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HMS Marlborough (1912)

HMS Marlborough was an Iron Duke-class battleship of the Royal Navy, named in honour of John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. She was built at Devonport Royal Dockyard between January 1912 and June 1914, entering service just before the outbreak of the First World War, she was armed with a main battery of ten 13.5-inch guns and was capable of a top speed of 21.25 knots. Marlborough served with the Grand Fleet for the duration of the war patrolling the northern end of the North Sea to enforce the blockade of Germany, she saw action at the Battle of Jutland, where she administered the coup de grâce to the badly damaged German cruiser SMS Wiesbaden. During the engagement, Wiesbaden hit Marlborough with a torpedo that forced her to withdraw; the damage to Marlborough was repaired by early August, though the last two years of the war were uneventful, as the British and German fleets adopted more cautious strategies due to the threat of underwater weapons. After the war, Marlborough was assigned to the Mediterranean Fleet, where she took part in the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War in the Black Sea in 1919–20, she rescued members of the Imperial Family from Yalta in 1919.

She was involved in the Greco-Turkish War. In 1930, the London Naval Treaty mandated. Marlborough was 622 feet 9 inches long overall and had a beam of 90 ft and an average draught of 29 ft 6 in, she up to 29,560 long tons at combat loading. Her propulsion system consisted of four Parsons steam turbines, with steam provided by eighteen Babcock & Wilcox boilers; the engines were produced a top speed of 21.25 kn. Marlborough's cruising radius was 7,800 nautical miles at a more economical 10 kn, she enlisted men. The ship was armed with a main battery of ten BL 13.5-inch Mk V naval guns mounted in five twin gun turrets. They were arranged in one forward and one aft. Close-range defence against torpedo boats was provided by a secondary armament of twelve BL 6-inch Mk VII guns. Marlborough was fitted with a pair of QF 3-inch 20 cwt anti-aircraft guns and four 47 mm 3-pounder guns; as was typical for capital ships of the period, she was equipped with four 21 in torpedo tubes submerged on the broadside. She was protected by a main armoured belt, 12 in thick over the ship's vitals.

Her deck was 2.5 in thick. The main battery turret faces were 11 in thick, the turrets were supported by barbettes 10 in thick. Marlborough was laid down at Devonport Royal Dockyard on 25 January 1912, she was launched nearly ten months on 24 October, was commissioned on 2 June 1914. The ship was completed on 16 June 1914, a month before the First World War broke out on the Continent. Marlborough joined the Home Fleets, where she served as the flagship for Sir Lewis Bayly. Following the British entry into the war in August, the Home Fleets was reorganised as the Grand Fleet, commanded by Admiral John Jellicoe. Marlborough was assigned as the flagship of the 1st Battle Squadron, where she served for the duration of the conflict. On the evening of 22 November 1914, the Grand Fleet conducted a fruitless sweep in the southern half of the North Sea to support Vice Admiral David Beatty's 1st Battlecruiser Squadron; the fleet was back in port at Scapa Flow by 27 November. Marlborough and most of the fleet remained in port during the German raid on Scarborough and Whitby on 16 December 1914, though the 3rd Battle Squadron was sent to reinforce the British forces in the area.

After receiving further information about the possibility of the rest of the German fleet being at sea, Jellicoe gave the order for the fleet to sortie to try to intercept the Germans, though by that time they had retreated. Vice Admiral Cecil Burney replaced Bayley aboard Marlborough in December. On 25 December, the fleet sortied for a sweep in the North Sea, which concluded on 27 December without event. Marlborough and the rest of the fleet conducted gunnery drills during 10–13 January 1915 west of the Orkneys and Shetlands. On the evening of 23 January, the bulk of the Grand Fleet sailed in support of Beatty's Battlecruiser Fleet but the rest of the fleet did not become engaged in the ensuing Battle of Dogger Bank the following day. On 7–10 March 1915, the Grand Fleet conducted a sweep in the northern North Sea, during which it undertook training manoeuvres. Another such cruise took place during 16–19 March. On 11 April, the Grand Fleet conducted a patrol in the central North Sea and returned to port on 14 April.

The Grand Fleet conducted a sweep into the central North Sea during 17–19 May without encountering German vessels. Another patrol followed during 29–31 May; the fleet conducted gunnery training in mid-June. During 2–5 September, the fleet went on another cruise in the northern end of the North Sea and conducted gunnery drills. Throughout the rest of the month, the Grand Fleet conducted numerous training exercises. On 13 October, the majori

USNS Private Joe P. Martinez (T-AP-187)

USNS Private Joe P. Martinez was a Boulder Victory-class cargo ship built for the United States Navy during the closing period of World War II; the ship was named after a Medal of Honor recipient. The ship was laid down as Victory Ship SS Stevens Victory on 13 April 1945 and delivered to the United States Maritime Commission on 25 June 1945 for conversion to a troop ship; as Stevens Victory, the ship was operated by Grace Lines out of New York City in the Atlantic sea lanes. Her ports of call included Boston and Newport, as well as Downs, Marseilles, Bremerhaven, Le Havre and Southampton; the ship was transferred from the Maritime Commission to the US Army on 5 September 1946. She was renamed Private Joe P. Martinez on 3 October 1947 and operated by the Army Transportation Service. Private Joe P. Martinez transferred to the Navy on 1 March 1950 at New York. With the outbreak of war in Korea in June, there was a great need for transport tonnage in the Pacific. Shifting to San Francisco, Private Joe P. Martinez steamed for Okinawa and Yokohama on 31 July 1950, returning to Seattle on 2 September.

She took on troops and supplies and again steamed for the Western Pacific, operating out of Japanese and Korean ports. Private Joe P. Martinez made three additional cruises to the Western Pacific, departing Korean waters for the last time on 5 January 1951, she was laid up 1 September 1952 at Olympia. She was transferred from the Navy to the Maritime Administration on 30 September 1952 and struck from the Navy List on 6 November. Into 1970 she was laid up at Olympia in the National Defense Reserve Fleet. USS Private Joe P. Martinez received four battle stars for Korean service; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here

Brooks Peninsula Provincial Park

Parts of this article have been adapted from the BC Parks website. Mquqᵂin/Brooks Peninsula Provincial Park is a provincial park located on the west coast of Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada; as a result of land-use planning for Vancouver Island, this former 28,780 hectare recreation area was upgraded in 1995 to a Class'A' Provincial Park. In addition to this upgrade, 22,851 hectares known as the Brooks-Nasparti area, has been added to the park. On July 13, 2009, the park was renamed Mquqᵂin/Brooks Peninsula Provincial Park under the guidance of the Che:k’tles7et’h’ peoples; the park is 51,631 hectares in size. Brooks Peninsula is located about 20 kilometres southwest of British Columbia. Access to the park is by float plane. Brooks Peninsula juts 20 kilometres into the Pacific Ocean and has a rugged and varied coastline, with long fjords and sandy beaches; the inland is seldom-explored and densely wooded with old growth forest. The highest point is a sub-peak of Snowsaddle Mountain at 1143m elevation.

Mountains in the park, known as the Refugium Range, include Klaskish and Doom. Peaks in the area higher than 700m were above the glaciers during the last ice age and are therefore a refugium with unique plants. Unaffected by the last ice age, Brooks Peninsula is considered a unique geologic feature; as a result, the geology of the peninsula is different from that of the rest of Vancouver Island and many rare plant communities exist, providing unparalleled opportunities for scientific study. This remote wilderness area includes an extensive, wild ocean coastline, long sheltered inlets, rugged mountains, pristine estuaries with high waterfowl and fishery values and high biodiversity values associated with old-growth forests; the Brooks-Nasparti addition encompasses the entire watershed of the Nasparti River and streams draining into Johnson Lagoon, the west-facing slopes along Nasparti Inlet, the Power River and Battle Creek watersheds and the Mount Seaton area The park preserves the peninsula's pristine wilderness landscape, which contains the Refugium Range of the Vancouver Island Ranges and Coastal Western Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone.

The park is located within the traditional territory of the peoples comprising today's Kyuquot/Cheklesahht and Quatsino First Nations band governments. Battle Bay in the southern portion of the park is rich in First Nations cultural history. Many battles were fought at this location in order to retain control of this prosperous area. First Nations reserves located adjacent to the southern portion of Brooks Peninsula Provincial Park are not for recreational use. Visitors are encouraged to contact the Kyuquot/Cheklesahht First Nation band office in Kyuquot prior to exploring Brooks Peninsula. Brooks Peninsula is infrequently visited, it is undeveloped and has no marked trails and no facilities, although in some locations ocean debris is placed at known trail heads. Camping is permitted anywhere in the park, but made complicated due to the remoteness, difficulty of access, lack of facilities. Nearby Solander Island is an Ecological Reserve and access is prohibited. List of British Columbia Provincial Parks List of Canadian provincial parks "Brooks Peninsula Park".

BC Geographical Names. Brooks Peninsula Marine Provincial Park at BC Parks Brooks Peninsula at the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia A collection of aerial photos of Brooks Peninsula

Woodside Park tube station

Woodside Park is a London Underground station in Woodside Park, north London. The station is on the High Barnet branch of the Northern line, between West Finchley and Totteridge and Whetstone stations, in Travelcard Zone 4. Woodside Park is the last station in an alphabetical list of London Underground stations. Woodside Park station was planned by the Edgware and London Railway and was opened as Torrington Park on 1 April 1872 by the Great Northern Railway; the station was on a branch of a line. The station was renamed within a month of opening, again in 1882. After the 1921 Railways Act created the Big Four railway companies the line was, from 1923, part of the London & North Eastern Railway; the section of the High Barnet branch north of East Finchley was incorporated into the London Underground network through the "Northern Heights" project begun in the late 1930s. The station was first served by Northern line trains on 14 April 1940 and, after a period where the station was serviced by both operators, LNER services ended in 1941.

The station still retains much of its original Victorian architectural character today. British Rail freight trains continued to serve the station's goods yard until 1 October 1962, when it was closed; the Provisional IRA exploded a bomb at the station's car park on 10 December 1992, during the afternoon rush hour. Commuters and residents were evacuated; the station is close to the Inglis Barracks, where a British soldier was killed by an IRA bombing in 1988. London Buses route 383 serves the station; the station has a large adjacent area for storing coal and now used as a car park. Until about 2000, there was a second car park. A block of flats has now been built on this area; the station is above ground. Both platforms are accessible from the street by wheelchair; the main entrance, with ticket office, is at the end of a cul-de-sac, adjacent to the car park entrance. This leads on to the southbound platform. A Victorian post box is set into the front wall of the station; the entrance leading on to the northbound platform is at the end of the cul-de-sac, a turning off Holden Road.

Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations: details every public and private passenger station, halt and stopping place and present. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-508-7. OCLC 60251199. Jowett, Alan. Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day. Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137. Rose, Douglas; the London Underground, A Diagrammatic History. Capital Transport Publishing. ISBN 1-8541-4219-4. OCLC 59556887. London Transport Museum Photographic Archive Station in 1937 during LNER period prior to London Transport's take over Station in 1944 showing LNER and London Underground signs

Ongi River

The Ongi River flows from the southeastern slopes of the Khangai Mountains in Övörkhangai Province for 435 kilometres or 270 miles through the endorheic Ongi River Basin in Mongolia and through the aimag capital Arvaikheer. In some wet years, it used to empty into Ulaan Lake in north central Ömnögovi Province, in most years it dries up earlier. In recent years it has been additionally threatened by 37 mining operations within the basin, but successful pressure by Tsetsgeegiin Mönkhbayar and the Ongi River Basin Movement helped convince 35 of the operations to cease explorations and harmful activities in the region; the water and groundwater in this area may be contaminated with mercury and cyanide from the mining industry. List of rivers of Mongolia

Kiyosu Castle

Kiyosu Castle is a Japanese castle located in Kiyosu, eastern Aichi Prefecture, Japan. It is noted for its association with the rise to power of Oda Nobunaga; the kanji in the name of the castle was written as 清須城. The current partial reconstruction dates to 1989 and was built as a centennial celebration for the modern-day city of Kiyosu. Kiyosu Castle was built between 1394 and 1427, to guard the strategic junction of the Ise Kaidō with the Nakasendō highways connecting Kyoto with Kamakura; the area was dominated by Shiba Yoshishige head of the Shiba clan and the shugo of Owari, Echizen and Tōtōmi Provinces. Upon completion of construction, Oda Toshisada was installed in the castle as the shugodai, it is thought to have been intended as a defensive stronghold meant to protect Orizu Castle, the seat of Owari's provincial government until its destruction during battle in 1478 during a civil war between various factions of the Oda clan. After the loss of Orizu Castle, Oda Nobuhide shifted his seat to Kiyosu, bringing prosperity to the city, from which he ruled the four counties of lower Owari Province.

After Nobuhide died in 1551, his son Oda Nobunaga was unable to assume control of the entire clan. Nobuhide’s younger brother Oda Nobutomo, with the support of Shiba Yoshimune, took over Kiyosu Castle in 1553. After Yoshimune revealed to Nobunaga an assassination plot in 1554, Nobutomo had Yoshimune put to death; the next year, Nobunaga retook Kiyosu Castle and captured his uncle, forcing him to commit suicide not long after. Nobunaga had his younger brother, Oda Nobuyuki assassinated at Kiyosu Castle’s donjon in 1557. Nobunaga sealed his alliance with Tokugawa Ieyasu during treaty negotiations held at Kiyosu Castle in 1562. Nobunaga relocated from Kiyosu to Iwakura Castle in 1563. After Nobunaga's death, Toyotomi Hideyoshi assembled his retainers at Kiyosu Castle and proclaimed his regency over Nobunaga’s infant grandson, Oda Hidenobu. Kiyosu Castle itself came under the control of Nobunaga’s second son, Oda Nobukatsu, who began large scale renovations in 1586, which included a double ring of moats, as well as a large and a small donjon It was remodeled by expanding the castle grounds to 1.6 km east to west and 2.8 km north to south.

However, Nobukatsu fell afoul of Toyotomi Hideyoshi when he refused orders to change his domains, was replaced at Kiyosu by Fukushima Masanori in 1595. After the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Fukushima Masanori was relocated to Hiroshima Castle, Kiyosu was reassigned to Tokugawa Ieyasu’s 4th son, Matsudaira Tadayoshi. However, he was in poor health from wounds suffered at Sekigahara, died in 1607; the castle passed to Tokugawa Yoshinao. In 1609, by order of Tokugawa Ieyasu, Yoshinao was ordered to relocate the seat of his government to Nagoya Castle; the move occurred from 1609-1613, during which time most of the buildings of Kiyosu Castle were dismantled and relocated to Nagoya. Parts of Nagoya Castle were reconstructed with the use of building materials taken from Kiyosu Castle; the northwest turret of Nagoya Castle's Ofukemaru fortress was called the "Kiyosu Yagura," as it was constructed using parts taken from the Kiyosu Castle donjon. The original kinshachi from Kiyosu Castle are now preserved in the Buddhist temple of Sōfuku-ji in Gifu City in neighboring Gifu Prefecture, a former gate of the castle is preserved at the temple of Ryōfuku-ji in Owari-Asahi and some of the decorated sliding doors from the castle are at the temple of Soken-ji in Naka-ku, Nagoya.

By the Meiji period, there was little remaining of the ruins of Kiyosu Castle aside from earthenworks in the former main bailey. The tracks for the Tōkaidō Main Line railway were laid directly across the site. During the Shōwa period, a municipal park was created around the site of the castle, a bronze statue of Oda Nobunaga was erected in 1936, portraying a young Nobunaga on the eve of the decisive Battle of Okehazama. In 1989, to mark the centennial of the foundation of the modern town of Kiyosu, a reinforced concrete replica donjon was built; the reconstruction is not accurate, as no plans or illustrations of the original Kiyosu Castle have survived, the reconstruction is based on the donjon of Inuyama Castle as being representative of the period. Inside the structure is a local history museum, with displays of arms and armor. Next to the castle is the Kiyosu Armor Factory, run by local volunteers, it teaches visitors by armor artisans, manufactures medieval protective gear. Schmorleitz, Morton S..

Castles in Japan. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co. pp. 144–145. ISBN 0-8048-1102-4. Motoo, Hinago. Japanese Castles. Tokyo: Kodansha. P. 200 pages. ISBN 0-87011-766-1. Mitchelhill, Jennifer. Castles of the Samurai: Power and Beauty. Tokyo: Kodansha. P. 112 pages. ISBN 4770029543. Turnbull, Stephen. Japanese Castles 1540-1640. Osprey Publishing. P. 64 pages. ISBN 1841764299. Kiyosu Castle Jcastle Profile City of Kiyosu: Sightseeing Guide - Kiyosu Castle Japanese Castle Explorer