The Hawkins class was a class of five heavy cruisers of the Royal Navy designed in 1915 and constructed throughout the First World War. All ships were named after Elizabethan sea captains; the three ships remaining as cruisers in 1939 served in the Second World War, with Effingham being an early war loss through wreck. Vindictive, though no longer a cruiser served throughout the War; this class formed the basis for the definition of the maximum cruiser type under the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922. Although the Hawkins class were the first heavy cruisers built for the Royal Navy, they were designed as improved versions of the Birmingham sub-class of the Town-class light cruisers, thus they were known as the "Improved Birmingham" type, their lineage descended through an intermediate sketch design of 1912 known as the "Atlantic Cruiser", armed with a combination of 7.5 and 6-inch guns, designed to counter reported large German cruisers armed with 7-inch guns. In 1915, a new design of cruiser was prepared for trade protection on distant waters, for which a heavy armament, long range and high speed was required.
Previous large cruisers had been of protected cruiser type. These ships had been made obsolete by the adoption of oil-firing and the steam turbine engine and had been superseded by the battlecruiser and the light cruiser; the Hawkins design was a light cruiser enlarged sufficiently to increase their range and armament as required. A mixed armament of 9.2 and 6-inch guns was rejected after wartime experience illustrated the difficulty of controlling a mixed battery as shell splashes could not be differentiated. Thus, a uniform battery of 7.5-inch calibre was adopted, controlled by the innovation of director firing. The development of director firing made the planned armament obsolete, as director control relies on "straddles" in which some shells in a given salvo are seen to fall short of the target and some long; as long as straddles are maintained, some percentage of the shots will be hits. With a main battery consisting of only two guns, a straddle of one shell falling short and one long mathematically eliminates the possibility of a hit, while a uniform six-gun broadside allows the possibility of up to four hits out of a straddle.
The boilers were a combination of coal and oil firing to ensure a supply of fuel on distant stations. The installed power was 60,000 shp for 30 knots. However, only Hawkins and Vindictive were completed as such; the other ships were not constructed with as much haste and were completed post-war with oil-firing only, increasing power to 70,000 shp for 31 knots. These ships did not suit the Royal Navy's post-World War I needs well, as Britain needed numbers of cruisers, rather than individually powerful ships; as breaking them up on the slips would have been an unwarranted waste of money, they were completed anyway. At just under 10,000 tons and armed with 7.5-inch guns, they became the prototype of the heavy cruiser designs based on limitations set by the Washington Naval Treaty in 1922. The fifth and last ship of the class - laid down as Cavendish - was altered to an aircraft carrier while building, renamed Vindictive to perpetuate the name of the cruiser sunk at the Second Ostend Raid and her construction was rushed to bring her into service before her cruiser sisters.
She had a 100-foot flying-off platform forwards and a 215-foot landing deck aft and a hangar for up to eight aircraft. She was armed with six 12-pounder guns. In 1923 she reverted to a cruiser, but did not carry a ` B' gun. After 1935 she did not serve in a cruiser role. No ships were completed with the original design secondary armament. Hawkins carried only the 12-pounder anti-aircraft guns, her sisters having two or three QF 4-inch Mark V guns on mountings HA Mark III. In 1929, Hawkins had her 12-pounder guns replaced by an equal number of the same model of 4-inch guns as her sisters. Frobisher was disarmed as a training ship in 1932, but reverted to a cruiser in 1937 when Vindictive was specially demilitarised for this role; the ships were scheduled for disposal in 1936, but rising international tensions caused their retention. In 1937, Effingham was rebuilt as a light cruiser with nine BL 6-inch Mark XII guns on single mountings CP Mark XIV; these were shipped superfiring forwards in'A','B' and'C' positions, on either wing, triple aft in'W','X' and'Y' positions with the ninth gun being on the quarterdeck in position'Z'.
The after boiler rooms were removed and the remaining uptakes trunked into a single large funnel. Secondary armament was eight QF 4-inch Mark XVI on twin mountings HA/LA Mark XIX, eight QF 2-pounder Mark VIII guns on two quadruple mountings Mark VII and twelve 0.5 inch Vickers machine guns on three quadruple mountings Mark I. The submerged torpedo tubes were removed, she carried a crane amidships. It had been planned to rebuild Hawkins and Frobisher on similar lines, but other priorities prevented this, they were re-armed for war with all their 7.5-inch guns, except in Frobisher which had the wing guns removed so that the 4-inch gun deck could be extended out to the ship's sides. In 1940, they received two or four quadruple 2 pounder "multiple pom-pom" mountings and seven or eight 20 mm Oerl
Torpoint is a civil parish and town on the Rame Peninsula in southeast Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated opposite the city of Plymouth across the Hamoaze, the tidal estuary of the River Tamar. Torpoint had a population of 8,457 at the 2001 census. Two electoral wards exist, their combined populations at the same census were 7,717. In the Cornish language Torpoint is called Penntorr. Torpoint is linked to Plymouth by the Torpoint Ferry; the three vessels that operate the service are chain ferries – that is, they are propelled across the river by pulling themselves on fixed chains which lie across the bed of the river. The journey takes about seven minutes, it is said that Torpoint's name is derived from Tar Point, a name given because of the initial industry on the west bank of the Hamoaze. However this is a nickname given by workers, Torpoint meaning "rocky headland". Torpoint is an eighteenth-century planned town; the grid-based design for the town was commissioned by Reginald Pole Carew in the Parish of Antony in 1774.
His family continue to have a strong influence in the area, having become the Carew Poles in the twentieth century, still reside at their family seat, Antony House. In 1796 Torpoint was the setting for a shooting battle between the crew of a government vessel, the Viper, a large party of armed liquor smugglers, in which one person was killed and five people wounded. Due to the presence of Devonport Dockyard, the town grew; the establishment of the Royal Navy's main training facility, HMS Raleigh increased the population of Torpoint. See Category:People from Torpoint John Langdon Down was born in Torpoint in 1828, he described the medical condition, now referred to as Down syndrome. He was called back on a number of occasions to help his father in his local business until his father's death in 1853. Educational institutions in Torpoint include: Torpoint Infant School — a medium-large infant school. Carbeile Junior School — a large primary school. Torpoint Community College, The Humanities College for South East Cornwall — the only humanities college in south east Cornwall.
Torpoint has a non-league football club, Torpoint Athletic F. C. which plays at The Mill. Torpoint is twinned with Benodet in France. Torpoint website Cornwall Record Office Online Catalogue for Torpoint
A frigate is a type of warship, having various sizes and roles over the last few centuries. In the 17th century, a frigate was any warship built for speed and maneuverability, the description used being "frigate-built"; these could be warships carrying their principal batteries of carriage-mounted guns on a single deck or on two decks. The term was used for ships too small to stand in the line of battle, although early line-of-battle ships were referred to as frigates when they were built for speed. In the 18th century, frigates were as long as a ship of the line and were square-rigged on all three masts, but were faster and with lighter armament, used for patrolling and escort. In the definition adopted by the British Admiralty, they were rated ships of at least 28 guns, carrying their principal armaments upon a single continuous deck – the upper deck – while ships of the line possessed two or more continuous decks bearing batteries of guns. In the late 19th century, the armoured frigate was a type of ironclad warship that for a time was the most powerful type of vessel afloat.
The term "frigate" was used because such ships still mounted their principal armaments on a single continuous upper deck. In modern navies, frigates are used to protect other warships and merchant-marine ships as anti-submarine warfare combatants for amphibious expeditionary forces, underway replenishment groups, merchant convoys. Ship classes dubbed "frigates" have more resembled corvettes, destroyers and battleships; some European navies such as the French, German or Spanish ones use the term "frigate" for both their destroyers and frigates. The rank "frigate captain" derives from the name of this type of ship; the term "frigate" originated in the Mediterranean in the late 15th century, referring to a lighter galley-type warship with oars, sails and a light armament, built for speed and maneuverability. The etymology of the word remains uncertain, although it may have originated as a corruption of aphractus, a Latin word for an open vessel with no lower deck. Aphractus, in turn, derived from the Ancient Greek phrase ἄφρακτος ναῦς - "undefended ship".
In 1583, during the Eighty Years' War of 1568-1648, Habsburg Spain recovered the southern Netherlands from the Protestant rebels. This soon resulted in the use of the occupied ports as bases for privateers, the "Dunkirkers", to attack the shipping of the Dutch and their allies. To achieve this the Dunkirkers developed small, sailing vessels that came to be referred to as frigates; the success of these Dunkirker vessels influenced the ship design of other navies contending with them, but because most regular navies required ships of greater endurance than the Dunkirker frigates could provide, the term soon came to apply less to any fast and elegant sail-only warship. In French, the term "frigate" gave rise to a verb - frégater, meaning'to build long and low', to an adjective, adding more confusion; the huge English Sovereign of the Seas could be described as "a delicate frigate" by a contemporary after her upper decks were reduced in 1651. The navy of the Dutch Republic became the first navy to build the larger ocean-going frigates.
The Dutch navy had three principal tasks in the struggle against Spain: to protect Dutch merchant ships at sea, to blockade the ports of Spanish-held Flanders to damage trade and halt enemy privateering, to fight the Spanish fleet and prevent troop landings. The first two tasks required speed, shallowness of draft for the shallow waters around the Netherlands, the ability to carry sufficient supplies to maintain a blockade; the third task required heavy armament, sufficient to stand up to the Spanish fleet. The first of the larger battle-capable frigates were built around 1600 at Hoorn in Holland. By the stages of the Eighty Years' War the Dutch had switched from the heavier ships still used by the English and Spanish to the lighter frigates, carrying around 40 guns and weighing around 300 tons; the effectiveness of the Dutch frigates became most evident in the Battle of the Downs in 1639, encouraging most other navies the English, to adopt similar designs. The fleets built by the Commonwealth of England in the 1650s consisted of ships described as "frigates", the largest of which were two-decker "great frigates" of the third rate.
Carrying 60 guns, these vessels were as capable as "great ships" of the time. The term "frigate" implied a long hull-design, which relates directly to speed and which in turn, helped the development of the broadside tactic in naval warfare. At this time, a further design evolved, reintroducing oars and resulting in galley frigates such as HMS Charles Galley of 1676, rated as a 32-gun fifth-rate but had a bank of 40 oars set below the upper deck which could propel the ship in the absence of a favourable wind. In Danish, the word "fregat" applies to warships carrying as few as 16 guns, such as HMS Falcon, which the British classified as a sloop. Under the rating system of the Royal Navy, by the middle of the 18th century, the term "frigate" was technically restricted to single-decked ships of the fifth rate, though small 28-gun frigates classed as sixth rate; the classic sailing frigate, well-known today for its role in the Napoleonic wars, can be traced back to French deve
Sir Walter Raleigh spelled Ralegh, was an English landed gentleman, poet, politician, courtier and explorer. He was cousin to younger half-brother of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, he is well known for popularising tobacco in England. Raleigh was one of the most notable figures of the Elizabethan era. Raleigh was born to a Protestant family in Devon, the son of Walter Raleigh and Catherine Champernowne. Little is known of his early life, though in his late teens he spent some time in France taking part in the religious civil wars. In his 20s he took part in the suppression of rebellion in Ireland participating in the Siege of Smerwick, he became a landlord of property confiscated from the native Irish. He rose in the favour of Queen Elizabeth I and was knighted in 1585. Raleigh was instrumental in the English colonisation of North America and was granted a royal patent to explore Virginia, paving the way for future English settlements. In 1591, he secretly married Elizabeth Throckmorton, one of the Queen's ladies-in-waiting, without the Queen's permission, for which he and his wife were sent to the Tower of London.
After his release, they retired to his estate at Dorset. In 1594, Raleigh heard of a "City of Gold" in South America and sailed to find it, publishing an exaggerated account of his experiences in a book that contributed to the legend of "El Dorado". After Queen Elizabeth died in 1603, Raleigh was again imprisoned in the Tower, this time for being involved in the Main Plot against King James I, not favourably disposed towards him. In 1616, he was released to lead a second expedition in search of El Dorado. During the expedition, men led by his top commander ransacked a Spanish outpost, in violation of both the terms of his pardon and the 1604 peace treaty with Spain. Raleigh returned to England and, to appease the Spanish, he was arrested and executed in 1618. Little is known about Raleigh's birth but he is believed to have been born on 22 January 1552, he grew up in the parish of East Budleigh in South Devon. He was the youngest of the five sons of Walter Raleigh of Fardel Manor in the parish of Cornwood, in South Devon.
His family is assumed to have been a junior branch of the de Raleigh family, 11th century lords of the manor of Raleigh, Pilton in North Devon, although the two branches are known to have borne dissimilar coats of arms, adopted at the start of the age of heraldry. His mother was Katherine Champernowne, his father's 3rd wife, the 4th daughter of Sir Philip Champernowne, lord of the manor of Modbury, Devon, by his wife Catherine Carew, a daughter of Sir Edmund Carew of Mohuns Ottery in the parish of Luppitt and widow of Otes Gilbert of Greenway in the parish of Brixham and of Compton Castle in the parish of Marldon, both in Devon. Katherine Champernowne's paternal aunt was Kat Ashley, governess of Queen Elizabeth I, who introduced the young men at court; the coat of arms of Otes Gilbert and Katherine Champernowne survives in a stained glass window in Churston Ferrers Church, near Greenway. Sir Walter's half-brothers John Gilbert, Humphrey Gilbert, Adrian Gilbert, his full brother Carew Raleigh were prominent during the reigns of Queen Elizabeth I and King James I.
Raleigh's family was Protestant in religious orientation and had a number of near escapes during the reign of Roman Catholic Queen Mary I of England. In the most notable of these, his father had to hide in a tower to avoid execution; as a result, Raleigh developed a hatred of Roman Catholicism during his childhood, proved himself quick to express it after Protestant Queen Elizabeth I came to the throne in 1558. In matters of religion, Elizabeth was more moderate than her half sister Mary. In 1569, Raleigh left for France to serve with the Huguenots in the French religious civil wars. In 1572, Raleigh was registered as an undergraduate at Oriel College, but he left a year without a degree. Raleigh proceeded to finish his education in the Inns of Court. In 1575, he was registered at the Middle Temple. At his trial in 1603, he stated, his life is uncertain between 1569 and 1575, but in his History of the World he claimed to have been an eyewitness at the Battle of Moncontour in France. In 1575 or 1576, Raleigh returned to England.
Between 1579 and 1583, Raleigh took part in the suppression of the Desmond Rebellions. He was present at the Siege of Smerwick, where he led the party that beheaded some 600 Spanish and Italian soldiers. Raleigh received 40,000 acres upon the seizure and distribution of land following the attainders arising from the rebellion, including the coastal walled town of Youghal and, further up the Blackwater River, the village of Lismore; this made him one of the principal landowners in Munster, but he had limited success inducing English tenants to settle on his estates. Raleigh made the town of Youghal his occasional home during his 17 years as an Irish landlord being domiciled at Killua Castle, County Westmeath, he was mayor there from 1588 to 1589. His town mansion of Myrtle Grove is assumed to be the setting for the story that his servant doused him with a bucket of water after seeing clouds of smoke coming from Raleigh's pipe, in the belief that he had been set alight, but this story is told of other places associated with Raleigh: the Virginia Ash Inn in Henstridge near Sherborne, Sherborne Castle, South Wraxall Manor in Wiltshire, home of Raleigh's friend Sir Walter Long.
Amongst Raleigh's acquai
HMS Raleigh (1873)
HMS Raleigh was an unarmoured iron or "sheathed" masted frigate completed in 1874. She was one of a series of three designed by Sir Edward Reed; the other two iron-hulled frigates were HMS Shah. The Controller intended to build six of these big frigates, but only three were ordered in view of their high cost, they retained the traditional broadside layout of armament, with a full rig of sails. Although believed to be named after Sir Walter Raleigh, the ship was in fact named for George of Raleigh; the following table gives the build details and purchase cost of the Raleigh and the other two iron frigates. Standard British practice at that time was for these costs to exclude armament and stores. *Date first commissioned. Raleigh displaced 5,200 tons and was 298 feet long by 49 feet wide, drew 24 feet 7 inches, she was designed as a sailing vessel with an auxiliary steam engine. Under favourable sailing conditions she could make 13 knots. With 9 boilers operating at 30 pounds per square inch, her 1-shaft horizontal single expansion engine developed 5,639 horsepower and moved her along at 16.2 knots, an unprecedented speed at the time.
Two 9-inch muzzle-loading rifle guns and fourteen 7-inch 90 cwt MLR guns formed the main armament, supplemented by six 64-pounder MLRs. The 9-inch guns were chase weapons, mounted at back; the fourteen 7-inch guns were the main deck broadside battery. These ships were constructed in response to the fast, wooden American Wampanoag-class frigates, their iron hulls were clad from keel to bulwarks with a double layer of 3-inch timber. Raleigh was copper bottomed. All three were designed for use in far seas; the ship was intended as a successor to the wooden steam-frigates such as Ariadne. Inconstant and Shah had been considered by some too large and too expensive, so Raleigh was designed smaller; the design was a desire to retain good sailing properties. The propeller was damaged during steam trials, breaking one blade and cracking the other, but she proceeded to sailing trials around Ireland before repairs were made. George Tryon, appointed her first captain, made a number of minor alterations to her design details as she was completing building.
Raleigh had a normal crew of 530 men. In 1884, she was rearmed, retaining eight 7-inch MLR guns on broadside, but gaining eight more modern 6-inch breech-loading rifled guns and eight 5-inch BLR guns. Four modern light guns were added as well as 12 machine guns and two torpedo carriages. On 13 January 1874 Raleigh was commissioned at Chatham by Captain George Tryon, Commander Arthur Knyvet Wilson second in command. Under Tryon, Raleigh served as part of the 1875 Detached Squadron from Autumn 1874 until she left at Bombay in February 1876; the Squadron was commanded by Rear Admiral Sir George Granville Randolph until 31 May 1875, by Rear Admiral Rowley Lambert. The 1875 Detached Squadron consisted of: Narcissus, Nathaniel Bowden-Smith Lord Charles Montagu Douglas Scott Immortalité, Francis Alexander Hume Gerard Noel Topaze, Arthur Thomas Thrupp Newcastle, Robert Gordon Douglas Raleigh, George Tryon Doris, Hon Edmund FremantleThe Detached Squadron travelled to Gibraltar - Madeira - Saint Vincent - Montevideo - Falkland Islands - Cape of Good Hope - Saint Helena - Ascension - Saint Vincent - Gibraltar - Cape of Good Hope - Bombay - Colombo - Trincomalee - Calcutta - Bombay, where Raleigh left the squadron.
The squadron returned to Plymouth on 11 May 1877. Meanwhile Raleigh served in the Mediterranean. Speed trials between the ships demonstrated that Raleigh was the fastest steaming, but was the second fastest under sail, after Immortalité. At Montevideo a number of sailors deserted from all the ships of the squadron, but a number were recaptured after searching British merchant ships. Raleigh had lost 30 men to desertion before leaving England. On the second journey to the Cape of Good Hope a man fell overboard in a high sea. Tryon took the risk of launching a boat to rescue him, risky because the high sea might swamp the boat and lose the rescue crew too. However, all went well and Tryon commissioned a painting of the event, with photos of the painting gven to every officer. On 11 May 1877 Captain Charles Trelawney Jago took command. Raleigh continued to serve as part of the Mediterranean Fleet, participated in Hornby's forcing of the Dardanelles to discourage Russian occupation of Constantinople, the subsequent occupation of Cyprus, acquired from Turkey.
From 6 March 1885 to 1886 Raleigh was commanded by Captain Arthur Knyvet Wilson, was flagship of Rear-Admiral Walter James Hunt-Grubbe, on the Cape of Good Hope and West Africa Station. Raleigh continued as flagship of Rear-Admiral Hunt-Grubbe until 29 March 1888. Roger Keyes served aboard her as a young midshipman from 1887 to 1890. In March 1888 the Raleigh became the flagship of Rear-Admiral Richard Wells, on the same station, in May 1888 Captain Wilmot Fawkes took command. From September 1890 Raleigh was commanded by Captain Arthur Barrow, as flagship of Rear-Admiral Henry Frederick Nicholson, again on the Cape of Good
HMS Raleigh (shore establishment)
HMS Raleigh is the modern-day basic training facility of the Royal Navy at Torpoint, United Kingdom. It is spread over several square miles, has damage control simulators and fire-fighting training facilities, as well as a permanently moored training ship, the former HMS Brecon, its principal function is the delivery of both New Entry Basic Training. HMS Raleigh was commissioned on 9 January 1940 as a training establishment for Ordinary Seamen following the Military Training Act which required that all males aged 20 and 21 years old be called up for six months full-time military training, transferred to the reserve. During the Second World War, 44 sailors and 21 Royal Engineers were killed when a German bomb hit the air-raid shelter they were in at Raleigh on 28 April 1941. In 1944, the United States Navy took over the base to use as an embarkation centre prior to the Invasion of Normandy. Raleigh was transferred back to the Royal Navy in July 1944 to continue training seamen. Early in 1950 the base became the new entry and engineering training establishment for stoker mechanics.
The cruiser HMS Newfoundland was used for "onboard training, boiler room, auxiliary machinery, ships boats etc". The base was modernised through the 1970s, in the early 1980s, Raleigh took on the Part I training for the Women's Royal Naval Service, Artificer Apprentices as well as adding the Royal Naval Supply School; these had taken place at HMS Dauntless, HMS Fisgard and HMS Pembroke respectively. Between 1980 and 1981 it was home to Rowallan Division providing training before entry to BRNC Dartmouth. In 1990, the training of male and female recruits was merged, over the following ten years the base absorbed the Cookery School and the Submarine School from HMS Dolphin. In 2007, phase one training for all new Royal Navy recruits was increased to nine weeks and subsequently ten of their career at the base, which provides courses in military training, seamanship and submarine operations, it delivers training for crews preparing for operational deployments. HMS Raleigh is the home of Defence Maritime Logistics School providing training for the Royal Navy's Logistics Officers, stewards, pay clerks, supply chain ratings, the Seaman Specialist School, the Submarine School and HM Royal Marines Band Plymouth.
Post holders included: Rear-Admiral Charles Otway Alexander: October 1939-March 1944 Captain Harold Hickling: September 1944-January 1945 Captain Alexander H. Maxwell-Hyslop: January 1945-June 1946 Captain George F. Stevens-Guille: June 1946-February 1948 Captain Philip C. Taylor: February 1948-May 1949 Captain Iain G. Maclean: May 1949-December 1950 Captain William E. C. Davy: December 1950-September 1953 Captain Ivan O. Backhouse: September 1953-June 1955 Captain William G. Pulvertaft: June 1955-July 1957 Captain Archibald G. Forman: July 1957-May 1959 Captain John A. Osborne: May 1959-June 1961 Captain George C. Crowley: June 1961-May 1963 Captain Denis Jermain: May 1963-February 1965 Captain Peter White: February 1965-March 1967 Captain Peter G. R. Mitchell: March 1967-February 1969 Captain James F. R. Weir: February 1969-April 1971 Captain Malcolm C. Denman: April 1971-July 1973 Captain Henry E. Howard: July 1973-February 1976 Captain Robert W. F. Gerken: February 1976-February 1978 Captain Richard E. Lambert: February 1978-October 1979 Captain John Jacobsen: October 1979-March 1982 Captain Brian R. Outhwaite: March 1982-February 1984 Captain Brian T. Brown: February 1984-1985 Captain Robert C.
F. Hill: 1986-1987 Captain Peter J. Grindal: October 1987-1989 Captain John C. L. Wright: 1989-1991 Captain Richard O. Irwin: April 1990-October 1992 Captain Peter A. Dunt: October 1992-1994 Captain Richard A. Y. Bridges: 1994-September 1995 Commodore Hugh W. Rickard: September 1995-1998 Commodore Roger G. Lockwood: 1998-2000 Commodore Laurence P. Brokenshire: 2000-July 2003 Commodore David W. Pond: July 2003-January 2006 Commodore W. John Keegan: January 2006-January 2008 Commodore S. Jonathan Woodcock: January 2008-December 2009 Captain Stephen Murdoch: December 2009-September 2012 Captain Robert Fancy: September 2012-September 2014 Captain Robert J. A. Bellfield: September 2014-September 2016 Captain Eleanor L. Ablett: September 2016-September 2018 Captain Richard Harris: September 2018-