Argentine Air Force
The Argentine Air Force is the national aviation branch of the Armed Forces of the Argentine Republic. In 2010 it had 6,900 civilian personnel; the Air Force's history begins with the establishment of the Army Aviation Service's Escuela de Aviación Militar on 10 August 1912. Several military officers were amongst the pioneers of Argentine aviation, including Jorge Newbery, a retired Argentine Navy officer; the school began to turn out military pilots who participated in milestone events in Argentine aviation, such as the crossing of the Andes mountains. In 1927 the Dirección General de Aeronáutica was created to coordinate the country's military aviation. In that same year the Fábrica Militar de Aviones, which would become the heart of the country's aviation industry, was founded in Córdoba. By 1938–39 Argentina's air power had about 3,200 staff, maintained about 230 aircraft. About 150 of these were operated by the army and included Dewoitine D.21 and Curtiss P-36 Hawk fighters. About 80 were operated by the navy and included the Supermarine Southampton, Supermarine Walrus, Fairey Seal, Fairey III, Vought O2U Corsair, Consolidated P2Y, Curtiss T-32 Condor II, Douglas Dolphin and Grumman J2F Duck.
By the 1940s there were several air units in the Navy. After the end of World War II, in which the Argentine Air Force took no part, it began a process of modernization, incorporating aircraft such as the Gloster Meteor jet fighter, thus becoming the first air force in Latin America equipped with jet-propelled aircraft. In addition, a number of Avro Lincoln and Avro Lancaster bombers were acquired, creating a powerful strategic force in the region; the Air Force, with former Luftwaffe officers as consultants and German technicians began to develop its own aircraft, such as the Pulqui I and Pulqui II, making Argentina the first country in Latin America and the sixth in the world to develop jet fighter technology on its own. Locally developed aircraft, like the I. Ae. 22 DL trainer and the I. Ae. 24 Calquin tactical bomber, were added to the inventory. In 1952 the Air Force began flight to supply the Antarctic scientific bases using ski-equipped C-47s and establishing Marambio Base on 25 September 1969.
On 11 April 1970 they began landing C-130 Hercules aircraft, when the TC-61 commanded by Commodore Arturo Athos Gandolfi was the first airplane to land in Marambio, the Fokker F-28 Fellowship presidential aircraft T-01 Patagonia is reported to be the first jet to have landed at Marambio, on 28 July 1973. and since the 1970s Twin Otters are deployed. On October 1973 the FAA launched Operation Transantar, achieving the first trans-Antarctic three-continental flight in history when a C-130 flew between Rio Gallegos. In the 1960s new aircraft were incorporated, including the F-86F Sabre jet fighter and the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk used for ground-attack. During the 1970s the Air Force re-equipped itself with modern aircraft, including Mirage III interceptors, IAI Dagger multi-role fighters, C-130 Hercules cargo planes. A counter-insurgency airplane, the Pucará, was used in substantial numbers; the Falklands War, took a great toll on the Air Force. After the war, due to the deteriorating economic situation, international opposition and political distrust of the military, the Air Force was denied the resources needed to replace the war losses.
This, coupled with diminishing budgets, led to a period of reduced activity and growing materiel obsolescence. After the war Britain imposed an arms embargo on Argentina, discontinued in the 1990s but British pressure has prevented so far the acquisition of modern fighter planes and equipment from Western countries. After attempts to acquire surplus IAI Kfirs or F-16As failed for economic and political reasons, the United States military sold Argentina 36 A-4AR Fightinghawks, a refurbished and upgraded version of the A-4 Skyhawks used in the war. Other equipment was bought: 23 US Army surplus OV-1 Mohawks, 22 Ex-Israeli IAI Dagger, 2 C-130B and 1 Lockheed L-100-30; the FAA has been involved in United Nations peacekeeping missions around the world. They sent a Boeing 707 to the 1991 Gulf War. Since 1994 the UN Air contingent in Cyprus under UNFICYP mandate is provided by the FAA, having achieved 10,000 flight hours by 2003 without any accidents; the FAA has since 2005 deployed Bell 212 helicopters to Haiti under MINUSTAH mandate.
In early 2005 the top seventeen brigadiers of the Air Force, including the Chief of Staff, Brigadier General Carlos Rohde, were sacked by President Néstor Kirchner following a scandal involving drug trafficking through Ezeiza International Airport. Kirchner cited failures in the security systems of Argentine airports and
Birkenhead is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral in Merseyside, England. In Cheshire, it is on the Wirral Peninsula, along the west bank of the River Mersey, opposite the city of Liverpool. In the 2011 census, the Parliamentary constituency of Birkenhead had a population of 88,818; the recorded history of Birkenhead began with the establishment of Birkenhead Priory and the Mersey Ferry in the 12th century. During the 19th century Birkenhead expanded becoming a town as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, with Birkenhead Park and Hamilton Square being examples of the era. Around the same time, Birkenhead gained the first street tramway in Britain; the Mersey Railway connected Birkenhead and Liverpool, with the world's first tunnel beneath a tidal estuary. Birkenhead is best known for the shipbuilding of Cammell Laird, for the town's seaport. In the second half of the 20th century, the town suffered a significant period of decline, with containerisation causing a reduction in port activity.
During the first half of the 21st century, the Wirral Waters development is planned to regenerate much of the dockland. The name Birkenhead means "headland overgrown with birch", from the Old English bircen meaning birch tree, of which many once grew on the headland which jutted into the river at Woodside; the name is not derived from the Birket, a stream which enters the Mersey between Birkenhead and Seacombe. The Birket is a name, introduced by Ordnance Survey; the earliest records state that the Mersey ferry began operating from Birkenhead in 1150, when Benedictine monks under the leadership of Hamon de Mascy built a priory there. The priory was visited in 1275 and 1277 by Edward I. In a royal charter of 13 April 1330, Edward III granted the priory further rights. Distanced from the Industrial Revolution in Liverpool by the physical barrier of the River Mersey, Birkenhead retained its agricultural status until the advent of steam ferry services. In 1817 a steam ferry service started from Liverpool to Tranmere and in 1822 the paddle steamer, Royal Mail, began operation between Liverpool and Woodside.
Shipbuilding started in 1829. An iron works was established by William Laird in 1824 and was joined by his son John Laird in 1828; the business became Cammell Laird. Notable naval vessels built at Birkenhead include HMS Achilles, HMS Affray, CSS Alabama, HMS Ark Royal, HMS Birkenhead, HMS Caroline, Huáscar, the pioneer submarine Resurgam, HMS Thetis, HMS Conqueror and HMS Prince of Wales. Merchant vessels were built such as RMS Mauretania and RMS Windsor Castle. In 1833 an act was passed to introduce street paving and other improvements in the town; these included regulating the police force. The Mersey Railway tunnel opened in 1886; the Grange Road West drill hall was completed in 1900. In September 1932 thousands of unemployed people protested in a series of demonstrations organised by the local branch of the National Unemployed Workers Movement. After three days of rioting, police were brought in from elsewhere to help quell the rioters. In addition to the ferries and the railway, the Queensway road tunnel opened in 1934 and gave rapid access to Liverpool.
This opened up the Wirral Peninsula for development, prompted further growth of Birkenhead as an industrial centre. Bolstered by migration from rural Cheshire, southern Ireland and Wales, the town's population had grown from 110 in 1801 to 110,912 one hundred years and stood at 142,501 by 1951. Birkenhead was struck by an F0/T1 tornado on 23 November 1981, as part of the record-breaking nationwide tornado outbreak on that day. A township in Bidston Parish of the Wirral Hundred, Birkenhead was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1877, became a county borough with the passing of the Local Government Act 1888; the borough included the parish of Birkenhead St. Mary and the townships of Bidston, Claughton with Grange, Oxton and part of Bebington known as Rock Ferry; the townships of Landican and Thingwall were added in 1928, followed by Noctorum and Woodchurch in 1933. Prior to 1 April 1974, Birkenhead and the rest of the Wirral Peninsula were part of the county of Cheshire; the implementation of the Local Government Act 1972 caused Birkenhead to lose its county borough status.
The town has since been administered as part of the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral, in the metropolitan county of Merseyside. The Birkenhead and Tranmere electoral ward had a population of 15,879 in 2011; the current Member of Parliament for Birkenhead is Frank Field. The Birkenhead Urban Area, as defined by the Office for National Statistics, includes Birkenhead, Bebington, Ellesmere Port and the contiguous built-up areas which link those towns. In the 2011 Census, the area so defined had a total population of 325,264, making it the 19th largest conurbation in England and Wales. Shipbuilding and ship repair has featured prominently in the local economy since the 19th century. Cammell Laird entered receivership in 2001; the shipyard was sold and became'Northwestern Shiprepairers & Shipbuilders', which grew into a successful business specialising in ship repair and conversion, including maintenance contracts for the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. In September 2007 NS&S acquired the rights to use the Cammell Laird name.
The company was renamed'Cammell Laird Shiprepairers & Shipbuilders' on 17 November 2008, seeing the famous name return to Birkenhead after a seven-year hiatus. In 2010, Cammell Laird secured a
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming and recovering aircraft. It is the capital ship of a fleet, as it allows a naval force to project air power worldwide without depending on local bases for staging aircraft operations. Carriers have evolved since their inception in the early twentieth century from wooden vessels used to deploy balloons to nuclear-powered warships that carry numerous fighters, strike aircraft and other types of aircraft. While heavier aircraft such as fixed-wing gunships and bombers have been launched from aircraft carriers, it is not possible to land them. By its diplomatic and tactical power, its mobility, its autonomy and the variety of its means, the aircraft carrier is the centerpiece of modern combat fleets. Tactically or strategically, it replaced the battleship in the role of flagship of a fleet. One of its great advantages is that, by sailing in international waters, it does not interfere with any territorial sovereignty and thus obviates the need for overflight authorizations from third party countries, reduce the times and transit distances of aircraft and therefore increase the time of availability on the combat zone.
There is no single definition of an "aircraft carrier", modern navies use several variants of the type. These variants are sometimes categorized as sub-types of aircraft carriers, sometimes as distinct types of naval aviation-capable ships. Aircraft carriers may be classified according to the type of aircraft they carry and their operational assignments. Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope, RN, former First Sea Lord of the Royal Navy, has said, "To put it countries that aspire to strategic international influence have aircraft carriers." Henry Kissinger, while United States Secretary of State said: "An aircraft carrier is 100,000 tons of diplomacy". As of April 2019, there are 41 active aircraft carriers in the world operated by thirteen navies; the United States Navy has 11 large nuclear-powered fleet carriers—carrying around 80 fighter jets each—the largest carriers in the world. As well as the aircraft carrier fleet, the U. S. Navy has nine amphibious assault ships used for helicopters, although these carry up to 20 vertical or short take-off and landing fighter jets and are similar in size to medium-sized fleet carriers.
China, India and the UK each operate a single large/medium-size carrier, with capacity from 30 to 60 fighter jets. Italy operates two light fleet carriers and Spain operates one. Helicopter carriers are operated by Japan, Australia, Brazil, South Korea, Thailand. Future aircraft carriers are under construction or in planning by Brazil, India, the United Kingdom, the United States. Amphibious assault ship Anti-submarine warfare carrier Balloon carrier and balloon tenders Escort carrier Fleet carrier Flight deck cruiser Helicopter carrier Light aircraft carrier Sea Control Ship Seaplane tender and seaplane carriers Aircraft cruiser A fleet carrier is intended to operate with the main fleet and provides an offensive capability; these are the largest carriers capable of fast speeds. By comparison, escort carriers were developed to provide defense for convoys of ships, they were slower with lower numbers of aircraft carried. Most were built from mercantile hulls or, in the case of merchant aircraft carriers, were bulk cargo ships with a flight deck added on top.
Light aircraft carriers were fast enough to operate with the main fleet but of smaller size with reduced aircraft capacity. The Soviet aircraft carrier Admiral Kusnetsov was termed a heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser; this was a legal construct to avoid the limitations of the Montreux Convention preventing'aircraft carriers' transiting the Turkish Straits between the Soviet Black Sea bases and the Mediterranean. These ships, while sized in the range of large fleet carriers, were designed to deploy alone or with escorts. In addition to supporting fighter aircraft and helicopters, they provide both strong defensive weaponry and heavy offensive missiles equivalent to a guided missile cruiser. Aircraft carriers today are divided into the following four categories based on the way that aircraft take off and land: Catapult-assisted take-off barrier arrested-recovery: these carriers carry the largest and most armed aircraft, although smaller CATOBAR carriers may have other limitations. All CATOBAR carriers in service today are nuclear powered.
Two nations operate carriers of this type: ten Nimitz class and one Gerald R. Ford class fleet carriers by the United States, one medium-sized carrier by France, for a world total of twelve in service. Short take-off but arrested-recovery: these carriers are limited to carrying lighter fixed-wing aircraft with more limited payloads. STOBAR carrier air wings, such as the Sukhoi Su-33 and future Mikoyan MiG-29K wings of Admiral Kuznetsov are geared towards air superiority and fleet defense roles rather than strike/power projection tasks, which require heavier payloads. Today China and Russia each operate one carrier of this type – a total of three in service currently. Short take-off vertical-landing: limited to carrying STOVL aircraft. STOVL aircraft, such as the Harrier Jump Jet family and Yakovlev Yak-38 have limited payloads, lower perfor
The Soviet Navy was the naval arm of the Soviet Armed Forces. Referred to as the Red Fleet, the Soviet Navy was a large part of the Soviet Union's strategic plan in the event of a conflict with opposing super power, the United States, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or another conflict related to the Warsaw Pact of Eastern Europe; the influence of the Soviet Navy played a large role in the Cold War, as the majority of conflicts centered on naval forces. The Soviet Navy was divided into four major fleets: the Northern, Black Sea, Baltic Fleets; the Caspian Flotilla was a smaller force operating in the land-locked Caspian Sea. Main components of the Soviet Navy included Soviet Naval Aviation, Naval Infantry, Coastal Artillery. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Russia inherited the largest part of the Soviet Navy and reformed it into the Russian Navy, with smaller parts becoming the basis for navies of the newly independent post-Soviet states; the Soviet Navy was based on a republican naval force formed from the remnants of the Imperial Russian Navy, completely destroyed in the two Revolutions of 1917 during World War I, the following Russian Civil War, the Kronstadt rebellion in 1921.
During the revolutionary period, Russian sailors deserted their ships at will and neglected their duties. The officers were dispersed and most of the sailors walked off and left their ships. Work stopped in the shipyards; the Black Sea Fleet fared no better than the Baltic. The Bolshevik revolution disrupted its personnel, with mass murders of officers. At the end of April 1918, Imperial German troops moved along the Black Sea coast and entered Crimea and started to advance towards the Sevastopol naval base; the more effective ships were moved from Sevastopol to Novorossiysk where, after an ultimatum from Germany, they were scuttled by Vladimir Lenin's order. The ships remaining in Sevastopol were captured by the Germans and after the Armistice of 11 November 1918 on the Western Front which ended the War, additional Russian ships were confiscated by the British. On 1 April 1919, during the ensuing Russian Civil War when Red Army forces captured Crimea, the British Royal Navy squadron had to withdraw, but before leaving they damaged all the remaining battleships and sank thirteen new submarines.
When the opposing Czarist White Army captured Crimea in 1919, it rescued and reconditioned a few units. At the end of the civil war, Wrangel's fleet, a White flotilla, moved south through the Black Sea, Dardanelles straits and the Aegean Sea to the Mediterranean Sea to Bizerta in French Tunisia on the North Africa coast, where it was interned; the first ship of the revolutionary navy could be considered the rebellious Imperial Russian cruiser Aurora, built 1900, whose crew joined the communist Bolsheviks. Sailors of the Baltic fleet supplied the fighting force of the Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky during the October Revolution of November 1917 against the democratic provisional government of Alexander Kerensky established after the earlier first revolution of February against the Czar; some imperial vessels continued to serve after the revolution, albeit with different names. The Soviet Navy, established as the "Workers' and Peasants' Red Fleet" by a 1918 decree of the new Council of People's Commissars, installed as a temporary Russian revolutionary government, was less than service-ready during the interwar years of 1918 to 1941.
As the country's attentions were directed internally, the Navy did not have much funding or training. An indicator of its reputation was that the Soviets were not invited to participate in negotiations for the Washington Naval Treaty of 1921–1922, which limited the size and capabilities of the most powerful navies - British, Japanese, Italian; the greater part of the old fleet was sold by the Soviet government to post-war Germany for scrap. In the Baltic Sea there remained only three much-neglected battleships, two cruisers, some ten destroyers, a few submarines. Despite this state of affairs, the Baltic Fleet remained a significant naval formation, the Black Sea Fleet provided a basis for expansion. There existed some thirty minor-waterways combat flotillas. During the 1930s, as the industrialization of the Soviet Union proceeded, plans were made to expand the Soviet Navy into one of the most powerful in the world. Approved by the Labour and Defence Council in 1926, the Naval Shipbuilding Program included plans to construct twelve submarines.
Beginning 4 November 1926, Technical Bureau Nº 4, under the leadership of B. M. Malinin, managed the submarine construction works at the Baltic Shipyard. In subsequent years, 133 submarines were built to designs developed during Malinin's management. Additional developments included the formation of the Pacific Fleet in 1932 and the Northern Fleet in 1933; the forces were to be built around a core of powerful Sovetsky Soyuz-class battleships. This building program was only in its initial stages by the time the German invasion forced its suspension in 1941; the Soviet Navy had some minor action
Ceremonial ship launching
Ceremonial ship launching is the process of transferring a vessel to the water. It is a naval tradition in many cultures, it has been observed as a solemn blessing. Ship launching imposes stresses on the ship not met during normal operation, in addition to the size and weight of the vessel, it represents a considerable engineering challenge as well as a public spectacle; the process involves many traditions intended to invite good luck, such as christening by breaking a sacrificial bottle of champagne over the bow as the ship is named aloud and launched. There are three principal methods of conveying a new ship from building site to water, only two of which are called "launching"; the oldest, most familiar, most used is the end-on launch, in which the vessel slides down an inclined slipway stern first. With the side launch, the ship enters the water broadside; this method came into use in the 19th-century on inland waters and lakes, was more adopted during World War II. The third method is float-out, used for ships that are built in basins or dry docks and floated by admitting water into the dock.
If launched in a restrictive waterway drag chains are used to slow the ship speed to prevent it striking the opposite bank. Ways are arranged perpendicular to the shore line and the ship is built with its stern facing the water. Where the launch takes place into a narrow river, the building slips may be at a shallow angle rather than perpendicular though this requires a longer slipway when launching. Modern slipways take the form of a reinforced concrete mat of sufficient strength to support the vessel, with two "barricades" that extend well below the water level taking into account tidal variations; the barricades support the two launch ways. The vessel is built upon temporary cribbing, arranged to give access to the hull's outer bottom and to allow the launchways to be erected under the complete hull; when it is time to prepare for launching, a pair of standing ways is erected under the hull and out onto the barricades. The surface of the ways is greased. A pair of sliding ways is placed on top, under the hull, a launch cradle with bow and stern poppets is erected on these sliding ways.
The weight of the hull is transferred from the build cribbing onto the launch cradle. Provision is made to hold the vessel in place and release it at the appropriate moment in the launching ceremony. On launching, the vessel slides backwards down the slipway on the ways; some slipways is launched sideways. This is done where the limitations of the water channel would not allow lengthwise launching, but occupies a much greater length of shore; the Great Eastern designed by Brunel was built this way as were many landing craft during World War II. This method requires many more sets of ways to support the weight of the ship. Sometimes ships are launched using a series of inflated tubes underneath the hull, which deflate to cause a downward slope into the water; this procedure has the advantages of requiring less permanent infrastructure and cost. The airbags provide support to the hull of the ship and aid its launching motion into the water, thus this method is arguably safer than other options such as sideways launching.
These airbags are cylindrical in shape with hemispherical heads at both ends. The Xiao Qinghe shipyard launched a tank barge with marine airbags on January 20, 1981, the first known use of marine airbags. A Babylonian narrative dating from the 3rd millennium BC describes the completion of a ship: Openings to the water I stopped. Egyptians and Romans called on their gods to protect seamen. Favor was evoked from the monarch of the seas—Poseidon in Greek mythology, Neptune in Roman mythology. Ship launching participants in ancient Greece wreathed their heads with olive branches, drank wine to honor the gods, poured water on the new vessel as a symbol of blessing. Shrines were carried on board Greek and Roman ships, this practice extended into the Middle Ages; the shrine was placed at the quarterdeck, an area which continues to have special ceremonial significance. Different peoples and cultures shaped the religious ceremonies surrounding a ship launching. Jews and Christians customarily used wine and water as they called upon God to safeguard them at sea.
Intercession of the saints and the blessing of the church were asked by Christians. Ship launchings in the Ottoman Empire were accompanied by prayers to Allah, the sacrifice of sheep, appropriate feasting. Chaplain Henry Teonge of Britain's Royal Navy left an interesting account of a warship launch, a "briganteen of 23 oars," by the Knights of Malta in 1675: Two friars and an attendant went into the vessel, kneeling down prayed halfe an houre, layd their hands on every mast, other places of the vessel, sprinkled her all over with holy water, they came out and hoysted a pendent to signify she was a man of war. The liturgical aspects of ship christenings, or baptisms, continued in Catholic countries, while the Reformation seems to have put a stop to them for a time in Protestant Europe. By the 17th century, for example, English launchings were secular affairs; the christening party for the launch of the
A periscope is an instrument for observation over, around or through an object, obstacle or condition that prevents direct line-of-sight observation from an observer's current position. In its simplest form, it consists of an outer case with mirrors at each end set parallel to each other at a 45° angle; this form of periscope, with the addition of two simple lenses, served for observation purposes in the trenches during World War I. Military personnel use periscopes in some gun turrets and in armoured vehicles. More complex periscopes using prisms or advanced fiber optics instead of mirrors and providing magnification operate on submarines and in various fields of science; the overall design of the classical submarine periscope is simple: two telescopes pointed into each other. If the two telescopes have different individual magnification, the difference between them causes an overall magnification or reduction. Johannes Gutenberg, known for his contribution to printing technology, marketed a kind of periscope in the 1430s to enable pilgrims to see over the heads of the crowd at the vigintennial religious festival at Aachen.
Johannes Hevelius described an early periscope with lenses in 1647 in his work Selenographia, sive Lunae descriptio. Hevelius saw military applications for his invention. In 1854, Hippolyte Marié-Davy invented the first naval periscope, consisting of a vertical tube with two small mirrors fixed at each end at 45°. Simon Lake used periscopes in his submarines in 1902. Sir Howard Grubb perfected the device in World War I. Morgan Robertson claimed to have tried to patent the periscope: he described a submarine using a periscope in his fictional works. Periscopes, in some cases fixed to rifles, served in World War I to enable soldiers to see over the tops of trenches, thus avoiding exposure to enemy fire; the periscope rifle saw use during the war - this was an infantry rifle sighted by means of a periscope, so the shooter could aim fire the weapon from a safe position below the trench parapet. During World War II, artillery observers and officers used specifically-manufactured periscope binoculars with different mountings.
Some of them allowed estimating the distance to a target, as they were designed as stereoscopic rangefinders. Tanks and armoured vehicles use periscopes: they enable drivers, tank commanders, other vehicle occupants to inspect their situation through the vehicle roof. Prior to periscopes, direct vision slits were cut in the armour for occupants to see out. Periscopes permit view outside of the vehicle without needing to cut these weaker vision openings in the front and side armour, better protecting the vehicle and occupants. A protectoscope is a related periscopic vision device designed to provide a window in armoured plate, similar to a direct vision slit. A compact periscope inside the protectoscope allows the vision slit to be blanked off with spaced armoured plate; this prevents a potential ingress point for small arms fire, with only a small difference in vision height, but still requires the armour to be cut. In the context of armoured fighting vehicles, such as tanks, a periscopic vision device may be referred to as an episcope.
In this context a periscope refers to a device that can rotate to provide a wider field of view, while an episcope is fixed into position. Periscopes may be referred to by slang, e.g. "shufti-scope". An important development, the Gundlach rotary periscope, incorporated a rotating top with a selectable additional prism which reversed the view; this allowed a tank commander to obtain a 360-degree field of view without moving his seat, including rear vision by engaging the extra prism. This design, patented by Rudolf Gundlach in 1936, first saw use in the Polish 7-TP light tank; as a part of Polish–British pre-World War II military cooperation, the patent was sold to Vickers-Armstrong where it saw further development for use in British tanks, including the Crusader, Churchill and Cromwell models as the Vickers Tank Periscope MK. IV; the Gundlach-Vickers technology was shared with the American Army for use in its tanks including the Sherman, built to meet joint British and US requirements. This saw post-war controversy through legal action: "After the Second World War and a long court battle, in 1947 he, received a large payment for his periscope patent from some of its producers."The USSR copied the design and used it extensively in its tanks (including the T-34 and T-70.
The copies were based on Lend-Lease British vehicles, many parts remain interchangeable. Germany made and used copies. Periscopic sights were introduced during the Second World War. In British use, the Vickers periscope was provided with sighting lines, enabling front and rear prisms to be directly aligned to gain an accurate direction. On tanks such as the Churchill and Cromwell, a marked episcope provided a backup sighting mechanism aligned with a vane sight on the turret roof. US-built Sherman tanks and British Centurion and Charioteer tanks replaced the main telescopic sight with a true periscopic sight in the primary role; the periscopic sight was linked to the gun itself. The sights formed part of the overall periscope, providing the gunner with greater overall vision than possible with the telescopic sight. In modern use, specialised periscopes can provide night vision; the Embedded Image Periscope designed and patented by Kent Periscopes provides standard unity vision periscope functionality for normal daytime viewing of the vehicle surroundings plus
HMS Warspite (S103)
The latest HMS Warspite was the third of Britain's nuclear-powered submarines, the second of the Valiant class. Entering service in 1967 and collided with a Soviet submarine in 1968. Following a mechanical failure associated with the submarine's nuclear reactor in 1991, the boat was laid up at HMNB Devonport and awaits disposal; the second Valiant-class submarine, to be called Warspite was ordered from Vickers-Armstrong's Barrow shipyard on 12 December 1962, was laid down on 10 December 1963. She was launched on 25 September 1965 by Mary Wilson, the wife of the British Prime Minister Harold Wilson, entered service on 18 April 1967. In October 1968 whilst following a Soviet boat identified as an Echo II-class submarine, Warspite collided with the stern and propellers of that boat. Warspite suffered damage to her fin but after surfacing to inspect damage was able to submerge and return home, sail to Barrow for proper repairs. In 2 May 1976, Warspite was alongside in Liverpool, when she suffered a fire in her diesel generator room, in one of the most serious incidents the Royal Navy's nuclear submarines have encountered.
The fire filled the aft end of the submarine with dense smoke, making it difficult for the submarine's crew to monitor the status of the reactor, Warspite's commanding officer considered scuttling the submarine in the event that a reactor accident did develop. The fire was extinguished with the aid of civilian firefighters from the Liverpool Fire Brigade after 41⁄2 hours; the submarine's Marine Engineering Officer, Lieutenant Commander Tim Cannon, was awarded the Queen's Gallantry Medal for his role in the response to the fire. Warspite underwent a two-year refit, nearing completion just as the Falklands War with Argentina started. After the war ended she carried out a record breaking patrol around the Falkland Islands and the Argentine coast, she was part of a BBC television documentory called Submarine. The submarine was decommissioned due to mechanical failure associated with the reactor in 1991. Operated out of HMNB Clyde, at Faslane with the Third Submarine Squadron, her hull and reactor are laid up afloat at Devonport Dockyard, Plymouth until facilities are available for the long term storage of her radioactive components.
Notable commanders of this vessel include Sandy Woodward. Woodward went on to command the Falklands Conflict battle group, became Commander-in-Chief Naval Home Command and rose to the rank of admiral. Ballantyne, Iain. Hunter Killers: The Dramatic Untold Story of the Royal Navy's Most Secret Service. London: Orion. ISBN 978-1-4091-3901-0. Blackman, Raymond V. B. Jane's Fighting Ships 1971–72. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co. Ltd. ISBN 0-354-00096-9. Hennesey, Peter; the Silent Deep: The Royal Navy Submarine Service since 1945. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-241-95948-0. Gardiner, Robert. Conway's All The World's Fighting Ships 1947–1995. Annapolis, Maryland, USA: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-132-7