Mount's Bay is a large, sweeping bay on the English Channel coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom, stretching from the Lizard Point to Gwennap Head. In the north of the bay, near Marazion, is St Michael's Mount. Though it looks to summer visitors like a large, scenic, natural harbour, in an onshore winter gale it presents a great danger to shipping and a "maritime trap" for sailing ships. There are more than 150 known wrecks from the nineteenth century in the area; the eastern side of the bay centred around Marazion and St Michael's Mount was designated as a Marine Conservation Zone in January 2016. Mount's Bay is the biggest bay in Cornwall, its half-moon shape is similar to that of Donegal Bay in Ireland and Cardigan Bay in Wales, unlike the aforementioned bays, Mount's Bay is sheltered from the prevailing Atlantic westerlies. However, it is a danger to shipping during onshore south-easterly gales; the coast is about 42 miles from Lizard Point to Gwennap Head. Heading north and west from Lizard Point, the serpentine and hornblende schist cliffs reach a maximum height of 71 m at Vellan Head and are only broken by small streams and coves such as at Kynance, Gew-grade and Mullion Cove.
After Gunwalloe Fishing Cove the cliffs have the softer look of Devonian Meneage Formations of greywacke and mélange, with erosion a problem either side of the dammed ria of Loe Pool. West of Porthleven there are high Devonian slate and granite cliffs to Rinsey Head after which the cliffs are topped by Pleistocene periglacial head and have eroded to form sandy beaches such as those at Praa Sands and Kenneggy; these beaches are in deficit and the cliff line is retreating. With the exception of the harder Devonian dolerite and gabbro of Cudden Point, the low, eroding cliffs and beaches continue to Mousehole; this part of the bay is the most populated with the towns of Penzance and Marazion and the villages of Newlyn and Mousehole. Beyond Mousehole the granite cliffs, rise to 60 m, are broken by small streams such as at Lamorna Cove and Penberth. There are small sand dune systems at Church Cove and Poldhu Cove, Porthleven Sands, Praa Sands and from Marazion to Eastern Green, Penzance; the former sand dunes of the Western Green are now covered by Penzance promenade.
All, but Marazion to Penzance, are examples of bay dune systems which develop where there is a limited supply of sand trapped within the shelter of two rocky headlands. Church and Poldhu Coves are SSSI and have associated climbing dunes which occur when sand is blown inland of the main dune system. Evidence of higher sea-levels in the past can be seen at Marazion where the town is built on a raised beach. A second example is the road between Mousehole. Sea levels rise and fall as the ice sheets advance and retreat, raised beaches now mark the interglacial periods when sea levels were higher. Either side of Penzance, on the beaches at Ponsandane and Wherrytown, evidence of a'submerged forest' can be seen at low tide in the form of several fossilised tree trunks. Gwavas Lake is an area of calm water, situated outside the current harbour area of Newlyn; the natural protection afforded by the Gwavas Lake led to many Newlyn fishermen using this area as a preferred landing site. Offshore surveys have found submerged erosional plains and valleys containing deposits of peat and gravel.
The deposits indicate cyclical changes from wetland, to coastal forest, to brackish conditions have been occurring over the past 12,000 years as sea levels rose. With the melting of ice-sheets and glaciers after the last ice age, sea levels reached their present levels about 6,000 years ago during what is known as the Flandrian Marine Trangression. Either side of Penzance, on the beaches at Ponsandane and Wherrytown, evidence of a ′submerged forest′ can be seen at low tide in the form of several fossilised tree trunks. Divers and trawlers find submerged tree trunks across Mount’s Bay and the forest may have covered a coastal plain 2 to 5 kilometres further south than today; the samples of peat and wood around Penzance have been radiocarbon dated and indicate that the forest was growing from at least 6,000 to around 4,000 years ago when rising sea levels killed the trees. Artefacts dating from the Mesolithic have been found indicating some occupation contemporary with the forest. Marshes formed and were overlain by sand, gravel and by sand dunes which formed natural barriers to the sea.
Storms sometimes destroyed the barriers depositing sand and gravel over peat beds in Marazion Marsh, in the foundations of many buildings in Wherrytown and Long Rock. The remains of these natural barriers can still be seen at Eastern Green and the dunes to the seaward of Marazion Marsh; the submerged forest in the intertidal area between Wherrytown and Long Rock is of national importance and is a Cornwall Geology Site. At Loe Pool a barrier dammed the ria of the River Cober causing the formation of Cornwall's largest lake. Little of the Loe Bar shingle is locally derived and the deposits have been tentatively dated as Eocene; the composition of the bar deposits are: chalk flint 86%, quartz 9%, grit 2.6%, greensand chert 2% and serpentine 0.5%. The shingle coming from drowned terraces of the former river that flowed down the English Channel. Longshore drift is unlikely to have caused the formation because the bar is situated between two headlands but it plays an important part in the maintenance of the bar, with a strong current flowing to the south-east from Porthleven to Gunwalloe, depositing shing
The Irish Sea separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain. Anglesey, Wales, is the largest island in the Irish Sea; the second in size is the Isle of Man and the sea may but be referred to as the Manx Sea. The Irish Sea is of significant economic importance to regional trade and transport, power generation in the form of wind power and nuclear power plants. Annual traffic between Great Britain and Ireland amounts to over 12 million passengers and 17 million tonnes of traded goods; the Irish Sea is connected to the North Atlantic at both its southern ends. To the north, the connection is through the North Channel between Scotland and Northern Ireland and the Malin Sea; the southern end is linked to the Atlantic through the St George's Channel between Ireland and Pembrokeshire, the Celtic Sea. It is composed of a deeper channel about 190 miles long and 20–30 miles wide on its western side and shallower bays to the east; the western channel's depth ranges from 80 metres up to 275 m in the Beaufort's Dyke in the North Channel.
Cardigan Bay in the south, the waters to the east of the Isle of Man, are less than 50 m deep. With a total water volume of 2,430 km3 and a surface area of 47,000 km2, 80% is to the west of the Isle of Man; the largest sandbanks are the Bahama and King William Banks to the east and north of the Isle of Man and the Kish Bank, Codling Bank, Arklow Bank and Blackwater Bank near the coast of Ireland. The Irish Sea, at its greatest width, narrows to 47 miles; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Irish Sea as follows, On the North. The Southern limit of the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland, defined as a line joining the South extreme of the Mull of Galloway in Scotland and Ballyquintin Point in Northern Ireland. On the South. A line joining St. David's Head in Wales to Carnsore Point in Ireland; the Irish Sea has undergone a series of dramatic changes over the last 20,000 years as the last glacial period ended and was replaced by warmer conditions. At the height of the glaciation, the central part of the modern sea was a long freshwater lake.
As the ice retreated 10,000 years ago, the lake reconnected to the sea. Ireland has no bridge connection to Great Britain. Northern Ireland ports handle 10 million tonnes of goods trade with the rest of the United Kingdom annually; the Port of Liverpool handles 734 thousand passengers a year. Holyhead port handles most of the passenger traffic from Dublin and Dún Laoghaire ports, as well as 3.3 million tonnes of freight. Ports in the Republic handle 3,600,000 travellers crossing the sea each year, amounting to 92% of all Irish Sea travel. Ferry connections from Wales to Ireland across the Irish Sea include Fishguard Harbour and Pembroke to Rosslare, Holyhead to Dún Laoghaire and Holyhead to Dublin. From Scotland, Cairnryan connects with both Larne. There is a connection between Liverpool and Belfast via the Isle of Man or direct from Birkenhead; the world's largest car ferry, Ulysses, is operated by Irish Ferries on the Dublin Port–Holyhead route. "Irish Sea" is the name of one of the BBC's Shipping Forecast areas defined by the coordinates: 54°50′N 05°05′W 54°45′N 05°45′W 52°30′N 06°15′W 52°00′N 05°05′WTransport for Wales Rail, Iarnród Éireann, Irish Ferries, Stena Line, Northern Ireland Railways, Stena Line and Abellio ScotRail promote SailRail with through rail tickets for the train and the ferry.
The Caernarfon Bay basin contains up to 7 cubic kilometres of Permian and Triassic syn-rift sediments in an asymmetrical graben, bounded to the north and south by Lower Paleozoic massifs. Only two exploration wells have been drilled so far, there remain numerous undrilled targets in tilted fault block plays; as in the East Irish Sea Basin, the principal target reservoir is the Lower Triassic, Sherwood Sandstone, top-sealed by younger Triassic mudstones and evaporites. Wells in the Irish Sector to the west have demonstrated that pre-rift, Westphalian coal measures are excellent hydrocarbon source rocks, are at peak maturity for gas generation. Seismic profiles image these strata continuing beneath a basal Permian unconformity into at least the western part of the Caernarfon Bay Basin; the timing of gas generation presents the greatest exploration risk. Maximum burial of, primary gas migration from, the source rocks could have terminated as early as the Jurassic, whereas many of the tilted fault blocks were reactivated or created during Paleogene inversion of the basin.
However, it is possible that a secondary gas charge occurred during regional heating associated with intrusion of Paleogene dykes, such as those that crop out nearby on the coastline of north Wales. (Floodpage et al
Anti-submarine warfare is a branch of underwater warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find and deter, damage, or destroy enemy submarines. Successful anti-submarine warfare depends on a mix of sensor and weapon technology and experience. Sophisticated sonar equipment for first detecting classifying and tracking the target submarine is a key element of ASW. To destroy submarines, both torpedos and naval mines are used, launched from air and underwater platforms. ASW involves protecting friendly ships; the first attacks on a ship by an underwater vehicle are believed to have been during the American Revolutionary War, using what would now be called a naval mine but what was called a torpedo, though various attempts to build submarines had been made before this. The first self-propelled torpedo was launched from surface craft; the first submarine with a torpedo was Nordenfelt I built in 1884-1885, though it had been proposed earlier. By the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War all the large navies except the German had acquired submarines.
In 1904 all still defined the submarine as an experimental vessel and did not put it into operational use. There were no means to detect submerged U-boats, attacks on them were limited at first to efforts to damage their periscopes with hammers; the Royal Navy torpedo establishment, HMS Vernon, studied explosive grapnel sweeps. A similar approach featured a string of 70 lb charges on a floating cable, fired electrically. Tried were dropping 18.5 lb hand-thrown guncotton bombs. The Lance Bomb was developed, also. Firing Lyddite shells, or using trench mortars, was tried. Use of nets to ensnare U-boats was examined, as was a destroyer, HMS Starfish, fitted with a spar torpedo. To attack at set depths, aircraft bombs were attached to lanyards. Problems with the lanyards tangling and failing to function led to the development of a chemical pellet trigger as the Type B; these were effective at a distance of around 20 ft. The best concept arose in a 1913 RN Torpedo School report, describing a device intended for countermining, a "dropping mine".
At Admiral John Jellicoe's request, the standard Mark II mine was fitted with a hydrostatic pistol preset for 45 ft firing, to be launched from a stern platform. Weighing 1,150 lb, effective at 100 ft, the "cruiser mine" was a potential hazard to the dropping ship. During the First World War, submarines were a major threat, they operated in North Sea, Black Sea and Mediterranean as well as the North Atlantic. They had been limited to calm and protected waters; the vessels used to combat them were a range of fast surface ships using guns and good luck. They relied on the fact a submarine of the day was on the surface for a range of reasons, such as charging batteries or crossing long distances; the first approach to protect warships was chainlink nets strung from the sides of battleships, as defense against torpedoes. Nets were deployed across the mouth of a harbour or naval base to stop submarines entering or to stop torpedoes of the Whitehead type fired against ships. British warships were fitted with a ram with which to sink submarines, U-15 was thus sunk in August 1914.
RN in June 1915 began operational trials of the Type D depth charge, with a 300 lb charge of TNT and a hydrostatic pistol, firing at either 40 or 80 ft, believed to be effective at a distance of 140 ft. In July 1915, the British Admiralty set up the Board of Invention and Research to evaluate suggestions from the public as well as carrying out their own investigations; some 14,000 suggestions were received about combating submarines. In December 1916, the RN set up its own Anti-Submarine Division but relations with the BIR were poor. After 1917 most ASW work was carried out by ASD. In the U. S. a Naval Consulting Board was set up in 1915 to evaluate ideas. After American entry into the war in 1917, they encouraged work on submarine detection; the U. S. National Research Council, a civilian organization, brought in British and French experts on underwater sound to a meeting with their American counterparts in June 1917. In October 1918, there was a meeting in Paris on "supersonics", a term used for echo-ranging, but the technique was still in research by the end of the war.
The first recorded sinking of a submarine by depth charge was U-68, sunk by Q-ship HMS Farnborough off Kerry, Ireland 22 March 1916. By early 1917, the Royal Navy had developed indicator loops which consisted of long lengths of cables lain on the seabed to detect the magnetic field of submarines as they passed overhead. At this stage they were used in conjunction with controlled mines which could be detonated from a shore station once a'swing' had been detected on the indicator loop galvanometer. Indicator loops used with controlled mining were known as'guard loops'. By July 1917, depth charges had developed to the extent that settings of between 50–200 ft were possible; this design would remain unchanged through
Lizard Point, Cornwall
Lizard Point in Cornwall is at the southern tip of the Lizard Peninsula. It is situated half-a-mile south of Lizard village in the civil parish of Landewednack and about 11 miles southeast of Helston. Lizard Point is the most southerly point on mainland Great Britain at 49° 57' 30" N. With the exception of parts of the Isles of Scilly, it is the southernmost part of England. Lizard Point is for many ships the starting point of their ocean passage and a notorious shipping hazard; the Lizard Lighthouse is situated at Lizard Point. Below the lighthouse, situated in what used to be a hotel, is the YHA Lizard Youth Hostel. Lizard Point is situated within Caerthillian to Kennack SSSI, noted for its biological and geological interest. Polpeor Cove is a small cove to the east of Lizard Point; the area is famous for its carved serpentine items, which range from ornaments to the pump handles in the local public house, the Lizard Inn. The geology of Lizard can be interesting to some, with a number of planned walks available from local tourist authorities to discover more about the local rocks.
The first sighting of the Spanish Armada on mainland Britain was off Lizard Point at 3 pm on 29 July 1588. This was one of the greatest invasion fleets in history and consisted of 120 ships armed with over 1,000 cannon and with 29,000 men on board; the Battle at the Lizard, a naval battle, took place off The Lizard on 21 October 1707. The bulk coaster carrier MV Ardgarry was lost in a heavy storm, in over 30 ft high waves, off Lizard Point on 29 December 1962. All 12 crewmen were never found, she was built by James Lamont & Co at the Port Glasgow shipyard, was 221-feet long and weighed 1,074-tons gross. The Ardgarry was headed to Rouen in France. Six of the crew were from Northern Ireland, five from Scotland, one from Donegal in the Republic of Ireland. Found again in 2006, the ship's bell was recovered, a memorial service was held by family members in August 2008. All of the crewmen's families were there except one, First Engineer William Shumacher, of Brougham Street, Greenock. No trace of his family has been found.
On 15 January 2004 the French fishing trawler Bugaled Breizh sank off Lizard Point with the loss of five lives. There were claims at the time by French marine accident experts that the vessel may have been pulled under when her nets became entangled in a British or Dutch submarine, conducting NATO exercises in the area at the time; the Royal National Lifeboat Institution operates The Lizard lifeboat station at Kilcobben Cove, two miles northeast of Lizard Point. A Tyne class lifeboat is housed in a large boathouse at the base of the cliff; the station features a funicular line to transport lifeboat crews from the boathouse to the clifftop station car park. The biggest rescue in the RNLI's history was 17 March 1907 when the 12,000 tonne liner SS Suevic hit the Maenheere Reef near Lizard Point. In a strong gale and dense fog RNLI lifeboat volunteers rescued 456 passengers, including seventy babies. Crews from The Lizard, Cadgwith and Porthleven rowed out for sixteen hours to rescue all of the people on board.
Six silver RNLI medals were awarded, two to Suevic crew members. Land's End, westernmost point of mainland England Marshall Meadows Bay, northernmost point of England Ness Point, easternmost point of England
Commander-in-Chief, Western Approaches
Commander-in-Chief, Western Approaches was the commander of a major operational command of the Royal Navy during World War II. The admiral commanding, his forces, sometimes informally known as'Western Approaches Command,' were responsible for the safety of British shipping in the Western Approaches. Admiral Martin Dunbar-Nasmith, Commander-in-Chief, Plymouth took over responsibility for the Western Approaches from the start of World War II. After the fall of France in June 1940, the main North Atlantic convoy routes were diverted around the north of Ireland through the north-western approaches. By late 1940, the location of the Combined Operations headquarters at Plymouth was awkward and the decision was taken to move the Combined Operations headquarters to Liverpool. On 7 February 1941, the headquarters was established at Derby House, with a secondary control bunker built in Magee College, Derry; the headquarters of No. 15 Group RAF moved to Liverpool at the same time. On 17 February 1941 Admiral Sir Percy Noble was appointed as the new Commander-in-Chief, Western Approaches Command.
Over the next two years, Admiral Noble built up the bases for the North Atlantic escort groups at Greenock on the Clyde and Liverpool and set up the training facilities that were the foundations for eventual victory in the Battle of the Atlantic. On 19 November 1942, Admiral Max Horton replaced Admiral Noble. Horton’s leadership played a vital role in the final defeat of the U-boat menace. Horton used the increasing number of escorts that were available to the command to organize "support groups" that were used to reinforce convoys that came under attack. Unlike the regular escort groups, the support groups were not directly responsible for the safety of any particular convoy; this freedom gave them much greater tactical flexibility, allowing the support groups to detach ships to hunt submarines spotted by reconnaissance or picked up by high-frequency direction finding. In situations where the regular escorts would have had to return to their convoy, the support groups were able to persist in hunting a submarine for many hours until it was forced to the surface.
The reinforced central core of the command bunker at Derby House proved too costly to demolish, so whilst the rest of the building has been converted to modern offices, the bunker has been restored as a museum, open to the public. The areas open to visitors are only a small part of the original complex; the museum is known as the Western Approaches Museum. Following years of neglect, the site was taken over by non-profit organisation Big Heritage in 2017, which saw an extensive restoration of the site and the discovery of new hidden parts of the bunker complex; the reopened site has seen a large increase in visitor numbers, now ranks as one of the most popular historic sites in Liverpool. Commanders-in-Chief included: Anti-submarine warfare U-boat Battle of the Atlantic Western Approaches - Liverpool War Museum - official site
HMS Blackwood (K313)
HMS Blackwood was a Captain-class frigate of the Evarts-class of destroyer escort commissioned to be built for the U. S. Navy. Before she was finished in 1942, she was transferred to the Royal Navy under the terms of Lend-Lease, saw service during the Second World War. Blackwood was built by Boston Navy Yard, United States and commissioned into the Royal Navy on 27 March 1943, she saw service as a convoy escort. On 23 November 1943 she and the frigates HMS Bazely and HMS Drury sank the U-boat U-648 north-east of the Azores, two days on 25 November Bazely and Blackwood sank U-600 north of Punta Delgada. Blackwood was part of the 4th Escort Group and was on patrol in the western approaches to the English Channel on 15 June 1944, covering ships bound for the allied invasion of Normandy when she was sighted by U-764, which fired a Gnat at her. Blackwood was damaged, killing 57 of the crew, she foundered off Portland Bill the following day. The wreck lies in position 50°07′00″N 02°01′06″W. in 60 meters of water, is designated as a protected place under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986.
Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. OCLC 67375475. HMS Blackwood at Uboat.net HMS Blackwood at Captain class frigate association MoD announcement of designation
Poole is a large coastal town and seaport in Dorset, on the south coast of England. The town is 33 kilometres east of Dorchester, adjoins Bournemouth to the east. Since 1 April 2019 the local authority is Bournemouth and Poole Council, a unitary authority. Poole had an estimated population of 151,500 making it the second largest town in ceremonial county of Dorset. Together with Bournemouth and Christchurch, Poole has a total population of over 465,000. Human settlement in the area dates back to before the Iron Age; the earliest recorded use of the town's name was in the 12th century when the town began to emerge as an important port, prospering with the introduction of the wool trade. The town had important trade links with North America and, at its peak during the 18th century, it was one of the busiest ports in Britain. In the Second World War, Poole was one of the main departing points for the Normandy landings. Poole is a tourist resort, attracting visitors with its large natural harbour, the Lighthouse arts centre and Blue Flag beaches.
The town has a commercial port with cross-Channel passenger ferry services. The headquarters of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution are in Poole, the Royal Marines have a base in the town's harbour. Despite their names, Poole is the home of The Arts University Bournemouth, the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra and a significant part of Bournemouth University; the town's name derives from a corruption of the Celtic word bol and the Old English word pool meaning a place near a pool or creek. Variants include Pool, Poles, Polle and Poolman; the area around modern Poole has been inhabited for the past 2,500 years. During the 3rd century BC, Celts known as the Durotriges moved from hilltop settlements at Maiden Castle and Badbury Rings to heathland around the River Frome and Poole Harbour; the Romans landed at Poole during their conquest of Britain in the 1st century and took over an Iron Age settlement at Hamworthy, an area just west of the modern town centre. In Anglo-Saxon times, Poole was included in the Kingdom of Wessex.
The settlement was used as a base for fishing and the harbour a place for ships to anchor on their way to the River Frome and the important Anglo-Saxon town of Wareham. Poole experienced two large-scale Viking invasions during this era: in 876, Guthrum sailed his fleet through the harbour to attack Wareham, in 1015, Canute began his conquest of England in Poole Harbour, using it as a base to raid and pillage Wessex. Following the Norman conquest of England, Poole grew into a busy port as the importance of Wareham declined; the town was part of the manor of Canford, but does not exist as an identifiable entry in the Domesday Book. The earliest written mention of Poole occurred on a document from 1196 describing the newly built St James's Chapel in "La Pole"; the Lord of the Manor, Sir William Longspée, sold a charter of liberties to the burgesses of Poole in 1248 to raise funds for his participation in the Seventh Crusade. Poole gained a small measure of freedom from feudal rule and acquired the right to appoint a mayor and hold a court within town.
Poole's growing importance was recognised in 1433 when it was awarded staple port status by King Henry VI, enabling the port to begin exporting wool and in turn granting a licence for the construction of a town wall. In 1568, Poole gained further autonomy when it was granted legal independence from Dorset and made a county corporate by the Great Charter of Elizabeth I. During the English Civil War, Poole's puritan stance and its merchants' opposition to the ship money tax introduced by King Charles I led to the town declaring for Parliament. Poole escaped any large-scale attack and with the Royalists on the brink of defeat in 1646, the Parliamentary garrison from Poole laid siege to and captured the nearby Royalist stronghold at Corfe Castle. Poole established successful commerce with the North American colonies in the 16th century, including the important fisheries of Newfoundland. Trade with Newfoundland grew to meet the demand for fish from the Catholic countries of Europe. Poole's share of this trade varied but the most prosperous period started in the early 18th century and lasted until the early 19th century.
The trade followed a three-cornered route. By the early 18th century Poole had more ships trading with North America than any other English port and vast wealth was brought to Poole's merchants; this prosperity supported much of the development which now characterises the Old Town where many of the medieval buildings were replaced with Georgian mansions and terraced housing. The end of the Napoleonic Wars and the conclusion of the War of 1812 ended Britain's monopoly over the Newfoundland fisheries and other nations took over services provided by Poole's merchants at a lower cost. Poole's Newfoundland trade declined and within a decade most merchants had ceased trading; the town grew during the industrial revolution as urbanisation took place and the town became an area of mercantile prosperity and overcrowded poverty. At the turn of the 19th century, nine out of ten workers were engaged in harbour activities, but as the century progressed ships became too large for the shallow harbour and the port lost business to the deep water ports at Liverpool and Plymouth.
Poole's first railway station opened in Hamworthy in 1847 and extended to the centre of Poole in 1872 ending the port's busy coastal shipping trade. The beaches and landscape of southern Dorset and south-west Hampshire began to attract tourists during