Daring-class destroyer (1949)
The Daring class was a class of eleven destroyers built for the Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy. Constructed after World War II, entering service during the 1950s, eight ships were constructed for the RN, three ships for the RAN. Two of the RN destroyers were subsequently served in the Peruvian Navy. A further eight ships were planned for the RN but were cancelled before construction commenced, while a fourth RAN vessel was begun but was cancelled before launch and broken up on the slipway; the Daring-class ships were both the largest and most armed ships serving in Commonwealth navies to be classified as destroyers. They were intended to fill some of the duties of Cruisers, which post WW2 were considered both expensive and obsolete by Naval Planners, were officially considered a hybrid type before being rated as destroyers, they were the last destroyers of the RN and RAN to possess guns as their main armament, which saw use during the Indonesian Confrontation and the Vietnam War. The Daring-class destroyers were in service in the RAN from the 1950s to the 1980s.
Following decommissioning, two RN Darings were sold to Peru, which operated one ship until 1993 and the other until 2007. One ship of the class is preserved: HMAS Vampire as a museum ship at the Australian National Maritime Museum; the Darings were the largest destroyers built for the RN, having a displacement of 3,820 tonnes, a length of 390 feet, a beam of 43 feet, a draught of 12.75 feet. The Darings were the last conventional gun destroyers of the RN, were armed with the QF 4.5 inch /45 Mark V gun in three double mounts UD Mk. VI; the main armament was controlled by a director Mark VI fitted with Radar Type 275 on the bridge and a director CRBF aft with Radar Type 262 providing local control for'X' turret on aft arcs. Remote Power Control was provided for the main armament. Darings were capable of a rate of fire of 16 rounds per minute per gun, or about 100 rounds per minute overall, they were designed to ship three twin 40 mm /60 Bofors mounts STAAG Mark II, but the midships one was replaced by the lighter and more reliable twin Mount Mark V.
This meant that the Darings could engage two targets at long range and two at close range under automatic radar directed-control, an enormous improvement over their predecessors. Two of the Australian Darings were instead fitted with two single Bofors mounts. Radar Type 293 was carried on the foremast for target indication. Like the earlier Weapon class, the Darings had their machinery arranged on the'unit' principle, where boiler rooms and engine rooms alternated to increase survivability; the boilers utilised pressures and temperatures hitherto unheard of in the conservative Royal Navy, allowing great savings in weight and efficiency to be made. The wide spacing of the boilers resulted in spaced funnels; the forward funnel was trunked up through the lattice foremast with the after funnel a stump amidships. Neither was provided with a casing, resulting in a curious, rather unappealing appearance, although the utility of the funnels was considered by some to enhance the overall appearance. Attempts were made to improve the appearance by adding a streamline case to the funnel, but this was removed.
Of note was a new design of bridge, breaking with a lineage going back to the H-class destroyer of 1936. 3/8-inch armour plating was added to the turrets, the bridge and the fire control cable runs. The Royal Navy ships were built in two groups, one with the traditional DC electrical system and the remaining ships, with a modern AC system, they were known as the 5th Destroyer Squadrons, respectively. Two of the ships and Delight, were part of the Battle class, though only Delight was commissioned, they were to have been of all-welded construction, but Daring and Diana were built with a composite of welding and riveting. The Royal Australian Navy ordered four Daring-class destroyers, which were to be named after the ships of the "Scrap Iron Flotilla" of World War II; the ships were modified during construction: most changes were made to improve habitability, including the installation of air-conditioning. The Darings were the first all-welded ships to be constructed in Australia; the first Australian Daring was laid down in 1949.
By 1950, it was apparent that the Australian Darings would not be completed on time, as the Australian dockyards were experiencing difficulty in keeping up with the construction schedule. To compensate for this, the RAN unsuccessfully attempted to purchase two of the Darings under construction in the United Kingdom, considered acquiring ships from the United States Navy despite the logistical difficulties in supplying and maintaining American vessels in a predominately British-designed fleet. Only three ships were completed. By the time they were commissioned, the cost of each ship had increased from A£2.6 million to A£7 million. Eight further Daring-class destroyers ordered for the Royal Navy were cancelled on 27 December 1945: Danae, Delight, Dervish, Desire and Diana; the ships of this class ordered as Disdain, Dogstar and Druid were renamed as Delight, Defender and Diana to perpetuate the names of the original "D"-class flotilla of the 1930s. The fourth Australian Daring, to be named Waterhen was laid down
Royal Canadian Navy
The Royal Canadian Navy is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the unified Canadian Armed Forces; as of 2017, Canada's navy operates 12 frigates, 4 patrol submarines, 12 coastal defence vessels and 8 unarmed patrol/training vessels, as well as several auxiliary vessels. The Royal Canadian Navy consists of 8,500 Regular Force and 5,100 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by 5,300 civilians. Vice-Admiral Ron Lloyd is the current Commander of the Royal Canadian Navy and Chief of the Naval Staff. Founded in 1910 as the Naval Service of Canada and given royal sanction on 29 August 1911, the Royal Canadian Navy was amalgamated with the Royal Canadian Air Force and the Canadian Army to form the unified Canadian Armed Forces in 1968, after which it was known as "Maritime Command" until 2011. In 2011, its historical title of "Royal Canadian Navy" was restored. Over the course of its history, the RCN has served in the First and Second World Wars, the Korean War, the Persian Gulf War, the War in Afghanistan and numerous United Nations peacekeeping missions and NATO operations.
Established following the introduction of the Naval Service Act by Prime Minister Sir Wilfrid Laurier, the Naval Service of Canada was intended as a distinct naval force for Canada, should the need arise, could be placed under British control. The bill received royal assent on 4 May 1910. Equipped with two former Royal Navy vessels, HMCS Niobe and HMCS Rainbow, King George V granted permission for the service to be known as the Royal Canadian Navy on 29 August 1911. During the first years of the First World War, the RCN's six-vessel naval force patrolled both the North American west and east coasts to deter the German naval threat, with a seventh ship, HMCS Shearwater joining the force in 1915. Just before the end of the war in 1918, the Royal Canadian Naval Air Service was established with the purpose of carrying out anti-submarine operations. After the war, the Royal Canadian Navy took over certain responsibilities of the Department of Transport's Marine Service, started to build its fleet, with the first warships designed for the RCN being commissioned in 1932.
At the outbreak of the Second World War, the Navy had 145 officers and 1,674 men. During the Second World War, the Royal Canadian Navy expanded ultimately gaining responsibility for the entire Northwest Atlantic theatre of war. By the end of the war, the RCN had become the fifth-largest navy in the world after the United States Navy, the Royal Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy, the Soviet Navy, with over 900 vessels and 375 combat ships. During the Battle of the Atlantic, the RCN sank 31 U-boats and sank or captured 42 enemy surface vessels, while completing 25,343 merchant crossings; the Navy lost 1,797 sailors in the war. In 1940–41, the Royal Canadian Navy Reserves scheme for training yacht club members developed the first central registry system. From 1950 to 1955, during the Korean War, Canadian destroyers maintained a presence off the Korean peninsula, engaging in shore bombardments and maritime interdiction. During the Cold War, the Navy developed an anti-submarine capability to counter the growing Soviet naval threat.
In the 1960s, the Royal Canadian Navy retired most of its Second World War vessels, further developed its anti-submarine warfare capabilities by acquiring the Sikorsky CH-124 Sea King, pioneered the use of large maritime helicopters on small surface vessels. At that time, Canada was operating an aircraft carrier, HMCS Bonaventure, flying the McDonnell F2H Banshee fighter jet until 1962, as well as various other anti-submarine aircraft. From 1964 through 1968, under the Liberal government of Lester B. Pearson, the Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army were amalgamated to form the unified Canadian Forces; this process was overseen by then–Defence Minister Paul Hellyer. The controversial merger resulted in the abolition of the Royal Canadian Navy as a separate legal entity. All personnel and aircraft became part of Maritime Command, an element of the Canadian Armed Forces; the traditional naval uniform was eliminated and all naval personnel were required to wear the new Canadian Armed Forces rifle green uniform, adopted by former Royal Canadian Air Force and Canadian Army personnel.
Ship-borne aircraft continued to be under the command of MARCOM, while shore-based patrol aircraft of the former Royal Canadian Air Force were transferred to MARCOM. In 1975 Air Command was formed and all maritime aircraft were transferred to Air Command's Maritime Air Group; the unification of the Canadian Forces in 1968 was the first time that a nation with a modern military combined its separate naval and air elements into a single service. The 1970s saw the addition of four Iroquois-class destroyers, which were updated to air defence destroyers, in the late 1980s and 1990s the construction of twelve Halifax-class frigates and the purchase of the Victoria-class submarines. In 1990, Canada deployed three warships to support Operation Friction. In the decade, ships were deployed to patrol the Adriatic Sea during the Yugoslav Wars and the Kosovo War. More Maritime Command provided vessels to serve as a part of Operation Apollo and to combat piracy off the coast of Somalia. Following the Official Languages Act enshrinement in 1969, MARCOM instituted the French Language Unit, which constituted a francophone unit with the navy.
The first was HMCS Ottawa. In the 1980s and 1990s, women were accepted into the fleet, with the submarine service the last to allow them, beginning in 2001; some of the c
C and D-class destroyer
The C and D class was a group of 14 destroyers built for the Royal Navy in the early 1930s. As in previous years, it was intended to order a complete flotilla comprising eight destroyers—plus a flotilla leader as the ninth unit—in each year. However, only four ships—plus a leader—were ordered under the 1929–30 Programme as the C class; the other four ships planned for the C class were never ordered as an economy measure and disarmament gesture by the Labour government of Ramsay MacDonald. A complete flotilla—the'D' class—was ordered under the 1930–31 Programme; the five ships of the C class were assigned to Home Fleet upon their completion, although they reinforced the Mediterranean Fleet during the Italian invasion of Abyssinia of 1935–36 and enforced the Non-Intervention Agreement during the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39. They were transferred to the Royal Canadian Navy in 1937–39 and spent most of their time during World War II on convoy escort duties in the Atlantic Ocean. Crescent was sunk when she was accidentally rammed by the British cruiser HMS Calcutta in 1940.
Crusader was sunk by a German submarine in 1942, though she had sunk an Italian submarine in 1940. The other ships of the class sank three German submarines during the war, they were all worn out by the end of the war and were scrapped in 1946–47. The D-class destroyers were assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet upon commissioning, but were transferred to the China Station in 1935. Like the C class, most were temporarily deployed in the Red Sea when the Italians invaded Abyssinia, but returned to the China Station when, over, they were still there when the war reinforced the Mediterranean Fleet shortly afterwards. Five ships were transferred to Home Fleet in December 1939, but Duchess was sunk en route when she was accidentally rammed by the battleship HMS Barham, Duncan was badly damaged when she collided with a merchant ship, requiring lengthy repairs. Daring was sunk by a German submarine in February 1940; the other two participated in the Norwegian Campaign of April–June, but Delight was sunk by German aircraft in July and Diana was transferred to the RCN as a replacement for the Crescent after she was sunk by the cruiser Calcutta.
However, she too was rammed and sunk several months by a freighter that she was escorting. The four ships that remained with the Mediterranean Fleet sank three Italian submarines in 1940 while escorting Malta convoys and larger warships of the fleet. Several participated in the Battles of Cape Spartivento that year. Duncan escorted that group. Dainty was sunk by German bombers in February 1941 and Diamond in April while evacuating Allied personnel from Greece. Defender had to be scuttled in July when she was crippled by a German bomber when returning from escorting a convoy to Tobruk. Duncan and Decoy remained on escort duties for the rest of the year before being transferred to the Eastern Fleet in early 1942, they returned to the UK late in the year to begin conversions to escort destroyers. Decoy was transferred to the RCN in early 1943, they sank two German submarines before being assigned to the UK to protect Allied shipping during Operation Overlord. They sank three more submarines before the end of the war and were paid off in 1945.
Duncan was scrapped 1945–49 and Decoy during 1946. These ships were based on the preceding B class, but were enlarged to increase their endurance and to allow for the inclusion of a QF 3-inch 20 cwt anti-aircraft gun; this class introduced a director control tower for British destroyers. The'C' class were unique in having a split bridge, with the compass platform and wheelhouse separated from the chartroom and director tower; this unusual layout was not repeated. As per Admiralty policy in alternating Two-Speed Destroyer Sweep minesweeping gear and ASDIC capability between destroyer flotillas, the C class lacked ASDIC and were designed to carry only six depth charges; the D class were repeats of the C's, except that the TSDS was replaced by storage for up to 30 depth charges and ASDIC. The C and D-class destroyers displaced 1,375 long tons at standard load and 1,865 long tons at deep load; the ships had a beam of 33 feet and a draught of 12 feet 6 inches. They were powered by Parsons geared steam turbines, driving two shafts, which developed a total of 36,000 shaft horsepower and gave a maximum speed of 36 knots.
Steam for the turbines was provided by three Admiralty 3-drum water-tube boilers that operated at a pressure of 300 psi and a temperature of 600 °F. The destroyers carried a maximum of 473 long tons of fuel oil that gave them a range of 5,500 nautical miles at 15 knots, their complement was 145 men. Kempenfelt, leader of the C class, displaced 15 long tons more than her destroyers and carried an extra 30 personnel who formed the staff of the Captain, commanding officer of the flotilla. Unique among the C and D-class ships, she had three Yarrow water-tube boilers that operated at a pressure of 310 psi. Duncan, leader of the'D' class, displaced 25 long tons more than her destroyers and carried an extra 30 personnel. All of the ships of the class mounted four 45-calibre 4.7-inch Mk IX guns in single mounts, designated'A','B','X', and'Y' from front to rear. For anti-aircraft defence, they had a single QF 3-inch 20 cwt AA gun between her funnels; the C-class ships carried two 40-millimetre QF 2-pounder Mk II AA guns mounted on the aft end of their forecastle deck.
The D-class destroyers had been intended to carry the n
A cruiser is a type of warship. Modern cruisers are the largest ships in a fleet after aircraft carriers and amphibious assault ships, can perform several roles; the term has been in use for several hundred years, has had different meanings throughout this period. During the Age of Sail, the term cruising referred to certain kinds of missions – independent scouting, commerce protection, or raiding – fulfilled by a frigate or sloop-of-war, which were the cruising warships of a fleet. In the middle of the 19th century, cruiser came to be a classification for the ships intended for cruising distant waters, commerce raiding, scouting for the battle fleet. Cruisers came in a wide variety of sizes, from the medium-sized protected cruiser to large armored cruisers that were nearly as big as a pre-dreadnought battleship. With the advent of the dreadnought battleship before World War I, the armored cruiser evolved into a vessel of similar scale known as the battlecruiser; the large battlecruisers of the World War I era that succeeded armored cruisers were now classified, along with dreadnought battleships, as capital ships.
By the early 20th century after World War I, the direct successors to protected cruisers could be placed on a consistent scale of warship size, smaller than a battleship but larger than a destroyer. In 1922, the Washington Naval Treaty placed a formal limit on these cruisers, which were defined as warships of up to 10,000 tons displacement carrying guns no larger than 8 inches in calibre; some variations on the Treaty cruiser design included the German Deutschland-class "pocket battleships" which had heavier armament at the expense of speed compared to standard heavy cruisers, the American Alaska class, a scaled-up heavy cruiser design designated as a "cruiser-killer". In the 20th century, the obsolescence of the battleship left the cruiser as the largest and most powerful surface combatant after the aircraft carrier; the role of the cruiser varied according to ship and navy including air defense and shore bombardment. During the Cold War, the Soviet Navy's cruisers had heavy anti-ship missile armament designed to sink NATO carrier task forces via saturation attack.
The U. S. Navy built guided-missile cruisers upon destroyer-style hulls designed to provide air defense while adding anti-submarine capabilities, being larger and having longer-range surface-to-air missiles than early Charles F. Adams guided-missile destroyers tasked with the short-range air defense role. By the end of the Cold War, the line between cruisers and destroyers had blurred, with the Ticonderoga-class cruiser using the hull of the Spruance-class destroyer but receiving the cruiser designation due to their enhanced mission and combat systems. Indeed, the newest U. S. and Chinese destroyers are more armed than some of the cruisers that they succeeded. Only two nations operate cruisers: the United States and Russia, in both cases the vessels are armed with guided missiles. BAP Almirante Grau was the last gun cruiser in service, serving with the Peruvian Navy until 2017; the term "cruiser" or "cruizer" was first used in the 17th century to refer to an independent warship. "Cruiser" meant the mission of a ship, rather than a category of vessel.
However, the term was nonetheless used to mean a faster warship suitable for such a role. In the 17th century, the ship of the line was too large and expensive to be dispatched on long-range missions, too strategically important to be put at risk of fouling and foundering by continual patrol duties; the Dutch navy was noted for its cruisers in the 17th century, while the Royal Navy—and French and Spanish navies—subsequently caught up in terms of their numbers and deployment. The British Cruiser and Convoy Acts were an attempt by mercantile interests in Parliament to focus the Navy on commerce defence and raiding with cruisers, rather than the more scarce and expensive ships of the line. During the 18th century the frigate became the preeminent type of cruiser. A frigate was a small, long range armed ship used for scouting, carrying dispatches, disrupting enemy trade; the other principal type of cruiser was the sloop, but many other miscellaneous types of ship were used as well. During the 19th century, navies began to use steam power for their fleets.
The 1840s sloops. By the middle of the 1850s, the British and U. S. Navies were both building steam frigates with long hulls and a heavy gun armament, for instance USS Merrimack or Mersey; the 1860s saw the introduction of the ironclad. The first ironclads were frigates, in the sense of having one gun deck. In spite of their great speed, they would have been wasted in a cruising role; the French constructed a number of smaller ironclads for overseas cruising duties, starting with the Belliqueuse, commissioned 1865. These "station ironclads" were the beginning of the development of the armored cruisers, a type of ironclad for the traditional cruiser missions of fast, independent raiding and patrol; the first true armored cruiser was the Russian General-Admiral, completed in 1874, followed by the British Shannon a few years later. Until the 1890s armored cr
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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The Peruvian Navy is the branch of the Peruvian Armed Forces tasked with surveillance and defense on lakes and the Pacific Ocean up to 200 nautical miles from the Peruvian littoral. Additional missions include assistance in safeguarding internal security, conducting disaster relief operations and participating in international peacekeeping operations; the Marina de Guerra del Perú celebrates the anniversary of its creation in 1821 on October 8 and commemorates the decisive Battle of Angamos, the final part of the naval campaign of the War of the Pacific between Peru and Chile at the end of 1879. The Marina de Guerra del Perú was established on 8 October 1821 by the government of general José de San Martín, its first actions were undertaken during the War of Independence using captured Spanish warships. The Peruvian Naval Infantry was formed during the war with Spain, performing in their first battle where they seized Arica from the Spanish. Shortly afterwards it was engaged in the war against the Gran Colombia during which it conducted a blockade against the seaport of Guayaquil and helped with the occupation of this city by Peruvian forces.
It saw further action during the wars of the Peru-Bolivian Confederacy and during the Chincha Islands War with Spain. The breakout of the War of the Pacific caught the Peruvian Navy unprepared and with inferior forces in comparison with the Chilean Navy. So, hit-and-run tactics carried out by Peruvian Admiral Miguel Grau, commander of the ironclad Huáscar, delayed the Chilean advance by six months until his death and defeat at the Battle of Angamos. Following the War of the Pacific, the Peruvian Navy had to be rebuilt from the ground up. In 1900 the force amounted to only one cruiser of 1,700 tons displacement, a screw-driven steamer, ten smaller ships – the latter described by a contemporary British publication as "of no real value"; the lengthy process of expansion and rebuilding started in 1907 with the acquisition in the United Kingdom of the scout cruisers Almirante Grau and Coronel Bolognesi, followed by the arrival of two submarines, Ferré and Palacios, from France in 1911. During the Presidency of Augusto B.
Leguía a Navy Ministry was established as well as a Navy Aviation Corps, both in 1920. Border conflicts with Colombia in 1911 and 1932 and a war with Ecuador in 1941 saw Peruvian warships involved in some skirmishes in support of the Army; the attack on Pearl Harbor brought World War II to the Pacific and though Peru did not declare war on the Axis until 1945, its Navy was involved in patrol missions against possible threats by the Imperial Japanese Navy from early 1942 up to mid-1945. During the 1970s and the first half of the 1980s the Peruvian Navy carried out a major buildup programme which allowed it to take advantage over its traditional rival, the Chilean Navy; the navy purchased one cruiser the BAP Almirante Grau from the Netherlands, eight Carvajal-class frigates from Italy – four newly purchased and four ex-Lupo-class frigates – as well as six PR-72P-class corvettes from France. The buildup proved to be temporary due to the economic crisis of the second half of the 1980s, forcing the decommissioning of several warships and resulting in a general lack of funds for maintenance.
The economic upturn of the 1990s and into the 2000s would permit some improvement, although at a reduced force level compared to the early 1980s. Into the 21st century, the Peruvian Navy began to modernize their ships. In 2008, the Type 209/1100 submarines were modernized while the Carvajal-class frigates began to be modernized in 2011; the Type 209/1200 submarines began to be modernized in late-2017 beginning with the BAP Chipana. SIMA has continued to construct ships for the Navy. In 2013, SIMA partnered with Posco Daewoo Corporation and Daesun Shipbuilding of South Korea to construct two Makassar-class landing platform docks; the BAP Pisco launched on 25 April 2017, as well as the BAP Paita, under construction will provide Peru with increased expeditionary warfare capabilities, with the ability to accommodate multiple Landing Craft Vehicle Personnel, newly purchased LAV IIs and helicopters. In 2018, a modernization program was initiated to upgrade Peru's Type 209/1200 submarines, the BAP Chipana, BAP Angamos, BAP Antofagasta and BAP Pisagua, with a contract with ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems being made for further assistance with SIMA.
The current Commander-in-Chief of the Peruvian Navy is Admiral Nicolas Rios Polastri. Naval Forces are subordinated to the Ministry of Defense and to the President as Commander-in-Chief of the Peruvian Armed Forces, they are organized as follows: Comandancia General de la Marina Estado Mayor General de la Marina Inspectoría General de la Marina Operational units are divided between three commands: Comandancia General de Operaciones del PacíficoPacific Operations General Command, it comprises the following units: Fuerza de Superficie Fuerza de Submarinos Fuerza de Aviación Naval Fuerza de Infantería de Marina Fuerza de Operaciones Especiales Comandancia General de Operaciones de la AmazoníaAmazon Operations General Command, tasked with river patrolling in the Peruvian portion of the Amazon Basin. Dirección General de Capitanías y GuardacostasDirective General of Captains and Coast Guard, oversees Coast Guard operations Coast Guard, tasked with law enforcement on Peruvian territorial waters and lakes.
The Peruvian Coast Guard performs anti-drug traf
Rodrigues is a 108-square-kilometre autonomous outer island of the Republic of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean, about 560 kilometres east of Mauritius. It is part of the Mascarene Islands which include Réunion, it is of volcanic origin and is surrounded by coral reef, just off its coast lie some tiny uninhabited islands. The island used to be the tenth District of Mauritius; the capital of the island is Port Mathurin. Its inhabitants are Mauritian citizens; as of 2014, the island's population was about 41,669, according to Statistics Mauritius. Most of the inhabitants are of mixed European descent, its economy is based on fishing, handicraft and a developing tourism sector. The island forms part of the larger territory of the Republic of Mauritius with the President as head of state and the Chief Commissioner as head of government; the uninhabited island was named after the Portuguese explorer Diogo Rodrigues in February 1528. Many maps describe it as Diego Roiz. From the 10th century, Arabs have been known to visit the Mascarene Islands.
A 12th-century map by the Arab geographer Ash-Sharif al-Idrisi contains them, the Cantino planisphere of c.1500 and some other contemporary maps show the three islands of the Mascarenes as Dina Arobi, Dina Margabin and Dina Moraze. These are corrupted transliterations or transcriptions of the Arabic ديفا هاراب Diva Harab, ديفا مغربين Diva Maghrebin and ديفا ماشريق Diva Mashriq. While the second refers to Réunion, sources disagree about which of the other is Mauritius and which one Rodrigues, which are both to the east of Réunion and arranged in a somewhat stylised way on these maps; however in its original state, Rodrigues had some karst, while Mauritius after suffering 500 years of deforestation can by no means be called "desert" in a colloquial sense. The island was located again in February 1507. Part of the fleet of Afonso de Albuquerque and Tristão da Cunha, Diogo Fernandes Pereira's Cirne spotted Réunion on 9 February after a cyclone diverted their course; the other two islands were subsequently rediscovered.
The initial name was Diogo Fernandes. The orthography has been less stable at first, with the name being transcribed Diogo Rodriguez, Diego Roiz, Diego Ruys, Dygarroys or Bygarroys; some early French sources called it Île Marianne. Due to the island lying far off the beaten track of seafarers at that time, it received few visits. From 1601, the Dutch began visiting the island somewhat more for fresh supplies of food. In 1691, the Huguenot François Leguat and seven companions landed on the island, intending to set up a farming colony of Protestant refugees. Farming was not successful, but there was an abundance of tortoises, birds and other seafood. During the 18th century several attempts were made by the French to develop the island. African slaves were brought to Rodrigues to develop farming. In 1735 a permanent French settlement is established, subordinated to Île Bourbon. In 1809, after a brief battle with the French, English or British troops took possession of Rodrigues. After British occupation, slavery was abolished in 1834.
By 1843, population had declined to a low of 250. In 1883, the eruption of the Indonesian volcano Krakatoa was heard at Rodrigues Island and it remains the furthest point at 4,800 km, at which the explosion was heard; the sound was described as "the roar of heavy guns". Naval ships were ordered to investigate as it was feared the sound was due to a ship in distress firing its guns. Having been heard from about 5,000 km away on the other side of the Indian Ocean, the noise remains the loudest sound in recorded history. In 1968, Rodrigues was joined with Mauritius. In 1997, the 40-foot-long Russian yacht Admiral Nevelskoi was found in the lagoon of Rodrigues Island. Captained solo by professor Leonid Lysenko for the Russian Maritime State University as a research ship, the vessel's mast and rudder broke on a voyage in 1995, drifting for 21 days until Lysenko was rescued by the crew of the Ukrainian vessel Arkaja, at which time the Admiral Nevelskoi was abandoned. Lysenko was certain that the ship would sink, however the vessel continued to drift at sea without crew for over 2 years before washing up on Rodrigues, at which time it was removed from the water and brought ashore.
In 2010, Russian Hon. Eric Typhis Degtyarenko located the yacht and contacted the Maritime State University, at which time the ship was converted to a maritime museum in recognition as Russia's only link to the Indian Ocean. Rodrigues is a volcanic island rising from a ridge along the edge of the Mascarene Plateau; the tectonically active Rodrigues Triple Point lies on the sea-floor nearby. Rodrigues is only 1.5 million years old if the plateau under the lagoon surrounding Rodrigues may be much more ancient than the island. Over time Rodrigues has developed a unique environment, including many endemic species. Rodrigues is situated about 560 kilometres to the east of Mauritius, it is about 18 km long and 6.5 km (