Tórshavn is the capital and largest city of the Faroe Islands. Tórshavn is in the southern part on the east coast of Streymoy. To the northwest of the city lies the 347-meter-high mountain Húsareyn, to the southwest, the 350-meter-high Kirkjubøreyn, they are separated by the Sandá River. The city itself has a population of 13,089, the greater urban area a population of 21,000; the Norse established their parliament on the Tinganes peninsula in AD 850. Tórshavn thus became the capital of the Faroe Islands and has remained so since. All through the Middle Ages the narrow peninsula jutting out into the sea made up the main part of Tórshavn. Early on, Tórshavn became the centre of the islands' trade monopoly, thereby being the only legal place for the islanders to sell and buy goods. In 1856, the trade monopoly was abolished and the islands were left open to free trade, it is not known whether the site of Tórshavn was of interest to the Celtic monks who were the first settlers in the Faroes. The Viking settlers in the 9th century established their own parliaments, called tings, in different parts of the islands, it being the tradition in each case to hold the ting at a neutral and thus uninhabited place, so no one location gave anyone an advantage.
The main ting for the islands was convoked in Tórshavn in 825, on Tinganes, the peninsula that divides the harbour into two parts: Eystaravág and Vestaravág. The Vikings would thus meet on the flat rocks of Tinganes every summer, as the most central place on the islands, although there was no settlement at Tinganes at that time; the Færeyinga Saga says: "the place of the ting of the Faroese was on Streymoy, there is the harbour, called Tórshavn". The Viking age ended in 1035; the ting was followed by a market which grew into a permanent trading area. All through the Middle Ages, the narrow peninsula jutting out into the sea made up the main part of Tórshavn, it belonged to the outfield of two farmers. Unlike other Faroese villages, Tórshavn was never a distinct farming community. During the 12th century, all trade between Norway and the Faroes, along with other tributary islands to the west, became centralised in Bergen. In 1271, a royal trade monopoly was established in Tórshavn by the Norwegian Crown.
According to a document from 1271, two ships would sail to Tórshavn from Bergen with cargoes of salt and cereal. Tórshavn therefore had more contact with the outside world. Under the Norwegian, Danish rule, government officials made Tórshavn their home. All of these things, combined with the fact that Tórshavn was the seat of the ting of the islands, influenced the town's development. Sources do not mention a built-up area in Tórshavn until after the Protestant reformation in 1539. In ca. 1580 a small fort, was built by the Faroese naval hero and trader Magnus Heinason at the north end of the harbour. Small fortifications were built at Tinganes. In 1584 Tórshavn had 101 inhabitants; the population was divided into three large groups made up of farmers, their families and servants and government officials and people who owned no land and therefore not much else. They were set to guard duty on Skansin without pay, for clothing and food they depended on the bounty of the farmers. In 1655 king Frederick III of Denmark granted the Faroe Islands to his favourite statesman Kristoffer Gabel, the rule of the von Gabel Family, 1655–1709, is known as Gablatíðin.
It is the darkest chapter in the history of Tórshavn. Gabel's administration suppressed the islanders in various ways; the trade monopoly was in the family's hands and it was not designed for the needs of the Faroese people. People across the country brought products into town and had to be satisfied with whatever price they were given. At the same time imported goods were expensive. There came considerable complaints from the islands' inhabitants of unjust treatment by the civil administration in Tórshavn; these not only included the persons in charge of the monopoly trade, but the bailiff and others. It was during this period, in 1673, that Tinganes was ravaged by a fire after a store of gunpowder kept at Tinganes had blown up. Many old houses burnt to the ground and old Faroese records were lost. Conditions improved in Tórshavn when the trade monopoly became a royal monopoly in 1709; the royal monopoly was supplied with goods from Copenhagen three times a year. However, in 1709 Tórshavn was hit by a plague of smallpox.
The town had by this time reached a population of 250 of the inhabitants died. Still, it was during the latter half of the 18th century that Tórshavn started to develop into a small town; this was. From 1768 and during the next 20 years onwards Ryberg was allowed to carry on an entrepot trade, based on smuggling to England; because of the French-British conflict there was room for this kind of operation. In Tórshavn his warehouses filled up with goods. Ryberg was the first person who thought of making a financial profit from fishing, which became the most important economic factor to the islands, he experimented with salted cod and herring but at this point in time nothing much beyond this happened. Tórshavn Cathedral was first built in 1788 and rebuilt in 1865. Since 1990, it has been the seat of the Bishop of the Faroe Islands. On 30 March 1808, during the Anglo-Danish Gunboat War, the Cruizer class brig-sloo
A carronade is a short, cast iron cannon, used by the Royal Navy and first produced by the Carron Company, an ironworks in Falkirk, Scotland. It was used from the 1770s to the 1850s, its main function was to serve as a short-range, anti-ship and anti-crew weapon. Carronades were found to be successful, but they disappeared as naval artillery advanced, with the introduction of rifling and consequent change in the shape of the projectile, exploding shells replacing solid shot, naval engagements being fought at longer ranges; the carronade was designed as a short-range naval weapon with a low muzzle velocity for merchant ships, but it found a niche role on warships. It was produced by the Carron ironworks and was at first sold as a system with the gun and shot all together; the standard package of shot per gun was 25 roundshot, 15 barshot, 15 double-headed shot, 10 "single" grapeshot, 10 "single" canister shot. "Single" meant that the shot weighed the same as the roundshot, while some other canister and grapeshot were included which weighed one and a half times the roundshot.
Its invention is variously ascribed to Lieutenant General Robert Melville in 1759, or to Charles Gascoigne, manager of the Carron Company from 1769 to 1779. In its early years, the weapon was sometimes called a "mellvinade" or a "gasconade"; the carronade can be seen as the culmination of a development of naval guns reducing the barrel length and gunpowder charge. The Carron Company was selling a "new light-constructed" gun, two-thirds of the weight of the standard naval gun and charged with one sixth of the weight of ball in powder before it introduced the carronade, which further halved the gunpowder charge; the advantages for merchant ships are described in an advertising pamphlet of 1779. Production of both shot and gun by the same firm allowed a reduction in the windage, the gap between the bore of the gun and the diameter of the ball; the smaller gunpowder charge reduced the barrel heating in action, reduced the recoil. The mounting, attached to the side of the ship on a pivot, took the recoil on a slider, without altering the alignment of the gun.
The pamphlet advocated the use of woollen cartridges, which eliminated the need for wadding and worming, although they were more expensive. Simplifying gunnery for comparatively untrained merchant seamen in both aiming and reloading was part of the rationale for the gun; the replacement of trunnions by a bolt underneath, to connect the gun to the mounting, reduced the width of the carriage enhancing the wide angle of fire. A merchant ship would always be running away from an enemy, so a wide angle of fire was much more important than on a warship. A carronade weighed a quarter as much and used a quarter to a third of the gunpowder charge as a long gun firing the same cannonball; the reduced charge allowed carronades to have a shorter length and much lighter weight than long guns. Increasing the size of the bore and ball reduces the required length of barrel; the force acting on the ball is proportional to the square of the diameter, while the mass of the ball rises by the cube, so acceleration is slower.
Long guns were much heavier than carronades because they were over-specified to be capable of being double-shotted, whereas it was dangerous to do this in a carronade. A ship could carry more carronades, or carronades of a larger caliber, than long guns, carronades could be mounted on the upper decks, where heavy long guns could cause the ship to be top-heavy and unstable. Carronades required a smaller gun crew, important for merchant ships, they were faster to reload. Carronades became popular on British merchant ships during the American Revolutionary War. A lightweight gun that needed only a small gun crew and was devastating at short range was well suited to defending merchant ships against French and American privateers; the French came in possession of their first carronades in December 1779 with the capture of the brig Finkastre by the frigate Précieuse, but the weapon was judged ineffective and was not adopted by them at the time. However, in the Action of 4 September 1782, the impact of a single carronade broadside fired at close range by the frigate HMS Rainbow under Henry Trollope caused a wounded French captain to capitulate and surrender the Hébé after a short fight.
The Royal Navy was reluctant to adopt the guns due to mistrust of the Carron Company, which had developed a reputation for incompetence and commercial sharp dealing. Carronades were not counted in numbering the guns of a ship. Lord Sandwich started mounting them in place of the light guns on the forecastle and quarterdeck of ships, they soon proved their effectiveness in battle. French gun foundries were unable to produce equivalents for twenty years, so carronades gave British warships a significant tactical advantage during the latter part of the 18th century—though French ships mounted another type of weapon in the same role, the obusier de vaisseau. HMS Victory used the two 68-pounder carronades which she carried on her forecastle to great effect at the Battle of Trafalgar, clearing the gun deck of the Bucentaure by firing a round shot and a keg of 500 musket balls through the Bucentaure's stern windows; the carronade was very successful and adopted, a few experimental ships were fitted with a carronade-only armament, such as HMS Glatton and HMS Rainbow.
Glatton, a fourth-rate ship with 56 guns, had a more destructive broadside than HMS Victory, a first-rate ship with 100 guns. Glatton and Rainbow were both successful in battle, though the carronade's lack of range was an arguable tactical disadvantage of this arrangement ag
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions and led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict; the wars are categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition, the Fourth, the Fifth, the Sixth, the Seventh. Napoleon, upon ascending to First Consul of France in 1799, had inherited a chaotic republic. In 1805, Austria and Russia waged war against France. In response, Napoleon defeated the allied Russo-Austrian army at Austerlitz in December 1805, considered his greatest victory. At sea, the British defeated the joint Franco-Spanish navy in the Battle of Trafalgar on October 1805; this victory prevented the invasion of Britain itself. Concerned about the increasing French power, Prussia led the creation of the Fourth Coalition with Russia and Sweden, the resumption of war in October 1806.
Napoleon defeated the Prussians in Jena and the Russians in Friedland, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. The peace failed, though, as war broke out in 1809, when the badly prepared Fifth Coalition, led by Austria, was defeated in Wagram. Hoping to isolate Britain economically, Napoleon launched an invasion of Portugal, the only remaining British ally in continental Europe. After occupying Lisbon in November 1807, with the bulk of French troops present in Spain, Napoleon seized the opportunity to turn against his former ally, depose the reigning Spanish Bourbon family and declare his brother King of Spain in 1808 as Joseph I; the Spanish and Portuguese revolted with British support, after six years of fighting, expelled the French from Iberia in 1814. Concurrently, unwilling to bear economic consequences of reduced trade violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon to launch a massive invasion of Russia in 1812; the resulting campaign ended with the dissolution and disastrous withdrawal of the French Grande Armée.
Encouraged by the defeat, Prussia and Russia formed the Sixth Coalition and began a new campaign against France, decisively defeating Napoleon at Leipzig in October 1813 after several inconclusive engagements. The Allies invaded France from the East, while the Peninsular War spilled over southwestern French territory. Coalition troops captured Paris at the end of March 1814 and forced Napoleon to abdicate in early April, he was exiled to the island of Elba, the Bourbons were restored to power. However, Napoleon escaped in February 1815, reassumed control of France; the Allies responded with the Seventh Coalition, defeating Napoleon permanently at Waterloo in June 1815 and exiling him to St Helena where he died six years later. The Congress of Vienna redrew the borders of Europe, brought a lasting peace to the continent; the wars had profound consequences on global history, including the spread of nationalism and liberalism, the rise of the British Empire as the world's foremost power, the appearance of independence movements in Latin America and subsequent collapse of the Spanish Empire, the fundamental reorganisation of German and Italian territories into larger states, the establishment of radically new methods of conducting warfare.
Napoleon seized power in 1799. There are a number of opinions on the date to use as the formal beginning of the Napoleonic Wars; the Napoleonic Wars began with the War of the Third Coalition, the first of the Coalition Wars against the First French Republic after Napoleon's accession as leader of France. Britain ended the Treaty of Amiens and declared war on France in May 1803. Among the reasons were Napoleon's changes to the international system in Western Europe in Switzerland, Germany and the Netherlands. Kagan argues that Britain was irritated in particular by Napoleon's assertion of control over Switzerland. Furthermore, Britons felt insulted when Napoleon stated that their country deserved no voice in European affairs though King George III was an elector of the Holy Roman Empire. For its part, Russia decided that the intervention in Switzerland indicated that Napoleon was not looking toward a peaceful resolution of his differences with the other European powers; the British enforced a naval blockade of France to starve it of resources.
Napoleon responded with economic embargoes against Britain, sought to eliminate Britain's Continental allies to break the coalitions arrayed against him. The so-called Continental System formed a league of armed neutrality to disrupt the blockade and enforce free trade with France; the British responded by capturing the Danish fleet, breaking up the league, secured dominance over the seas, allowing it to continue its strategy. Napoleon won the War of the Third Coalition at Austerlitz, forcing the Austrian Empire out of the war and formally dissolving the Holy Roman Empire. Within months, Prussia declared war; this war ended disastrously for Prussia and occupied within 19 days of the beginning of the campaign. Napoleon subsequently defeated the Russian Empire at Friedland, creating powerful client states in Eastern Europe and ending the fourth coalition. Concurrently, the refusal of Portugal to commit to the Con
The Yangtze or Yangzi, 6,300 km long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world. The river is the longest in the world to flow within one country, it drains one-fifth of the land area of China, its river basin is home to nearly one-third of the country's population. The Yangtze is the sixth-largest river by discharge volume in the world; the English name Yangtze derives from the Chinese name Yángzǐ Jiāng, which refers to the lowest 435 km of the river between Nanjing and Shanghai. The whole river is known in China as Cháng Jiāng. In more recent modern texts, it is spelled as the Yangzi, in align with its modern pinyin; the Yangtze plays a large role in the history and economy of China. The prosperous Yangtze River Delta generates as much as 20% of the PRC's GDP; the Yangtze River flows through a wide array of ecosystems and is habitat to several endemic and endangered species including the Chinese alligator, the narrow-ridged finless porpoise, the Chinese paddlefish, the Yangtze River dolphin or baiji, the Yangtze sturgeon.
For thousands of years, the river has been used for water, sanitation, industry, boundary-marking and war. The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River is the largest hydro-electric power station in the world. In recent years, the river has suffered from industrial pollution, plastic pollution, agricultural run-off and loss of wetland and lakes, which exacerbates seasonal flooding; some sections of the river are now protected as nature reserves. A stretch of the upstream Yangtze flowing through deep gorges in western Yunnan is part of the Three Parallel Rivers of Yunnan Protected Areas, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In mid-2014, the Chinese government announced it was building a multi-tier transport network, comprising railways and airports, to create a new economic belt alongside the river; because the source of the Yangtze was not ascertained until modern times, the Chinese have given different names to lower and upstream sections of the river."Yangtze" was the name of Chang Jiang for the lower part from Nanjing to the river mouth at Shanghai.
However, due to the fact that Christian missionaries carried out their activities in this area and were familiar with the name of this part of Chang Jiang, "Yangtze river" was used to refer to the whole Chang Jiang in the English language. In modern Chinese, Yangtze is still used to refer to the lower part of Chang Jiang from Nanjing to the river mouth. Yangtze never stands for the whole Chang Jiang. Chang Jiang is the modern Chinese name for the lower 2,884 km of the Yangtze from its confluence with the Min River at Yibin in Sichuan province to the river mouth at Shanghai. Chang Jiang means the "Long River." In Old Chinese, this stretch of the Yangtze was called Jiang/Kiang 江, a character of phono-semantic compound origin, combining the water radical 氵 with the homophone 工. Krong was a word in the Austroasiatic language of local peoples such as the Yue. Similar to *krong in Proto-Vietnamese and krung in Mon, all meaning "river", it is related to modern Vietnamese sông and Khmer kôngkea. By the Han dynasty, Jiang had come to mean any river in Chinese, this river was distinguished as the "Great River" 大江.
The epithet 長, means "long", was first formally applied to the river during the Six Dynasties period. Various sections of Chang Jiang have local names. From Yibin to Yichang, the river through Sichuan and Chongqing Municipality is known as the Chuan Jiang or "Sichuan River." In Hubei Province, the river is called the Jing Jiang or the "Jing River" after Jingzhou. In Anhui Province, the river takes on the local name Wan Jiang after the shorthand name for Anhui, wǎn, and Yangzi Jiang or the "Yangzi River", from which the English name Yangtze is derived, is the local name for the Lower Yangtze in the region of Yangzhou. The name comes from an ancient ferry crossing called Yangzi or Yangzijin. Europeans who arrived in the Yangtze River Delta region applied this local name to the Å river; the dividing site between upstream and midstream is considered to be at Yichang and that between midstream and downstream at Hukou. The Jinsha River is the name for 2,308 km of the Yangtze from Yibin upstream to the confluence with the Batang River near Yushu in Qinghai Province.
From antiquity until the Ming Dynasty, this stretch of the river was believed to be a tributary of the Yangtze while the Min River was thought to be the main course of the river above Yibin. In the Yu Gong, written in the fifth century BCE, this section is called the Hei Shui 黑水 or the "Black Water." The name "Jinsha" originates in the Song dynasty when the river attracted large numbers of gold prospectors. Gold prospecting along the Jinsha continued to this day. Prior to the Song dynasty, other names were used including, for example Lújiāng from the Three Kingdoms period; the Tongtian River describes the 813 km section from Yushu up to the confluence with the Dangqu River. The name comes from a fabled river in the Journey to the West. In antiquity, it was called the Yak River. In Mongolian, this section is known as the Murui-ussu. and sometimes confused with the nearby Baishui. The Tuotuo River is the official headstream of the Yangtze, a
The Cruizer class was an 18-gun class of brig-sloops of the Royal Navy. Brig-sloops were the same as ship-sloops except for their rigging. A ship-sloop was rigged with three masts whereas a brig-sloop was rigged as a brig with only a fore mast and a main mast; the Cruizer class was the most numerous class of warships built by the British during the Napoleonic wars, with 110 vessels built to this design, the second most numerous class of sailing warship built to a single design for any navy at any time, after the smaller 10-gun Cherokee-class brig-sloops. Of the vessels in the class, eight were destroyed or taken. Another was retaken. Fourteen were wrecked while in British service. Lastly, four foundered while in British service. In all cases of foundering and in many cases of wrecking all the crew was lost. Many of the vessels in the class were sold, some into mercantile service. One at least was wrecked; the fate of the others is unknown. In December 1796, the Navy Board placed new orders for four flush-decked sloops, to differing designs by the two Surveyors of the Navy — Sir William Rule and Sir John Henslow.
In order to compare the qualities of ship-rigged and brig-rigged vessels, one vessel to each design was to be completed as a ship-sloop and the other as a brig-sloop. While the Henslow-designed vessels would see no further sister ships built, the Rule-designed vessels would each have a single sister ship ordered in the following March, Rule's Cruizer design would subsequently see 106 constructed during the Napoleonic War; the hull design was exceeding fine, with a noted deadrise amidships and a sharp sheer, giving away the design that had origins in the smaller cutter-type designs. The order placed in March 1797 for the first sister ship to Cruizer was subsequently cancelled, but new orders were placed from 1802 up to 1813. A final order in 1815 was cancelled in 1820; the Cruizer-class brig-sloops proved to be fast sailers and seaworthy, the 32-pounder carronade armament gave them enormous short-range firepower, exceeding the nominal broadside of a standard 36-gun 18-pounder frigate. To a Royal Navy desperate for manpower, the great attraction of the design was that — thanks to the two-masted rig and the use of carronades with their small gun crews — this firepower could be delivered by a crew only a third the size of a frigate's.
The Dutch built three 18 gun-brigs — Zwaluw and Kemphaan — to a similar design. The Russian brig Olymp was built to the same lines; the naval historian C. S. Forester commented in relation to the smaller gun-brigs that The type was a necessary one but represented the inevitable unsatisfactory compromise when a vessel has to be designed to fight, to be seaworthy and to have a long endurance, all on a minimum displacement and at minimum expense. Few men in the Royal Navy had a good word to say for the gun-brigs, which rolled and were over-crowded, but they had to be employed. In the same book he was more complimentary as regards the larger brigs such as the Cruizer class HMS Penguin; the most salient aspect of his statement is that the Cruizer class and its smaller sister class, the Cherokee class, highlight the huge expansion of the Royal Navy. Whatever else one may say of the class, the Cruizer-class brig-sloops were both fast and provided serious firepower for minimal crewing, characteristics that appealed to a Navy suffering serious and increasing staffing shortages.
The class proved to be ideal for many of the shallow water commitments in the Baltic and Ionian Seas, as well as around Danish waters. Prior to 1808, the complement of officers and boys for a Cruizer-class brig-sloop included 15 Royal Marines. After 1808, the vessels carried 20 marines comprising 1 corporal and 18 privates. During the Anglo-American War of 1812, several ships of the class fell victim to larger American ship-rigged sloops of war of nominally the same class; the American vessels enjoyed an advantage in weight of number of crew. The ship-rigged sloops enjoyed the ability to back sail, their rigging proved more resistant to damage. In many cases, the American advantage was in the quality of their crews, as the American sloops had hand-picked volunteer crews, while the brigs belonging to the overstretched Royal Navy had to make do with crews filled out with landsmen picked up by the press gang. During a battle with the equivalently armed and crewed American brig Hornet, HMS Penguin was unable to land a single shot from her cannons, with the only American losses being incured by Royal Marines aboard the British ship.
The comparison was made in the London press unfavorably and was not fair. The American ship-rigged sloops were bigger vessels; the crew sizes were disproportionate at 175 to 120, at least some of the Cruizer class in these combats were outfitted with 24-pounder carronades vice the normal 32-pounders. The rigging was the deciding factor as the USS Peacock vs. HMS Epervier combat would highlight; when HMS Epervier lost her main topmast and had her foremast damaged she was disabled. USS Wasp, in another combat, would retain control despite the loss of her gaff, main topmast, the mizzen topgallant. USS Wasp vs. HMS Avon provides another example. Despite being fought
The Faroe Islands, or the Faeroe Islands—a North Atlantic archipelago located 200 miles north-northwest of the United Kingdom and about halfway between Norway and Iceland—are an autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark. Total area is about 1,400 square kilometres with a population of 50,322 in October 2017; the terrain is rugged. Temperatures average above freezing throughout the year because of the Gulf Stream. Between 1035 and 1814, the Faroes were part of the Hereditary Kingdom of Norway. In 1814, the Treaty of Kiel granted Denmark control over the islands, along with two other Norwegian island possessions: Greenland and Iceland; the Faroe Islands have been a self-governing country within the Kingdom of Denmark since 1948. The Faroese have control of most of their domestic affairs; those that are the responsibility of Denmark include military defence and the justice department and foreign affairs. However, as they are not part of the same customs area as Denmark, the Faroe Islands have an independent trade policy and can establish trade agreements with other states.
The islands have representation in the Nordic Council as members of the Danish delegation. The Faroe Islands have their own national teams competing in certain sports. In Faroese, the name appears as Føroyar. Oyar represents the plural of oy, older Faroese for "island". Due to sound changes, the modern Faroese word for island is oyggj; the first element, før, may reflect an Old Norse word fær, although this analysis is sometimes disputed because Faroese now uses the word seyður to mean "sheep". Another possibility is that the Irish monks, who settled the island around 625, had given the islands a name related to the Gaelic word fearrann, meaning "land" or "estate"; this name could have been passed on to the Norwegian settlers, who added oyar. The name thus translates as either "Islands of Sheep" or "Islands of Fearrann". In Danish, the name Færøerne contains the same elements, though øerne is the definite plural of ø. In English, it may be seen as redundant to say the Faroe Islands, since the oe comes from an element meaning "island".
Most notably in the BBC Shipping Forecast, where the waters around the islands are called Faeroes. The name is sometimes spelled "Faeroe". Archaeological evidence shows settlers living on the Faroe Islands in two successive periods before the Norse arrived, the first between 300 and 600 AD and the second between 600 and 800 AD. Scientists from the University of Aberdeen have found early cereal pollen from domesticated plants, which further suggests people may have lived on the islands before the Vikings arrived. Archaeologist Mike Church noted, he suggested that the people living there might have been from Ireland, Scotland, or Scandinavia with groups from all three areas settling there. A Latin account of a voyage made by Brendan, an Irish monastic saint who lived around 484–578, includes a description of insulae resembling the Faroe Islands; this association, however, is far from conclusive in its description. Dicuil, an Irish monk of the early 9th century, wrote a more definite account. In his geographical work De mensura orbis terrae he claimed he had reliable information of heremitae ex nostra Scotia who had lived on the northerly islands of Britain for a hundred years until the arrival of Norse pirates.
Norsemen settled the islands c. 800, bringing Old West Norse, which evolved into the modern Faroese language. According to Icelandic sagas such as Færeyjar Saga, one of the best known men in the island was Tróndur í Gøtu, a descendant of Scandinavian chiefs who had settled in Dublin, Ireland. Tróndur led the battle against the Norwegian monarchy and the Norwegian church; the Norse and Norse–Gael settlers did not come directly from Scandinavia, but rather from Norse communities surrounding the Irish Sea, Northern Isles and Outer Hebrides of Scotland, including the Shetland and Orkney islands. A traditional name for the islands in Irish, Na Scigirí refers to the Skeggjar "Beards", a nickname given to island dwellers. According to the Færeyinga saga, more emigrants left Norway who did not approve of the monarchy of Harald Fairhair; these people settled the Faroes around the end of the 9th century. Early in the 11th century, Sigmundur Brestisson – whose clan had flourished in the southern islands before invaders from the northern islands exterminated it – escaped to Norway.
He was sent back to take possession of the islands for Olaf Tryggvason, King of Norway from 995 to 1000. Sigmundur introduced Christianity, forcing Tróndur í Gøtu to convert or face beheading and, though Sigmundur was subsequently murdered, Norwegian taxation was upheld. Norwegian control of the Faroes continued until 1814, when the Kingdom of Norway entered the Kalmar Union with Denmark, it resulted in Danish control of the islands; the Reformation with Protestant Evangelical Lutheranism and Reformed reached the Faroes in 1538. When the union between Denmark and Norway dissolved as a result of the Treaty of Kiel in 1814, Denmark retained possession of the Faroe Islands. Following the turmoil caused by the Napoleonic Wars in 1816, the Faroe Islands became a county in the Danish Kingdom; as part of Mercantilism, Denmark maintained a monopoly over trade with the Faroe Islands and forbade their inhabitants trading
Flekkerøy or Flekkerøya is an island and residential district in Kristiansand municipality in Vest-Agder county, Norway. The district is located within the borough of Vågsbygd, it consists of 4 main neighborhoods: Berge/Andås, Kjære, Lindebø/Skålevik, Mæbø/Høyfjellet; the district covers all of the island of Flekkerøya. Since 1989, the island has been connected to the mainland through the Flekkerøy Tunnel, a 2,320-metre long subsea road tunnel; the island has 3,632 inhabitants. Flekkerøy Church is located on the island. Since the 15th century, Flekkerøy was an important harbour along the Skagerrak, since 1540 it has been considered as the most important outport in the whole region of Southern Norway. In 1555, the first fortifications were built, but it was torn down in 1561. In the early 17th century, the harbour again became of strategic importance, in 1635 the island was visited by King Christian IV who decided to build the Christiansø Fortress to protect the harbour. In 1656, a new fortress called Fredriksholm was built, Christiansø soon decayed.
In 1807, about 250 people lived on the island, in September 1807, English ships anchored at the harbour. The local people fled, Fredriksholm fortress was blown up, the island was pillaged. In 1848, a cannon battery was built, but in 1872 it was abandoned, in 1874 the rebuilt Fredriksholm fortress was closed down for good. In 2005, the remaining military properties on Flekkerøya were secured for public outdoor recreation by the Ministry of Climate and Environment; the 10 largest politics parties in Flekkerøy: The main bus stop on the island is at the roundabout where County Road 457 ends. Line 07 is the local line on the island