Karran.
On 10 May 1890, Captain George Christian Karran stepped down as captain after six voyages, lever took command as the new captain of Lady Elizabeth. In January 1906, Lady Elizabeth was sold to the Norwegian company Skibasaktieselskabet of Sundet, during Captain Julius Hoigh’s command of the ship, two crew members went missing after suffering from malarial fever. Lady Elizabeth left Callao, Peru with a crew that included several Finns on 26 September, just after leaving port, one of the Finns, a man named Granquiss, became ill. Captain Hoigh diagnosed his condition as malarial fever, a few days later, another Finnish crewman, Haparanta by name, became ill with malarial fever. A third crew member complained of feeling ill, but not as severely, the captain prescribed some remedies to help the sick crew members, and they were allowed to walk the deck to get fresh air. A short time later, Granquiss went missing and the crew were unable to locate him on the ship, around 7,00 pm, Captain Hoigh discovered the other sick Finnish crewmember was missing
Ship commissioning is the act or ceremony of placing a ship in active service, and may be regarded as a particular application of the general concepts and practices of project commissioning. The term is most commonly applied to the placing of a warship in active duty with its countrys military forces, the ceremonies involved are often rooted in centuries old naval tradition. Ship naming and launching endow a ship hull with her identity, the engineering plant and electronic systems and multitudinous other equipment required to transform the new hull into an operating and habitable warship are installed and tested. The prospective commanding officer, ships officers, the petty officers, prior to commissioning, the new ship undergoes sea trials to identify any deficiencies needing correction. USS Monitor, of American Civil War fame, was commissioned less than three weeks after launch, regardless of the type of ship in question, a vessels journey towards commissioning in its nations navy begins with process known as sea trials.
Sea trials begin when the ship in question is floated out of its dry dock, after a ship has successfully cleared its sea trial period, it will officially be accepted into service with its nations navy. At this point, the ship in question will undergo a process of degaussing and/or deperming, once a ships sea trials are successfully completed plans for the actual commissioning ceremony will take shape. If the ships ceremony is an affair the Captain may make a speech to the audience. Religious ceremonies, such as blessing the ship or the singing of hymns or songs. Once a ship has been commissioned its final step toward becoming a unit of the navy it now serves is to report to its home port. To decommission a ship is to terminate its career in service in the forces of a nation. Decommissioning of the vessel may occur due to treaty agreements or for safety reasons, vessels preserved in this manner typically do not relinquish their names to other, more modern ships that may be in the design, planning, or construction phase of the parent nations navy.
Prior to its decommissioning, the ship in question will begin the process of decommissioning by going through a preliminary step called inactivation or deactivation. The removed material from a ship usually ends up either rotating to another ship in the class with similar weapons and/or capabilities, or in storage pending a decision on equipments fate. During this time a crew may be thinned out via transfers. When a ship finishes its inactivation, it is formally decommissioned, but not always, ships that are decommissioned end up spending the next few years in a reserve fleet before their ultimate fate is decided. Commissioning in the early United States Navy under sail was attended by no ceremony, the ship was placed in commission. Commissionings were not public affairs, and unlike christening-and-launching ceremonies, were not recorded by newspapers, the first specific reference to commissioning located in naval records is a letter of November 6,1863, from Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles to all navy yards and stations