HMS Dreadnought (1906)
HMS Dreadnought was a battleship built for the Royal Navy that revolutionised naval power. The generation of ships she made obsolete became known as pre-dreadnoughts, admiral Sir John Jacky Fisher, First Sea Lord of the Board of Admiralty, is credited as the father of Dreadnought. Shortly after he assumed office, he ordered design studies for a battleship armed solely with 12-inch guns and he convened a Committee on Designs to evaluate the alternative designs and to assist in the detailed design work. Dreadnought was the first battleship of her era to have a main battery. She was the first capital ship to be powered by steam turbines and her launch helped spark a naval arms race as navies around the world, particularly the German Imperial Navy, rushed to match her in the build-up to World War I. In March 1915 Dreadnought became the only confirmed to have sunk a submarine. Dreadnought did not participate in the Battle of Jutland in 1916 as she was being refitted and this was the only time during the war that British dreadnought battleships fired on their German counterparts.
Nor did Dreadnought participate in any of the other World War I naval battles, after the Battle of Jutland she was relegated to coastal defence duties in the English Channel, not rejoining the Grand Fleet until 1918. She was reduced to reserve in 1919 and sold for two years later. A related problem was that the shell splashes from the numerous smaller weapons tended to obscure the splashes from the bigger guns. Keeping the range open generally negated the threat from torpedoes and further reinforced the need for guns of a uniform calibre. In 1903, the Italian naval architect Vittorio Cuniberti first articulated in print the concept of an all-big-gun battleship, when the Italian Navy did not pursue his ideas, Cuniberti wrote an article in Janes Fighting Ships advocating his concept. He proposed an ideal future British battleship of 17,000 long tons, with a battery of a dozen 12-inch guns in eight turrets,12 inches of belt armour. The Royal Navy, the Imperial Japanese Navy and the United States Navy all recognised these issues before 1905.
The unheard of long-range fire during the Battle of the Yellow Sea, in particular, although never experienced by any prior to the battle. In January 1905, he convened a Committee on Designs, including members of his informal group, to evaluate the various design proposals. While nominally independent it served to deflect criticism of Fisher and the Board of Admiralty as it had no ability to consider options other than those already decided upon by the Admiralty, Fisher appointed all of the members of the committee and he was President of the Committee. This was deemed necessary after the Russian battleship Tsesarevich was thought to have survived a Japanese torpedo hit during the Russo–Japanese War by virtue of her heavy internal bulkhead, to avoid increasing the displacement of the ship, the thickness of her waterline belt was reduced by 1 inch
The sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, although it is usually identified as a separate body of water. The name Mediterranean is derived from the Latin mediterraneus, meaning inland or in the middle of land and it covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, but its connection to the Atlantic is only 14 km wide. The Strait of Gibraltar is a strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar. In oceanography, it is called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere. The Mediterranean Sea has a depth of 1,500 m. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia and it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, the seas average north-south length, from Croatia’s southern shore to Libya, is approximately 800 km. The Mediterranean Sea, including the Sea of Marmara, has an area of approximately 2,510,000 square km.
The sea was an important route for merchants and travelers of ancient times that allowed for trade, the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri, the term Mediterranean derives from the Latin word mediterraneus, meaning amid the earth or between land, as it is between the continents of Africa and Europe. The Ancient Greek name Mesogeios, is similarly from μέσο, between + γη, earth) and it can be compared with the Ancient Greek name Mesopotamia, meaning between rivers. The Mediterranean Sea has historically had several names, for example, the Carthaginians called it the Syrian Sea and latter Romans commonly called it Mare Nostrum, and occasionally Mare Internum. Another name was the Sea of the Philistines, from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites, the sea is called the Great Sea in the General Prologue by Geoffrey Chaucer.
In Ottoman Turkish, it has been called Bahr-i Sefid, in Modern Hebrew, it has been called HaYam HaTikhon, the Middle Sea, reflecting the Seas name in ancient Greek and modern languages in both Europe and the Middle East. Similarly, in Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ, in Turkish, it is known as Akdeniz, the White Sea since among Turks the white colour represents the west. Several ancient civilisations were located around the Mediterranean shores, and were influenced by their proximity to the sea. It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages, due to the shared climate and access to the sea, cultures centered on the Mediterranean tended to have some extent of intertwined culture and history. Two of the most notable Mediterranean civilisations in classical antiquity were the Greek city states, when Augustus founded the Roman Empire, the Romans referred to the Mediterranean as Mare Nostrum
The Zeebrugge Raid, was an attempt by the Royal Navy to block the Belgian port of Bruges-Zeebrugge. The British intended to sink obsolete ships in the canal entrance, the port was used by the Imperial German Navy as a base for U-boats and light shipping, which were a threat to Allied shipping, especially in the English Channel. Several attempts to close the Flanders ports by bombardment failed and Operation Hush, as shipping losses to U-boats increased, finding a way to close the ports became urgent and a raid was considered. The first attempt on Zeebrugge was made on 2 April 1918 but cancelled at the last moment, after the direction changed. Another attempt was made on 23 April with a concurrent attack on Ostend, two of three blockships were scuttled in the narrowest part of the Bruges Canal and one of two submarines rammed the viaduct, which linked the shore and the mole, to isolate the German garrison. The blockships were sunk in the place and after a few days. British casualties were 583 men and German losses were 24 men, at the end of 1916 a combined operation against Borkum and Zeebrugge had been considered by Admiral Lewis Bayly, senior officer on the coast of Ireland.
The plan was rejected due to the difficulty of supplying a landing force, Bacon was asked to give his opinion and rejected the plan, as did the Admiralty. Bacon proposed an operation on 18 December, which combined Tyrwhitts landing on the mole with a blocking operation, the raid was approved in January 1918 and crews were obtained from the Grand Fleet to perform a hazardous service. The operation was dependent on the advance of the British armies in the Third Battle of Ypres and would have no influence on events at Zeebrugge and Ostend. If landings at the ports were achieved, the forces involved would be doomed unless they were relieved by the advance of the armies in Flanders. Bacon devised a plan to destroy the gates at Zeebrugge by bombardment with 15-inch guns in the monitors Erebus, Terror. Bacon calculated that 252 shells would be necessary and that it would take at least 84 minutes, Bacon thought that the destruction of the lock gates was worth the sacrifice of a monitor but that risking all three for no result was impossible to avoid.
Such conditions were unlikely to recur for several days and so a second bombardment on the day would be most unlikely. The bombardment force sailed for Zeebrugge three times, when changes in the forced a return to England but on 11 May. A buoy was laid 15 miles to the north-west of the mole as a guide, the ship returned to the buoy by 4,45 a. m. with the bearing and distance. The bombardment ships had taken position, the motor launches had formed a line, ready to generate the smoke-screen, the bombardment opened late because of the need to tow Marshal Soult, which slowed the fleet and by haze off the harbour. Two Royal Naval Air Service artillery observation aircraft from Dunkirk, which had taken off at 2,00 a. m. had to wait from 3,00 a. m. over Zeebrugge for almost two hours
The Majestic class of nine pre-dreadnought battleships were built for the Royal Navy in the mid-1890s under the Spencer Programme, named after the First Lord of the Admiralty, John Poyntz Spencer. With nine units commissioned, they were the largest class of battleships in history in terms of the number of member ships and this continued the naval re-armament initiatives begun by the Naval Defence Act 1889. The Majestics introduced a number of significant improvements to British battleship design and they were the first British ships to incorporate Harvey armour, which allowed them to carry a much more comprehensive level of protection. The nine ships served in a variety of roles throughout their careers and they primarily served in the Channel Fleet, though several took rotations in the Mediterranean Fleet, and Victorious served on the China Station in 1900–02. No longer frontline ships by the outbreak of World War I in July 1914, in 1915, several of the ships were disarmed, their guns going to equip the Lord Clive-class monitors.
The surviving ships were employed in secondary roles from 1915 onwards, only one, Prince George, avoided the breakers yards by wrecking off Camperduin. White submitted the design on 27 January 1892 to the Board, due to the greater resilience that Harvey armour provided, less of it could be used for the same level of protection, allowing for significant weight reduction. As a result, the scheme was made stronger and more comprehensive than in the Royal Sovereigns. This included the fitting of fully enclosed armoured gun shields for the battery guns. By that time, the ship of what was to be the Majestic class was redesigned as a second-class battleship, Renown. By August 1893, the public perceived the strength of the Royal Navy to have relative to its traditional rivals. John Spencer, the First Lord of the Admiralty, proposed a naval expansion plan referred to as the Spencer Programme that included seven more Majestic-class battleships to soothe public opinion. The Majestics were to be a benchmark for all successor pre-dreadnoughts, the Majestic class, the largest class of battleships ever built, were some of the most successful battleships of their time, and they were widely copied.
Indeed, the Japanese Shikishima class and the battleship Mikasa were based directly on the Majestics, the Majestics were 390 feet long between perpendiculars and 421 feet long overall. They had a beam of 75 ft and a draught of 27 ft and they displaced up to 16,060 t at full combat load. The ships had a freeboard of 25 ft forward,17 ft 3 in amidships and their hulls were divided into numerous watertight compartments, with 72 compartments inside the armoured citadel and 78 outside it. A double bottom extended for much of the length of the hull and they were fitted with two pole masts, each with two fighting tops. The Majestics were considered good seaboats, in part due to their high freeboard, with an easy roll and good steamers
A gun turret is a location from which weapons can be fired that affords protection and some cone of fire. Rotating gun turrets have the protection, the weapon, and its crew rotate, when this meaning of the word turret started being used at the beginning of the 1860s, turrets were normally cylindrical. Barbettes were an alternative to turrets, with a barbette the protection was fixed, in the 1890s, armoured hoods were added to barbettes, these rotated with the platform. By the early 20th Century, these hoods were known as turrets, modern warships have gun-mountings described as turrets, though the protection on them is limited to protection from the weather. They may be manned or remotely controlled and are most often protected to some degree, the protection provided by the turret may be against battle damage, the weather conditions, general environment in which the weapon or its crew will be operating. A small turret, or sub-turret set on top of a one, is called a cupola. The term cupola is used for a rotating turret that carries a sighting device rather than weaponry.
Before the development of large-calibre, long-range guns in the mid-19th century, firepower was provided by a large number of guns, each of which could traverse only in a limited arc. Additionally casemate mounts had to be recessed into the side of a vessel to afford a wide arc of fire, designs for a rotating gun turret date back to the late 18th century. The Lady Nancy proved a success and Coles patenting his rotating turret design after the war. Coless aim was to create a ship with the greatest possible all round arc of fire, the Admiralty accepted the principle of the turret gun as a useful innovation, and incorporated it into other new designs. Coles submitted a design for a ship having ten domed turrets each housing two large guns, the design was rejected as impractical, although the Admiralty remained interested in turret ships and instructed its own designers to create better designs. Coles enlisted the support of Prince Albert, who wrote to the first Lord of the Admiralty, in January 1862, the Admiralty agreed to construct a ship, the HMS Prince Albert which had four turrets and a low freeboard, intended only for coastal defence.
While Coles designed the turrets the ship was the responsibility of the chief Constructor Isaac Watts, another ship using Coles turret designs, HMS Royal Sovereign, was completed in August 1864. Its existing broadside guns were replaced with four turrets on a flat deck, early ships like the Royal Sovereign had little sea-keeping qualities being limited to coastal waters. Sir Edward James Reed, went on to design and build HMS Monarch, laid down in 1866 and completed in June 1869, it carried two turrets, although the inclusion of a forecastle and poop prevented the turret guns firing fore and aft. The gun turret was independently invented by the Swedish inventor John Ericsson in America, Ericsson designed the USS Monitor in 1861, its most prominent feature being a large cylindrical gun turret mounted amidships above the low-freeboard upper hull, called the raft. This extended well past the sides of the lower, more traditionally shaped hull, a small armoured pilot house was fitted on the upper deck towards the bow, its position prevented Monitor from firing her guns straight forward
John Brown & Company
John Brown and Company of Clydebank was a Scottish marine engineering and shipbuilding firm. It built many notable and world-famous ships including RMS Lusitania, HMS Hood, HMS Repulse, RMS Queen Mary, RMS Queen Elizabeth and SS Queen Elizabeth 2. At its height, from 1900 to the 1950s, it was one of the most highly regarded, however thereafter, along with other UK shipbuilders, John Browns found it increasingly difficult to compete with the emerging shipyards in Eastern Europe and the far East. In 1968 John Browns merged with other Clydeside shipyards to form the Upper Clyde Shipbuilders consortium, the company withdrew from shipbuilding but its engineering arm remained successful in the manufacture of industrial gas turbines. In 1986 it became a wholly owned subsidiary of Trafalgar House, the latter closed the Clydebank engineering works in 2000. Marathon Oil bought the Clydebank shipyard from UCS and used it to oil rig platforms for the North Sea oil industry. UiE Scotland bought the yard in 1980 and closed it in 2001, two brothers — James and George Thomson, who had worked for the engineer Robert Napier — founded the engineering and shipbuilding company J&G Thomson.
The brothers founded the Clyde Bank Foundry in Anderston in 1847 and they opened the Clyde Bank Iron Shipyard at Cessnock, Govan, in 1851 and launched their first ship, SS Jackal, in 1852. They quickly established a reputation in building prestigious passenger ships, building SS Jura for Cunard in 1854, the brothers separated their business association in 1850 and, after an acrimonious split, George took over the shipbuilding end of the association. James Thomas started a new business, George Thomson died in 1866, followed in 1870 by his brother James. They were succeeded by the sons of the younger brother George, called James Rodger Thomson and this site at the confluence of the tributary River Cart with the River Clyde, at Newshot Island, allowed very large ships to be launched. The brothers soon moved their iron foundry and engineering works to the same site, the connection to the area was so complete that James Rodger Thomson became the first Provost of Clydebank. Despite intermittent financial difficulties the company developed a reputation based on engineering quality, in 1899 the steelmaker John Brown and Company of Sheffield bought J&G Thomsons Clydebank yard for £923,255 3s 3d.
John Brown was born in Sheffield in 1816, the son of a slater, at the age of 14, unwilling to follow his fathers plans for him to become a draper, he obtained a position as an apprentice with Earle Horton & Co. He was so successful, he made enough money to set up his own business, in 1848 Brown developed and patented the conical spring buffer for railway carriages, which was very successful. With a growing reputation and fortune he moved to a site in 1856. He began to make his own iron from ore, rather than buying it. These moves all proved successful and lucrative, and in 1861 he started supplying steel rails to the expanding railway industry
King Edward VII-class battleship
The King Edward VII class was a class of pre-dreadnought battleships launched by the Royal Navy between 1903 and 1905. They were among the last pre-dreadnoughts built for the Royal Navy before the construction and launch of HMS Dreadnought in 1906, All surviving ships were sold for scrap in 1920–21. Alongside the Formidable class, they were the largest class of battleships built, the 9. 2-inch gun was quick-firing like the 6-inch, and its heavier shell made it a formidable weapon by the standards of the day when the King Edward VII class was designed. The four 9. 2-inch guns were mounted in single turrets abreast the foremast and mainmast, in the end, it proved impossible to distinguish 12-inch and 9. The first five ships mounted the Mark IX 12-inch gun, while the three mounted the more advanced Mark X 12-inch gun. Mounting of the 6-inch guns in casemates was abandoned in this class, armour was much as in the London class, although there were various differences in detail from the Londons. The King Edward VIIs were the first British battleships with balanced rudders since the 1870s and were very manoeuvrable, they were difficult to keep on a straight course, and this characteristic led to them being nicknamed the Wobbly Eight during their 1914–1916 service in the Grand Fleet.
They had a faster roll than previous British battleship classes. Primarily powered by coal, all of the class except New Zealand had oil sprayers installed during construction and these allowed steam pressure to be rapidly increased, improving the acceleration of the ships. The eight ships between them were four different boiler installations for comparative purposes, but all exceeded their designed power. The King Edward VIIs were powerful ships when they were designed, they were unlucky in that the years of their design and construction were ones of revolutionary advancement in naval guns, fire control and propulsion. The King Edward VIIs served together as a unit during much of their careers, operating in the Atlantic Fleet, Channel Fleet. They formed the 3rd Battle Squadron in 1912, with ships leaving the squadron between 1916 and 1918. Two were lost during World War I and those that survived the war were sold for scrapping in 1920 and 1921. Africa served in the Atlantic Fleet, Channel Fleet, and Home Fleet, in 1912 experiments with aircraft and she was part of the 3rd Battle Squadron, which was detached from the Home Fleet for service in the Mediterranean during the First Balkan War in 1912–1913.
The 3rd Battle Squadrons World War I service was in the Grand Fleet, the Channel Fleet, africa served in the Atlantic 1917–1918, was in reserve until sold for scrapping in 1920. Britannia served in the Atlantic Fleet, Channel Fleet, and Home Fleet and she was part of the 3rd Battle Squadron, which was detached from the Home Fleet for service in the Mediterranean during the First Balkan War in 1912–1913. She returned to the 3rd Battle Squadron for its World War I service in the Grand Fleet, the Channel Fleet, britannia served in the Adriatic Sea and Atlantic
First Balkan War
The First Balkan War, lasted from October 1912 to May 1913 and comprised actions of the Balkan League against the Ottoman Empire. The combined armies of the Balkan states overcame the numerically inferior and strategically disadvantaged Ottoman armies, as a result of the war, the League captured and partitioned almost all remaining European territories of the Ottoman Empire. Ensuing events led to the creation of an independent Albania, despite its success, Bulgaria was dissatisfied over the division of the spoils in Macedonia, which provoked the start of the Second Balkan War. By 1867, Serbia and Montenegro had both secured independence, which was confirmed by the Treaty of Berlin, the question of the viability of Ottoman rule was revived after the Young Turk Revolution of July 1908, which compelled the Sultan to restore the suspended Ottoman constitution. Serbias aspirations to take over Bosnia and Herzegovina were thwarted by the Bosnian crisis, the Serbs directed their expansionism to the south.
Following the annexation, the Young Turks tried to induce the Muslim population of Bosnia to emigrate to the Ottoman Empire and those who took up the offer were re-settled by the Ottoman authorities in districts of northern Macedonia where there were few Muslims. The experiment proved to be a catastrophe for the Empire since the immigrants readily united with the population of Albanian Muslims. They participated in the series of Albanian uprisings before and during the spring Albanian Revolt of 1912, some Albanian government troops switched sides. Serbia, which had helped arm the Albanian Catholic and Hamidian rebels and sent secret agents to some of the prominent leaders, things got so far out of hand that no one was satisfied with the situation in Turkey in Europe. It became unbearable for the Serbs, the Greeks and for the Albanians, by the grace of God, I have therefore ordered my brave army to join in the Holy War to free our brethren and to ensure a better future. To all of them we bring freedom and equality, in a search for allies, Serbia was ready to negotiate a treaty with Bulgaria.
The agreement provided that, in the event of victory against the Ottomans, serbias expansion was accepted by Bulgaria as being to the north of the Shar Mountains. The intervening area was agreed to be disputed, it would be arbitrated by the Tsar of Russia in the event of a war against the Ottoman Empire. After the successful coup détat for unification with Eastern Rumelia, Bulgaria began to dream that its national unification would be realized, for that purpose, it developed a large army, and identified as the Prussia of the Balkans. But Bulgaria could not win a war alone against the Ottomans and they wanted to reverse their defeat in the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 by the Ottomans. An emergency military reorganization led by a French military mission had been started for that purpose, in the discussions that led Greece to join the Balkan League, Bulgaria refused to commit to any agreement on the distribution of territorial gains, unlike its deal with Serbia over Macedonia. Bulgarias diplomatic policy was to push Serbia into an agreement limiting its access to Macedonia, Bulgaria believed that its army would be able to occupy the larger part of Aegean Macedonia and the important port city of Salonica before the Greeks.
In 1911, Italy had launched an invasion of Tripolitania in present-day Libya, the Italians decisive military victories over the Ottoman Empire encouraged the Balkan states to imagine they might win a war against the Ottomans
A conning tower is a raised platform on a ship or submarine, often armored, from which an officer can conn the vessel, i. e. give directions to the helmsman. It is usually located as high on the ship as practical, to give the conning team good visibility of the entirety of the ship itself and of ocean conditions, the verb “conn” probably stems from the verb “conduct” rather than from another plausible precedent, the verb “control”. On surface ships, the tower was a feature of all battleships. Located at the front end of the superstructure, the tower was a heavily armored cylinder. At all other times than during battles, the ship would be navigated from the bridge instead, conning towers were used by the French on their floating batteries at the Battle of Kinburn. They were fitted to the first ironclad the French battleship La Gloire, the first Royal Navy conning tower appeared on HMS Warrior which had 3 inches of armour. The King George V class, in contrast to the Nelson class had comparatively light conning tower protection with 4.5 inch sides,3 inch front and rear, and 2 inch roof and deck.
The RNs analysis of World War I combat revealed that command personnel were unlikely to utilize an armoured conning tower, older RN battleships that were reconstructed with new superstructures, had their heavily armoured conning towers removed and replaced with much lighter structures. These new conning towers were placed much higher in the ship. Even in the United States Navy, battleship captains and admirals preferred to use the unarmoured bridge positions during combat. The USN had mixed opinions of the tower, pointing out that its weight, high above the ships center of gravity. Beginning in the late 1930s, as radar surpassed visual sighting as the method of detecting other ships, battleships began reducing or eliminating the conning tower. By the end of World War II, US ships were designed with expanded weather bridges enclosing the armored conning towers. With the demise of battleships after World War II, along with the advent of missiles and nuclear weapons during the Cold War, modern warships no longer feature conning towers.
It should not be confused with the control room, which was directly below it in the main pressure hull, or the bridge. As improvements in technology allowed the periscopes to be made longer it became unnecessary to raise the station above the main pressure hull. The USS Triton was the last American submarine to have a conning tower, the additional conning tower pressure hull was eliminated and its functions were added to the command and control center. Thus it is incorrect to refer to the sail of a submarine as a conning tower
Clydebank is a town in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland. Historically part of Dunbartonshire, Clydebank is part of the registration County of Dumbarton, the Dunbartonshire Crown Lieutenancy area, Clydebank was founded as a police burgh on 18 November 1886. Clydebank is located within the boundaries of the ancient Kingdom of Strathclyde, the Mormaerdom of Lennox. A long-standing local legend is that the village of Old Kilpatrick derived its name from being the birthplace of Saint Patrick, there do not appear to be any historical sources which support this, however. The town encompasses part of the Antonine Wall, including, at Hardgate/Duntocher, in 2008, the Antonine Wall was designated as a World Heritage Site, as part of a multinational Heritage Site encompassing the borders of the Roman Empire. Before 1870, the area became Clydebank was largely rural. It consisted of villages and estates, with some small scale mining operations, several cotton mills. At the start of the 1870s, the growing trade and they used their statutory powers to compulsorily purchase the area occupied by the Clyde Bank Iron Shipyard in Govan, which belonged to J & G Thomson.
Construction of the new shipyard started on 1 May 1871, the company transported workers to and from the shipyard by paddle steamer. However it was not ideal, having to ship workers to and fro all the time and these first blocks of housing became known unofficially as Tamsons Buildings, after the name of the company. Gradually, as the shipyard grew, so did the cluster of buildings grow nearby, more houses, a school, a large shed which served as canteen, community hall and church, finally two proper churches in 1876 and 1877. As the resident population grew, so did the needs and problems associated with a growing population, other manufacturers and employers moved into the area, and by 1880 approximately 2,000 men were living and working there. In 1882 a railway line was running from Glasgow out to the new shipyard. This was followed by the Lanarkshire and Dunbartonshire Railway during the 1890s, between 1882 and 1884, the Singer Manufacturing Company built a massive sewing machine factory in Kilbowie, less than 1⁄2 mile north of the Clyde Bank shipyard.
More people moved into the area, and finally, in 1886, the petition was granted, and the new town was named after the shipyard which had given birth to it – Clydebank. On 13 and 14 March 1941, Luftwaffe bombers attacked targets in. Over the two days 528 civilians were killed and over 617 people were seriously injured, in the early 20th century the town was synonymous with the Scottish socialist movements led by the shipyard workers along the river Clyde, giving rise to the title of Red Clydeside. Labour unrest, in particular by women and unskilled labour, greatly increased between 1910-1914 in Clydeside, with four more days on strike than between 1900 and 1910
A torpedo tube is a cylinder shaped device for launching torpedoes. There are two types of torpedo tube, underwater tubes fitted to submarines and some surface ships. Thus a submarine torpedo tube operates on the principle of an airlock, the diagram on the right illustrates the operation of a submarine torpedo tube. The diagram is somewhat simplified but does show the working of a torpedo launch. A torpedo tube has a number of interlocks for safety reasons. For example, an interlock prevents the door and muzzle door from opening at the same time. The submarine torpedo launch sequence is, in simplified form, Open the breech door in the torpedo room, load the torpedo into the tube. Hook up the connection and the torpedo power cable. Shut and lock the breech door, turn on power to the torpedo. A minimum amount of time is required for torpedo warmup, fire control programs are uploaded to the torpedo. This may be manually or automatically, from sea or from tanks. The tube must be vented during this process to allow for complete filling, Open the equalizing valve to equalize pressure in the tube with ambient sea pressure.
If the tube is set up for Impulse Mode the slide valve will open with the muzzle door, if Swim Out Mode is selected, the slide valve remains closed. The slide valve allows water from the pump to enter the tube. Modern torpedoes have a safety mechanism that prevents activation of the torpedo unless the torpedo senses the required amount of G-force, the power cable is severed at launch. However, if a wire is used, it remains connected through a drum of wire in the tube. Torpedo propulsion systems vary but electric torpedoes swim out of the tube on their own and are of a smaller diameter,21 weapons with fuel-burning engines usually start outside of the tube. Once outside the tube the torpedo begins its run toward the target as programmed by the control system
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany