HMAS Labuan (L3501)
HMAS Labuan was a Mark III Tank Landing Ship that served in the Royal Navy during World War II, with the Royal Australian Navy from 1946 until 1951. In RAN service, the landing ship was used in support of the Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition; the vessel from Heard Island and Macquarie Island. While returning from Heard Island in 1951, Labuan had to be towed to the mainland; the ship was paid off, disposed of in 1955. LST 3501 was built by Canadian Vickers at their shipyard in Montreal, Canada; the vessel was launched on 31 August 1944. The Mark 3 LST had a light load displacement of 2,140 tonnes, with a maximum beachable displacement of 3,117 tonnes beaching, they were 345 feet in length overall, with a beam of 55 feet 3 inches, a maximum draught of 13 feet 1 inch at the stern. Propulsion was provided by triple expansion engines, which delivered 5,500 horsepower to the two propellers. Maximum speed was 13 knots, with a range of 10,000 nautical miles at 10 knots; the LCTs had a ship's company of 104, a maximum load of 168 troops, 18 40-ton tanks, 27 trucks, 7 Landing Craft Mechanized.
In RAN service, LST 3501 was armed with ten 20 mm Oerlikons: two single mounts. LST 3501 operated with the Royal Navy during World War II. In 1946, LST 3501 and five other Mark 3 LSTs were loaned to the RAN, they were all commissioned into RAN service on 1 July 1946. In 1947, LST 3501 was selected to assist in the establishment of provide logistic support to, the Australian National Antarctic Research Expedition research facilities on Heard Island and Macquarie Island; the vessel was repainted yellow to assist with visual identification in Antarctic waters, modified to carry a Supermarine Walrus seaplane, launched by derrick. On 28 November 1947, LST 3501 departed from Fremantle with fourteen ANARE personnel and twelve months of supplies, arriving at Heard Island on 12 December and offloading the supplies and scientists. On 5 January, the Walrus was lost during foul weather, was not replaced; the ship returned to Melbourne, where more stores and a second group of 13 ANARE personnel were loaded before LST 3501 sailed to Macquarie Island on 28 February 1948, arriving seven days later.
After unloading for the second time, the landing ship waited for the arrival of the research vessel HMAS Wyatt Earp in late March before returning to Australia. LST 3501 was renamed HMAS Labuan on 16 December 1948, after the amphibious landings at Labuan; the 1948 ANARE expedition named Cape Labuan on Heard Island after the ship, used names of officers and senior enlisted personnel for Lavett Bluff, Mount Dixon, Cape Lockyer, Hayter Peak. She returned to the islands on five occasions to deliver supplies and transfer personnel: Heard Island during January to March 1949, 1950, 1951, Macquarie Island in April 1949 and 1950; the landing ship was damaged during the 1951 visit to Heard Island. Labuan attempted to sail home, but broke down en route; the vessel had to be towed back to Fremantle. Labuan paid off to reserve on 28 September 1951 and was sold for disposal on 9 November 1955. BooksForbes, Andrew. "RAN Activities in the Southern Ocean". Semaphore. Canberra, ACT: Sea Power Centre - Royal Australian Navy.
2006. Retrieved 11 January 2015. Gillett, Ross. Australian and New Zealand Warships since 1946. Brookvale, NSW: Child & Associates. ISBN 0-86777-219-0. OCLC 23470364. Websites"HMALST 3501/HMAS Labuan 1947–51". About Antarctica. Australian Antarctic Division. 11 June 2002. Retrieved 14 January 2015. Vickridge, G. L. W. "The RAN in Antarctic Waters". Naval Historical Society of Australia. Retrieved 21 December 2008
Singapore the Republic of Singapore, is an island city-state in Southeast Asia. It lies one degree north of the equator, at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, with Indonesia's Riau Islands to the south and Peninsular Malaysia to the north. Singapore's territory consists of one main island along with 62 other islets. Since independence, extensive land reclamation has increased its total size by 23%; the country is known for its transition from a developing to a developed one in a single generation under the leadership of its founder Lee Kuan Yew. In 1819, Sir Stamford Raffles founded colonial Singapore as a trading post of the British East India Company. After the company's collapse in 1858, the islands were ceded to the British Raj as a crown colony. During the Second World War, Singapore was occupied by Japan, it gained independence from the British Empire in 1963 by joining Malaysia along with other former British territories, but separated two years over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce. Singapore is a global hub for education, finance, human capital, logistics, technology, tourism and transport; the city ranks in numerous international rankings, has been recognised as the most "technology-ready" nation, top International-meetings city, city with "best investment potential", world's smartest city, world's safest country, second-most competitive country, third least-corrupt country, third-largest foreign exchange market, third-largest financial centre, third-largest oil refining and trading centre, fifth-most innovative country, the second-busiest container port. The Economist has ranked Singapore as the most expensive city to live in, since 2013, it is identified as a tax haven. Singapore is the only country in Asia with an AAA sovereign rating from all major rating agencies, one of 11 worldwide. Globally, the Port of Singapore and Changi Airport have held the titles of leading "Maritime Capital" and "Best Airport" for consecutive years, while Singapore Airlines is the 2018 "World's Best Airline".
Singapore ranks 9th on the UN Human Development Index with the 3rd highest GDP per capita. It is placed in key social indicators: education, life expectancy, quality of life, personal safety and housing. Although income inequality is high, 90% of homes are owner-occupied. According to the Democracy Index, the country is described as a "flawed democracy"; the city-state is home to 5.6 million residents, 39% of whom are foreign nationals, including permanent residents. There are four official languages: English, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, its cultural diversity is reflected in major festivals. Pew Research has found. Multiracialism has been enshrined in its constitution since independence, continues to shape national policies in education, politics, among others. Singapore is a unitary parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government; the People's Action Party has won every election since self-government began in 1959. As one of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Secretariat and Pacific Economic Cooperation Council Secretariat, as well as many international conferences and events.
It is a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations. The English name of Singapore is an anglicisation of the native Malay name for the country, in turn derived from Sanskrit, hence the customary reference to the nation as the Lion City, its inclusion in many of the nation's symbols. However, it is unlikely that lions lived on the island. There are however other suggestions for the origin of the name and scholars do not believe that the origin of the name is established; the central island has been called Pulau Ujong as far back as the third century CE "island at the end" in Malay. Singapore is referred to as the Garden City for its tree-lined streets and greening efforts since independence, the Little Red Dot for how the island-nation is depicted on many maps of the world and Asia, as a red dot. Singapore is referred to as the "Switzerland of Asia" in 2017 due to its neutrality on international and regional issues; the Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy identified a place called Sabana in the general area in the second century, the earliest written record of Singapore occurs in a Chinese account from the third century, describing the island of Pu Luo Chung.
This was itself a transliteration from the Malay name "Pulau Ujong", or "island at the end". The Nagarakretagama, a Javanese epic poem written in 1365, referred to a settlement on the island called Tumasik. In 1299, according to the Malay Annals, the Kingdom of Singapura was founded on the island by Sang Nila Utama. Although the historicity
The Suez Canal is a sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez. Constructed by the Suez Canal Company between 1859 and 1869, it was opened on 17 November 1869; the canal offers watercraft a more direct route between the North Atlantic and northern Indian Oceans via the Mediterranean and Red Seas, thus avoiding the South Atlantic and southern Indian Oceans and thereby reducing the journey distance from the Arabian Sea to, for example, London by 8,900 kilometres. It extends from the northern terminus of Port Said to the southern terminus of Port Tewfik at the city of Suez, its length is 193.30 km, including its southern access channels. In 2012, 17,225 vessels traversed the canal; the original canal was a single-lane waterway with passing locations in the Ballah Bypass and the Great Bitter Lake. It contains no locks system, with seawater flowing through it. In general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in south in summer.
South of the lakes, the current changes with the tide at Suez. The canal is maintained by the Suez Canal Authority of Egypt. Under the Convention of Constantinople, it may be used "in time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag". In August 2014, construction was launched to expand and widen the Ballah Bypass for 35 km to speed the canal's transit time; the expansion was planned to double the capacity of the Suez Canal from 49 to 97 ships a day. At a cost of $8.4 billion, this project was funded with interest-bearing investment certificates issued to Egyptian entities and individuals. The "New Suez Canal", as the expansion was dubbed, was opened with great fanfare in a ceremony on 6 August 2015. On 24 February 2016, the Suez Canal Authority opened the new side channel; this side channel, located at the northern side of the east extension of the Suez Canal, serves the East Terminal for berthing and unberthing vessels from the terminal. As the East Container Terminal is located on the Canal itself, before the construction of the new side channel it was not possible to berth or unberth vessels at the terminal while the convoy was running.
Ancient west–east canals were built to facilitate travel from the Nile River to the Red Sea. One smaller canal is believed to have been constructed under the auspices of Senusret II or Ramesses II. Another canal incorporating a portion of the first, was constructed under the reign of Necho II, but the only functional canal was engineered and completed by Darius I; the legendary Sesostris may have started work on an ancient canal joining the Nile with the Red Sea, when an irrigation channel was constructed around 1850 BCE, navigable during the flood season, leading into a dry river valley east of the Nile River Delta named Wadi Tumilat. In his Meteorology, Aristotle wrote: One of their kings tried to make a canal to it, but he found that the sea was higher than the land. So he first, Darius afterwards, stopped making the canal, lest the sea should mix with the river water and spoil it. Strabo wrote that Sesostris started to build a canal, Pliny the Elder wrote: 165. Next comes the Tyro tribe and, the harbour of the Daneoi, from which Sesostris, king of Egypt, intended to carry a ship-canal to where the Nile flows into what is known as the Delta.
The Persian king Darius had the same idea, yet again Ptolemy II, who made a trench 100 feet wide, 30 feet deep and about 35 miles long, as far as the Bitter Lakes. In the second half of the 19th century, French cartographers discovered the remnants of an ancient north–south canal past the east side of Lake Timsah and ending near the north end of the Great Bitter Lake; this proved to be the celebrated canal made by the Persian king Darius I, as his stele commemorating its construction was found at the site. In the 20th century the northward extension of this ancient canal was discovered, extending from Lake Timsah to the Ballah Lakes; this was dated to the Middle Kingdom of Egypt by extrapolating the dates of ancient sites along its course. The reliefs of the Punt expedition under Hatshepsut, 1470 BCE, depict seagoing vessels carrying the expeditionary force returning from Punt; this suggests that a navigable link existed between the Nile. Recent excavations in Wadi Gawasis may indicate that Egypt's maritime trade started from the Red Sea and did not require a canal.
Evidence seems to indicate its existence by the 13th century BCE during the time of Ramesses II. Remnants of an ancient west–east canal through the ancient Egyptian cities of Bubastis, Pi-Ramesses, Pithom were discovered by Napoleon Bonaparte and his engineers and cartographers in 1799. According to the Histories of the Greek historian Herodotus, about 600 BCE, Necho II undertook to dig a west–east canal through the Wadi Tumilat between Bubastis and Heroopolis, continued it to the Heroopolite Gulf and the Red Sea. Regardless, Necho is reported as having never completed his project. Herodotus was told that 120,000 men perished in this undertaking, but this figure is doubtless exaggerated. According to Pliny the Elde
HMS LST 3519
HMS LST 3519 was a Landing Ship, Tank of the Royal Navy, entering service during the last months of the Second World War. She was chartered for civilian service as the Empire Baltic from 1946, serving as an early RO-RO ferry until the navy suspended the charter and requisitioned the ship during the Suez Crisis in 1956, she returned to normal service, but was retired soon after and was sold for breaking up. LST 3519 was built in the Montreal yards of the Canadian subsidiary of Vickers, Canadian Vickers Limited, she was launched on 26 April 1945 and completed in September 1945. After the end of the war she was one of three LSTs chartered by the Government to the firm of F. Bustard & Sons Ltd. who employed the ships in his Atlantic Steam Navigation Company. She was converted to civilian use by Tilbury. A new bridge was built and accommodation was provided for 50 lorry drivers and 12 passengers; the renamed Empire Baltic made the first voyage of the new company, sailing from Tilbury Docks to Rotterdam on 11 September 1946.
The journey took 24 hours The ship spent the next decade conveying army vehicles and personnel across the English Channel. On 24 September 1949, Empire Baltic hit a mine off West Germany. Tugs from Borkum and Cuxhaven went to her assistance; the outbreak of the Suez Crisis in 1956 led to her being requisitioned along with the other LSTs operating under Admiralty charter, Empire Baltic was used to carry Centurion tanks to Alexandria. In March 1958, Empire Baltic was involved in a collision with SS Orontes in the River Thames, she returned to operate for the Atlantic Steam Navigation Company after the end of the conflict, but was withdrawn from service in 1959. She appears to have been operated by the British-India Steam Navigation Company in 1961. Empire Baltic and Empire Curlew were advertised for sale in April 1962 as lying at Malta. Empire Baltic arrived at La Spezia, Italy for breaking up on 10 July 1962. Mitchell, W H, Sawyer, L A; the Empire Ships. London, New York, Hong Kong: Lloyd's of London Press Ltd.
ISBN 1-85044-275-4. Photo of Empire Baltic Photo of Empire Baltic Photo of Empire Baltic
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
HMAS LST 3008
HMAS LST 3008 was a landing ship tank, operated by the Royal Navy and Royal Australian Navy. She was built at Harland and Wolff in Belfast during World War II and was launched on 31 October 1944, she served with the Royal Navy as HMS LST 3008 until 1 July 1946 when she was transferred to the RAN. She was used as a transport in RAN service until 1948. HMAS LST 3008 was scrapped in Sydney in the 1950s. Gillett, Ross. Australian & New Zealand warships since 1946. Sydney: Child & Associates. P. 234. ISBN 0-86777-219-0. Gillett, Ross. Warships of Australia. Adelaide: Rigby. P. 35. ISBN 0-7270-0472-7
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K