HMS Pegasus (1776)
HMS Pegasus was a 14 gun ship sloop of the Swan class, launched on 27 December 1776. She was commissioned the same month under Commander John Hamilton Gore and - after completing on 3 March 1777 - sailed for Newfoundland on 3 April, she was lost with all hands in a storm off Newfoundland in October. Colledge, J. J.. Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8. OCLC 67375475. Winfield, British Warships in the Age of Sail 1714-1792: Design, Construction and Fates. Seaforth Publishing, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84415-700-6
The Cormorant-class gunvessels were a class of 4-gun first-class gunvessels built for the Royal Navy in the 1860s. They were somewhat unsuccessful. Seven of the 13 ships ordered were suspended, with 3 finished or converted as survey ships and the other 4 cancelled. Racehorse was wrecked after only 4 years, those ships that were completed as planned had short operational lives, in some cases less than 10 years; the survey vessels lasted longest, with the last ship of the class, being broken up in 1890. The first 6 ships had a 2-cylinder horizontal single-expansion steam engine provided by Robert Napier and Sons and rated at 200 nominal horsepower, driving a single screw. On trials these units developed between 689 indicated horsepower and 689 indicated horsepower, giving speeds of about 11 knots. Sylvia and Nassau were completed as survey ships and were powered by 150 nhp Humphreys and Tennant engines. Myrmidon received Tennant engine; the main armament, principally intended for shore bombardment, was designed with two 68-pounder and two 32-pounder muzzle-loading smoothbore guns.
They were finished, with a single 7-inch/110-pounder Armstrong breech-loading gun and a 68-pounder muzzle-loading smoothbore gun. A pair of broadside 20-pounder Armstrong breech-loading guns were fitted; the 68-pounders were replaced by a pair of 64-pounder muzzle-loading rifled guns. In common with all other Royal Navy wooden screw gunvessels, the Cormorants were rigged as barques, with three masts, with the fore and main masts square rigged, the mizzen fore-and-aft rigged; the first 6 ships were ordered from commercial yards, with fitting out to be done in the Royal Dockyards at Chatham and Woolwich. A further batch of 4 ships were ordered on 5 March 1860 and another batch of 3 on 25 March 1862; the first completed ships had a draught of 11–12 feet, exceeding the intended 8 feet by a considerable margin. Since gunvessels were intended to work in shallow water while bombarding the shore, work on the two batches was suspended. Sylvia and Myrmidon were suspended in 1862 or 1863, but were resumed, with Sylvia and Nassau being finished as survey vessels.
Tartarus was broken up on the slipway in 1865, having cost £6,268 and work to Pegasus cost only £339. Guernsey was never laid down. References SourcesBastock, Ships on the Australia Station, Child & Associates Publishing Pty Ltd. ISBN 0-86777-348-0 Preston, Antony. Send a Gunboat: The Victorian Navy and Supremacy at Sea, 1854–1904. London: Conway. ISBN 978-0-85177-923-2. Winfield, R.. The Sail and Steam Navy List: All the Ships of the Royal Navy 1815–1889. London: Chatham Publishing. ISBN 978-1-86176-032-6
Battle of Ushant (1782)
The Third Battle of Ushant or the Action of 20–21 April 1782 was a naval battle fought during the American Revolutionary War, between a French naval fleet of three ships of the line protecting a convoy and two British Royal naval ships of the line off Ushant, a French island at the mouth of the English Channel off the north-westernmost point of France. This was the third battle. Intelligence had been received that the French were detaching a fleet from Brest destined for the East Indies to supply the Bali de Suffren's fleet in his campaign to recapture French possessions taken by the British in support of Admiral Edward Hughes. Vice-Admiral Samuel Barrington, was sent out with a fleet consisting of twelve sail of the line and three frigates in hopes of falling in with them, sailing on 5 April from Portsmouth. On 20 April, the fleet was northeast of Ushant when the frigate HMS Artois under Captain John Macbride sent a signal after discovering the French fleet. Barrington made the signal for the 84-gun ship HMS Foudroyant in the lead under Captain John Jervis with other ships, to give chase to the French fleet.
The French convoy comprised nineteen transports and the 64-gun Actionnaire armed en flûte bound from Brest to the Île-de-France They were escorted by the 74-gun Protecteur and Pégase, the frigates Indiscrète and Andromaque. At sunset Foudroyant had got far ahead of her consorts, near enough to the French ships and made them out to be a convoy; the squadron soon afterwards separated and the largest ship, the 1,778-ton Pégase which Foudroyant was pursuing bore up. A hard squall with hazy weather, coming on about the same time Foudroyant lost sight of the fleet, about half an hour after midnight brought the chase to close action. Broadsides from Foudroyant caused significant damage and after engaging about three-quarters of an hour, Foudroyant boarded Pégase, compelled her commander Chevalier de Sillans to surrender. Out of a crew of 700 men, she had upwards of 100 wounded while the rest had surrendered. Only two or three men were wounded in Foudroyant including Jervis himself. With other ships arriving up, Pégase was taken possession of.
Her mizzen mast and fore topmast sell overboard soon after the action. In the morning of the 21st some of the squadron again joined company and with the disabled state of Pégase and the continuation of a strong gale with heavy seas induced Captain Jervis to the signal for immediate assistance; the 90-gun HMS Queen, captained by Frederick Maitland, signaled to assist the ship. As soon as the weather permitted Jervis moved the prisoners by nine o clock in the evening of the 22nd. Captain Maitland ordered Pégase and a cutter, in company make their way to England and sail towards the rest of the convoy, which he came up with in sight of a chase after fourteen hours. Queen engaged the ship protecting the convoy fired at her with a broadside, returned only with one gun and struck her colours. Maitland took possession and found her to be Actionnaire, a French ship of sixty-four guns armed en flûte and commanded by Captain de Querengal a Knight of the Order of Saint Louis, she had on board two hundred and sixty seamen and five hundred and fifty soldiers of whom nine were killed and twenty wounded, with most being captured.
At this time there were over one thousand one hundred prisoners on board Queen and Maitland attempted to chase the French ship Protecteur of seventy-four guns but decided to help in taking the rest of the convoy. Twelve of the convoy were taken. Jervis meanwhile captured four transports: Fidelité, Belonne and Duc de Chartres. Nearly half of the French convoy was captured causing severe financial losses to the French treasury. There were lower masts for four seventy-fours, with sails and rigging complete besides her own masts, which were intended for the captured HMS Hannibal off Sumatra renamed; the capture of half the convoy in addition was a huge blow to the Bali de Suffren. The British loss was minimal with only a total of five men were wounded and moderate damage to their ships. Pégase though had been damaged in her masts and yards, her mizzen mast and fore topmast sell overboard soon after the action was used in the Royal Navy and commissioned as the third rate HMS Pegase. She served as a prison ship from 1799, was used in this role until 1815 when she was broken up.
Lord Charles FitzGerald in HMS Prudente who being on his return to Spithead with his prizes, soon after he came upon a cutter off Cape Clear to which he gave chance pursuit of thirty six hours most of the time within gun he came up with and took her. She was called Le Marquis de Castries and was a French privateer pierced for twenty guns but mounting only eighteen six pounders. Vice Admiral Barrington with the ships under his command returned to Spithead on 26 April and soon after that for his services Jervis was invested as a Knight of the Bath on 19 May 1782. Allen, Battles of the British navy, Volume 2. London, H. G. Bohn, 1852 Demerliac, Alain La Marine De Louis XVI: Nomenclature Des Navires Français De 1774 À 1792.. ISBN 2-906381-23-3 Lavery, Brian The Ship of the Line – Volume 1: The development of t
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
The Pelorus-class cruiser was a "third-class" protected cruiser class of eleven Royal Navy warships designed by Sir William White, based on the earlier Pearl-class cruisers. They were ordered in 1893 under the Spencer Programme, laid down 1896–1900; the first, HMS Pelorus, was commissioned in 1896. The Pelorus class ships had a top speed of 20 knots. Most served in minor roles on colonial patrol work, not with the main battlefleets, they carried a complement of 224 and were armed with eight QF 4-inch guns, eight 3 pounder guns, three machine guns, two 18-inch torpedo tubes. They had reciprocating triple expansion steam engines and were equipped with different types of boiler which were trialled in these cruisers; some had Normand water-tube boilers which could give 7,000 horsepower for limited periods of time with forced draught and 5,000 horsepower under natural draught. In an era of naval innovation, the class was outdated before they were launched, they were fitted with a variety of different boilers as a trial but most were not satisfactory.
They had been reprieved. The remainder were to were kept in service through the First World War. HMS Pegasus was sunk in combat in 1914, the rest - except for HMS Pioneer - were scrapped between 1919 and 1922. HMS Pactolus and HMS Pomone had Blechynden boilers which were unreliable, they were removed from active service several years before others in the class. Rear Admiral Cresswell, the 1st Naval Member of the Australian Naval Board described Psyche and Pyramus in 1914 as "the unspeakably useless P. class." Pelorus Class Battleships-Cruisers.co.uk Pelorous Class Third Class Protected Cruisers worldwar1.co.uk
French ship Pégase (1781)
Pégase was a 74-gun ship of the line of the French Navy, lead ship of her class, launched in 1781. She was captured by the Captain John Jervis on 21 April 1782, in HMS Foudroyant, Jervis was invested Knight of the Order of the Bath for the capture. Pégase was commissioned as the third rate HMS Pegase, she served as a prison ship in Portsmouth from 1799, was broken up in 1815. List of ships captured in the 18th century Winfield and Roberts, Stephen French Warships in the Age of Sail 1786-1861: Design, Construction and Fates. Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84832-204-2