The Key (1958 film)
The Key is a 1958 British war film set in 1941 during the Battle of the Atlantic. It was based on the 1951 novel Stella by Jan de Hartog and was directed by Sir Carol Reed, William Holden, Sophia Loren and Trevor Howard starred in the production. The key to a flat in wartime Britain may augur bad luck for a succession of tug captains of the Royal Navy whose task is to rescue crippled ships in U-boat Alley. As each takes possession from his predecessor, the flats other occupant. The latest captain struggles with his fears and affection for its apparent jinx. The slow, poorly armed tugs bring in lame ducks, freighters crippled near Britain by German attacks, the main danger is from U-boats and aircraft. David is reunited with an old friend, Captain Chris Ford, Chris takes David with him and they are attacked twice. That night Chris brings him home to his flat to meet his lover and she had been engaged to Philip Westerby, another tugboat captain, but he was killed the day before their wedding. A friend of Chriss, Van Barger, took possession of the hard-to-find flat, knowing the extreme danger of his job, Van Barger gave a copy of his key to the flat to Chris, so that Stella would be taken care of no matter what.
When Chris chooses David to be the next in line, he tries to refuse, shaken by his recent close call, Chris proposes marriage to Stella, who accepts. However, she has a premonition that he not be coming back from his next mission. At first, David refuses to move in, when he eventually does, he is surprised that Stella does not share his bed, but as time goes by, she falls in love with him, unlike the others. She puts away her photograph of Philip, gets rid of the uniforms of Davids predecessors and she leaves her flat for the first time since Philip was killed. Finally, she asks David to marry her, and he gladly accepts, with the U. S. entry into the war, an American freighter becomes Davids next assignment, even though it is Van Dams turn. Its inexperienced crew sends out a continuous S. O. S, contrary to sealed orders, revealing the ships position to the enemy. When David finds out the situation, he tries unsuccessfully to refuse what amounts to a suicide mission, knowing his chances, he gives his key to the new captain of another tugboat, Chriss former mate, Kane.
Davids tug is attacked by a U-boat and hit numerous times and he orders the crew to abandon ship, rams the submarine. After being rescued, David hurries back to the flat, but Kane is already there, when she sees him alive, she screams at him to get out, hurt to the core by his betrayal in passing on the key
Scotch marine boiler
A Scotch marine boiler is a design of steam boiler best known for its use on ships. The general layout is that of a horizontal cylinder. One or more large cylindrical furnaces are in the part of the boiler shell. Above this is a number of small-diameter fire-tubes. Gases and smoke from the pass to the back of the boiler, return through the small tubes and up. The ends of these tubes are capped by a smokebox. The Scotch boiler is a boiler, in that hot flue gases pass through tubes set within a tank of water. As such, it is a descendant of the earlier Lancashire boiler and it differs from the Lancashire in two aspects, a large number of small-diameter tubes are used to increase the ratio of heating area to cross-section. Secondly, the length of the boiler is halved by folding the gas path back on itself. The far end of the furnace is a box called the combustion chamber which extends upwards to link up with the firetubes. The front wall of the chamber is supported against steam pressure by the tubes themselves.
The rear face is stayed by rod stays through the shell of the boiler. Above the combustion chamber and tubes is a steam collecting space. Larger long rod stays run the length of the boiler through this space, with multiple furnaces, there is a separate combustion chamber for each furnace. A few small boilers did connect them into one chamber, a more serious problem is the risk of reversing the draught, where exhaust from one furnace could blow back and out of the adjacent one, injuring the stokers working in front of it. The first recorded boiler of comparable form was used in a railway locomotive, the novel feature of an entirely internal combustion chamber was used. Unlike the Scotch boiler though, this was self-supported by its own stays and this allowed the entire assembly of outer tubeplate, furnace tube, combustion chamber and firetubes to all be removed from the boiler shell as one unit, simplifying manufacture and maintenance. Although a valuable feature, this impractical for larger diameter chambers that would require the support of the shell
Blyth is a town and civil parish in southeast Northumberland, England. It lies on the coast, to the south of the River Blyth and is approximately 13 miles northeast of Newcastle upon Tyne and it has a population of about 37,339. The port of Blyth dates from the 12th century, but the development of the town only began in the first quarter of the 18th century. The main industries which helped the town prosper were coal mining and shipbuilding, with the trade, fishing. These industries have vanished, but the port still thrives, shipping paper. The town was affected when its principal industries went into decline. The Keel Row Shopping Centre, opened in 1991, brought major high street retailers to Blyth, the market place has recently been re-developed, with the aim of attracting further investment to the town. The Quayside has seen much redevelopment and has transformed into a peaceful open space. There were, on the side of the river are the nine wind turbines of the Blyth Harbour Wind Farm. They were joined in 2000 by Blyth Offshore Wind Farm, which is composed of two turbines situated 1 kilometre out to sea.
Although the original 9 turbines have now been demolished, there is one bigger turbine on the North Blyth side with building work taking place on a second turbine. Blyth is home to the football club Blyth Spartans. The place-name Blyth is first attested in 1130 as Blida, the river-name comes from the Old English adjective blithe meaning gentle or merry, and still used today. Interestingly, the town of Blyth is referred to as Blithmuth in 1236, had this name persisted, the town would today be referred to as Blythmouth, on the analogy of Tynemouth to the south. Little is known of the development of the Blyth area. The oldest archaeological find is an antler hammer dating from the late Neolithic or early Bronze Age period, which was found at Newsham in 1979. Human skulls, a spearhead and a sword dating from the Bronze Age were found in the river in 1890, as well as an axe which was found at South Beach in 1993. Debate surrounds a mosaic which was found near Bath Terrace, the strongest evidence so far has been a single coin, dating from the reign of the Emperor Constans, which was found during excavations for a dry dock
Glenlee is a steel-hulled three-masted barque, built in 1896 for Glasgow owners, trading as a cargo ship. From 1922 she was a training ship in the Spanish Navy. She is now a museum ship at the Riverside Museum on Pointhouse Quay and she has a hull length of 245.5 ft, beam of 37.5 ft and depth of 22.5 ft, the over-all length with the spike bowsprit is 282 ft. She has 1,613 GRT and 1,490 NRT, rigged only with double topgallant sails over double top sails, she was not equipped with royal sails to save costs concerning gear and seamen. As with many baldheaded sailing ships the square sails were a wider than the sails of a standard rigging to gain sail area for a better propulsion. On 13 December 1896, just ten days after she was launched fully rigged and seaworthy, her maiden voyage brought her in ballast to Liverpool and from there with a cargo to Portland. Islamount was renamed the Clarastella in 1919 when she changed hands to the Star of Italy Italian Shipping Company of Milan who registered her in Genoa, the new owner had her repaired and equipped with two auxiliary diesel engines.
In 1922 the ship came into the hands of the Officers Military Navy School as Galatea to be used as a training ship. During this period the ship underwent a lot of changes to her hull, a flying bridge was installed on the poop deck, a flying jibboom was attached to the spike bowsprit, and many other changes such as the installation of accommodation facilities for 300 cadets. In April 1931 she became part of the Spanish Republican Navy, at the time of the coup of July 1936 she was at sea and reached Ferrol, a harbour that had been taken by the Nationalist faction. After more than 47 years of service as a sail and on as a training ship she was first laid up in A Graña, Ferrol. In 1981 the underwater hull was re-plated at the drydock in Ferrol, Galatea was completely de-rigged down to a hulk and was towed to Seville to be used as a floating museum, but left forgotten. Some sources even reported that the ship was sunk in the harbour by removing her bronze sea cock valve, in any case, the ship was in such poor condition that it was eventually decided to scrap her.
In 1990 a British naval architect discovered the ship and in 1993 she was rescued from being scrapped, after making the hull seaworthy the ship was returned to Glasgow months in tow from Seville. Except for the hull a new ship had to be rebuilt. All the changes made to the ship by the Spanish and previous owners had to be removed, such as all the cabins built for the trainees, Glenlee is now recognised as part of the National Historic Fleet. As a museum ship and tourist attraction, Glenlee offers educational programmes, events including exhibitions and is a venue for the West End Festival and volunteering opportunities. Since June 2011, the ship has been open at Glasgows new Riverside Museum. oktett. net The Tall Ship, Glenlee - Clyde Waterfront Heritage
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdoms naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the medieval period. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century, from the middle decades of the 17th century and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century it was the worlds most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War. The Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the world power during the 19th. Due to this historical prominence, it is common, even among non-Britons, following World War I, the Royal Navy was significantly reduced in size, although at the onset of the Second World War it was still the worlds largest. By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the worlds largest, during the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap.
The Royal Navy is part of Her Majestys Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the power in the 10th century. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Medieval fleets, in England as elsewhere, were almost entirely composed of merchant ships enlisted into service in time of war. Englands naval organisation was haphazard and the mobilisation of fleets when war broke out was slow, early in the war French plans for an invasion of England failed when Edward III of England destroyed the French fleet in the Battle of Sluys in 1340. Major fighting was confined to French soil and Englands naval capabilities sufficed to transport armies and supplies safely to their continental destinations. Such raids halted finally only with the occupation of northern France by Henry V.
Henry VII deserves a large share of credit in the establishment of a standing navy and he embarked on a program of building ships larger than heretofore. He invested in dockyards, and commissioned the oldest surviving dry dock in 1495 at Portsmouth, a standing Navy Royal, with its own secretariat, dockyards and a permanent core of purpose-built warships, emerged during the reign of Henry VIII. Under Elizabeth I England became involved in a war with Spain, the new regimes introduction of Navigation Acts, providing that all merchant shipping to and from England or her colonies should be carried out by English ships, led to war with the Dutch Republic. In the early stages of this First Anglo-Dutch War, the superiority of the large, heavily armed English ships was offset by superior Dutch tactical organisation and the fighting was inconclusive
Kathleen and May
The Kathleen and May is the last remaining British built wooden hull three masted top sail schooner. Registered in Bideford, North Devon, but presently based in Liverpool and she was built in 1900 by Ferguson and Baird at their Connahs Quay, Flintshire yard, for local shipping company Coppack Bros. Constructed with a frame of oak, these were covered by 3 inches thick seasoned pitch pine planks, fastened to the frames with treenails. Launched in April 1900 under Captain John Coppack, she was named Lizzie May after the Captain’s daughters, fleming modified her, adding before World War I both a longer lower yard to lengthen the middle sail, and a martingale fitted to the bowsprit. She now plied her trade between Youghal and the ports of the Bristol Channel, as a coal lugger, in 1931 she was sold to Captain Jewell of Appledore, North Devon. On arrival in her new port, she was fitted with an 80 brake horsepower Beardmore diesel engine. After surviving the storms of February 1936, in 1937 she experienced engine trouble in sight of Youghal’s lighthouse, in 1943, her engine was upgraded to a 125 brake horsepower Deutz diesel.
After the death of Captain Jewell in 1945, she passed to his son Tommy, in 1947 he had the martingale removed, but continued to ply her on the Irish Sea coal trade, which was now in severe decline. He sold most of his collection of vintage and veteran motor cars to raise the money to buy her, with a crew of one, Paul sailed her around the coast to Appledore, where she was berthed on the mud in the estuary outside the port. The Duke of Edinburgh in a bid to preserve a number of examples of Britains decaying maritime heritage set up the Maritime Trust in London, the Trust moved her to Gloucester Docks, and began restoring her as a typical West Country schooner. But failed to secure a £2 million National Lottery Heritage Fund grant, businessman Steve Clarke from Bideford, Devon bought her. Towed by sea to Bideford, in February 1999 she was hauled out of the water by two 1,000 tonnes heavy lift mobile cranes, and placed on to the disused Brunswick Wharf at East-the-Water. 70% of the planking was stripped from the frames, enabling most of her internal timbers to be refitted.
While the stern of the ship was stripped down to the keels, once the frames were refitted, the surviving parts of the original frames were steam cleaned at 3000psi, to kill fungal spores. The ship was fitted with a 400 brake horsepower Detroit diesel ex-lifeboat engine, the ship now carries enough fuel to do 2,000 miles under engine power alone. Redecked with new seasoned timbers, she was given a refit, with all masts. On completion, she underwent a rigorous MCA CAT2 inspection, as a result of his efforts in restoring Kathleen and May, Councillor Steve Clarke was awarded the OBE in 2008. Based in Bideford on the River Torridge, since her restoration Kathleen & May now regularly sails across the Bristol Channel and she has returned to Youghal, attended various festivals, and sailed across the Bay of Biscay to Bilbao as the paid guest of the Guggenheim museum
Her Majestys Naval Base, Devonport, is one of three operating bases in the United Kingdom for the Royal Navy. HMNB Devonport is located in Devonport, in the west of the city of Plymouth, having begun as Royal Navy Dockyard in the late-17th century, it is now the largest naval base in Western Europe and is the sole nuclear repair and refuelling facility for the Royal Navy. From 1934 until the early 21st century the barracks on the site was named HMS Drake. Recently, the name HMS Drake has been extended to cover the entire base, in the early 1970s the newly-styled Fleet Maintenance Base was itself commissioned as HMS Defiance, it remained so until 1994, at which point it was amalgamated into HMS Drake. HM Naval Base Devonport is the port of the Devonport Flotilla which includes the largest ship in the Royal Navy, HMS Ocean. In 2009 the Ministry of Defence announced the conclusion of a review of the long-term role of three naval bases. Devonport will no longer be used as a base for submarines after these move to Faslane by 2017.
However, Devonport retains a role as the dedicated home of the amphibious fleet, survey vessels. In 1588, the ships of the English Navy set sail for the Spanish Armada through the mouth of the River Plym, Sir Francis Drake is now an enduring legacy in Devonport, as the naval base has been named HMS Drake. In 1689 Prince William of Orange became William III and almost immediately he required the building of a new Royal Dockyard west of Portsmouth, having dismissed the Plymouth site as inadequate, he settled on the Hamoaze area which soon became known as Plymouth Dock, renamed Devonport. On 30 December 1690, a contract was let for a dockyard to be built, having selected the location, Dummer was given responsibility for designing and building the new yard. At the heart of his new dockyard, Dummer placed a stone-lined basin, previously the Navy Board had relied upon timber as the major building material for dry docks, which resulted in high maintenance costs and was a fire risk. The docks Dummer designed were stronger with more secure foundations and stepped sides that made it easier for men to work beneath the hull of a docked vessel and these innovations allowed rapid erection of staging and greater workforce mobility.
He discarded the earlier three-sectioned hinged gate, which was labour-intensive in operation, Dummer wished to ensure that naval dockyards were efficient working units that maximised available space, as evidenced by the simplicity of his design layout at Plymouth Dock. He introduced a centralised storage area alongside the basin, and a positioning of other buildings around the yard. His double rope-house combined the previously separate tasks of spinning and laying while allowing the floor to be used for the repair of sails. On high ground overlooking the rest of the yard he built a terrace of houses for the senior dockyard officers. Most of Dummers buildings and structures were rebuilt over ensuing years, including the basin, the terrace survived into the 20th century, but was largely destroyed in the Blitz along with several others of Devonports historic buildings
Cutty Sark is a British clipper ship. She continued as a ship until purchased in 1922 by retired sea captain Wilfred Dowman. After his death, Cutty Sark was transferred to the Thames Nautical Training College, by 1954, she had ceased to be useful as a cadet ship and was transferred to permanent dry dock at Greenwich, for public display. Cutty Sark is listed by National Historic Ships as part of the National Historic Fleet, the ship has been damaged by fire twice in recent years, first on 21 May 2007 while undergoing conservation. She was restored and was reopened to the public on 25 April 2012, on 19 October 2014 she was damaged in a smaller fire. Cutty Sark was ordered by shipping magnate John Willis, who operated a company founded by his father. The company had a fleet of clippers and regularly took part in the tea trade from China to Britain. In 1868 the brand new Aberdeen built clipper Thermopylae set a time of 61 days port to port on her maiden voyage from London to Melbourne. It is uncertain how the shape for Cutty Sark was chosen.
Willis chose Hercules Linton to design and build the ship but Willis already possessed another ship, The Tweed, which he considered to have exceptional performance. The Tweed was a designed by Oliver Lang based on the lines of an old French frigate. She and a ship were purchased by Willis, who promptly sold the second ship plus engines from The Tweed for more than he paid for both. The Tweed was lengthened and operated as a fast sailing vessel, Willis commissioned two all-iron clippers with designs based upon The Tweed and Blackadder. Linton was taken to view The Tweed in dry dock, Willis considered that The Tweeds bow shape was responsible for its notable performance, and this form seems to have been adopted for Cutty Sark. Linton, felt that the stern was too barrel shaped, the broader stern increased the buoyancy of the ships stern, making it lift more in heavy seas so it was less likely that waves would break over the stern, and over the helmsman at the wheel. The square bilge was carried forward through the centre of the ship, in the matter of masts Cutty Sark followed the design of The Tweed, with similar good rake and with the foremast on both ships being placed further aft than was usual.
A contract for Cutty Sarks construction was signed on 1 February 1869 with the firm of Scott & Linton and their shipyard was at Dumbarton on the River Leven on a site previously occupied by shipbuilders William Denny & Brothers. The contract required the ship to be completed six months at a contracted price of £17 per ton
Compound steam engine
A compound steam engine unit is a type of steam engine where steam is expanded in two or more stages. Multiple-expansion engines employ additional cylinders, of lower pressure, to extract further energy from the steam. Invented in 1781, this technique was first employed on a Cornish beam engine in 1804, around 1850, compound engines were first introduced into Lancashire textile mills. In a single-expansion steam engine, the steam enters the cylinder at boiler pressure through an inlet valve. The steam pressure forces the piston down the cylinder, until the valve shuts and this cut-off allows much more work to be extracted, since the expansion of the steam is doing additional work beyond that done by the steam at boiler pressure. An earlier cut-off increases the ratio, which in principle allows more energy to be extracted and increases efficiency. This temperature drop would occur if the cylinder were perfectly insulating so that no heat is released from the system. As a result, steam enters the cylinder at high temperature, the changing steam temperature alternately heats and cools the cylinder with every stroke and is a source of inefficiency which increases at higher expansion ratios.
Beyond a certain point, further increasing the ratio will actually decrease efficiency due to the increased heating and cooling. A method to lessen the magnitude of this heating and cooling was invented in 1804 by British engineer Arthur Woolf, in the compound engine, high-pressure steam from the boiler first expands in a high-pressure cylinder and enters one or more subsequent lower pressure cylinders. The complete expansion of the steam occurs across multiple cylinders and, as there is less expansion in each cylinder and this reduces the magnitude of cylinder heating and cooling, making higher expansion ratios practical and increasing the efficiency of the engine. There are other advantages, as the range is smaller, cylinder condensation is reduced. Loss due to condensation is restricted to the LP cylinder, pressure difference is less in each cylinder so there is less steam leakage at the piston and valves. The turning moment is uniform, so balancing is easier. Only the smaller HP cylinder needs to be built to withstand the highest pressure, components are subject to less strain, so they can be lighter.
The reciprocating parts of the engine are lighter, reducing the engine vibrations, the compound could be started at any point in the cycle, and in the event of mechanical failure the compound could be reset to act as a simple, and thus keep running. To derive equal work from lower-pressure steam requires a larger cylinder volume as this steam occupies a greater volume, the bore, and often the stroke, are increased in low-pressure cylinders, resulting in larger cylinders. Double-expansion engines expand the steam in two stages, but this does not imply that all engines have two cylinders
A naval drifter is a boat built along the lines of a commercial fishing drifter but fitted out for naval purposes. The use of naval drifters is paralleled by the use of naval trawlers, fishing trawlers were designed to tow heavy trawls, so they were easily adapted to tow minesweepers, with the crew and layout already suited to the task. Drifters were robust boats built, like trawlers, to work in most weather conditions and they were generally smaller and slower than trawlers. If requisitioned by navies, they were armed with an anti-submarine gun and depth charges and used to maintain. Like fishing trawlers, the Royal Navy requisitioned many fishing drifters for conversion to use during World War I. In addition,362 naval drifters were ordered to Admiralty specifications, shipyards used to building fishing trawlers or drifters could easily switch to constructing naval versions. As a bonus these drifters could be sold to commercial fishing interests when the war ended, there were two basic types of Admiralty-built drifters, wooden hulled and steel hulled.
The wooden hull vessels displaced 175 tons, were 86 ft long and they had a speed of 9 knots and carried one 6 pounder gun. 91 wooden hull vessels were launched 1918–20, and 100 similar Canadian-built craft were ordered in January 1917, the steel hull vessels displaced 199 tons, were 86 ft long, with a beam of 18 ft 6in. They had a speed of 9 knots and carried one 6pdr gun,123 steel-hulled vessels were launched 1917–1920, and 48 others were cancelled. Royal Navy drifters were named like the trawlers were, except for the Canadian-built vessels which were numbered CD1 to CD100, on 15 May 1917, the Austro-Hungarian Navy raided the barrage. The Austro-Hungarians gave most drifter crews warning to abandon ship before opening fire, some drifter crews chose to fight, and the Gowan Lee returned fire on the Austro-Hungarian ships. The drifter was heavily damaged, but remained afloat, skipper Joseph Watt was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions during the battle. Of the 47 drifters in the barrage at the time,14 were sunk and 4 were damaged, the lack of sufficient Allied escorts forced the withdrawal of the remaining blockading ships, although only for a short time.
Royal Naval Patrol Service Colledge, J. J, Ships of the Royal Navy, An Historical Index Volume 2, Navy-built Trawlers, Drifters and Requisitioned Ships. Gardiner R, Gray R and Budzbon, P Conways All the Worlds Fighting Ships, ISBN 978-0-85177-245-5 Halpern, Paul G A Naval History of World War I Naval Institute Press, Annapolis. The Encyclopedia of World War I