The Flower-class corvette was a British class of 267 corvettes used during World War II with the Allied navies as anti-submarine convoy escorts during the Battle of the Atlantic. Royal Navy ships of this class were named after hence the name of the class; the majority served during World War II with the Royal Royal Canadian Navy. Several ships built in Canada were transferred from the RN to the United States Navy under the lend-lease programme, seeing service in both navies; some corvettes transferred to the USN were manned by the US Coast Guard. The vessels serving with the US Navy were known as Temptress and Action-class patrol gunboats. Other Flower-class corvettes served with the Free French Naval Forces, the Royal Netherlands Navy, the Royal Norwegian Navy, the Royal Indian Navy, the Royal Hellenic Navy, the Royal New Zealand Navy, the Royal Yugoslav Navy, post-war, the South African Navy. After World War II many surplus Flower-class vessels saw worldwide use in other navies, as well as civilian use.
HMCS Sackville is the only member of the class to be preserved as a museum ship. The term "corvette" was a French name for a small sailing warship, intermediate between the frigate and the sloop-of-war. In the 1830s the term was adopted by the RN for sailing warships of similar size operating in the shipping protection role. With the arrival of steam power, paddle- and screw-driven corvettes were built for the same purpose, growing in power and armament over the decades. In 1877 the RN abolished the "corvette" as a traditional category; the months leading up to World War II saw the RN return to the concept of a small escort warship being used in the shipping protection role. The Flower class was based on the design of Southern Pride, a whale-catcher, were labelled "corvettes", thus restoring the title for the RN, although the Flower-class has no connection with pre-1877 cruising vessels. There are two distinct groups of vessels in this class: the original Flower-class, 225 vessels ordered during the 1939 and 1940 building programmes.
The modified Flowers were larger and somewhat better armed. All Flower-class vessels, of original or modified design, that saw service with the USN are known as Action-class gunboats, carried the hull classification symbol PG. In early 1939, with the risk of war with Nazi Germany increasing, it was clear to the Royal Navy that it needed more escort ships to counter the threat from Kriegsmarine U-boats. One particular concern was the need to protect shipping off the east coast of Britain. What was needed was something larger and faster than trawlers, but still cheap enough to be built in large numbers, preferably at small merchant shipyards, as larger yards were busy. To meet this requirement, the Smiths Dock Company of Middlesbrough, a specialist in the design and build of fishing vessels, offered a development of its 700-ton, 16 knots whale catcher Southern Pride, they were intended as small convoy escort ships that could be produced and cheaply in large numbers. Despite naval planners' intentions that they be deployed for coastal convoys, their long range meant that they became the mainstay of Mid-Ocean Escort Force convoy protection during the first half of the war.
The Flower class became an essential resource for North Atlantic convoy protection until larger vessels such as destroyer escorts and frigates could be produced in sufficient quantities. The simple design of the Flower class using parts and techniques common to merchant shipping meant they could be constructed in small commercial shipyards all over the United Kingdom and Canada, where larger warships could not be built. Additionally, the use of commercial triple expansion machinery instead of steam turbines meant the Royal Naval Reserve and Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve crews that were manning the corvettes would be familiar with their operation. Flower-class vessels were slow for a warship, with maximum speed of 16 kn, they were very armed as they were intended for anti-submarine warfare. The original Flowers had the standard RN layout, consisting of a raised forecastle, a well deck the bridge or wheelhouse, a continuous deck running aft; the crew quarters were in the foc'sle while the galley was at the rear, making for poor messing arrangements.
The modified Flowers saw the forecastle extended aft past the bridge to the aft end of the funnel, a variation known as the "long forecastle" design. Apart from providing a useful space where the whole crew could gather out of the weather, the added weight improved the ships' stability and speed and was retroactively applied to a number of the original Flower-class vessels during the mid and latter years of the war; the original Flowers had a mast located forward the bridge, a notable exception to naval practice at that time. The modified Flowers saw the mast returned to the normal position aft of the bridge. A cruiser stern finished the appearance for all vessels in the class; the RN ordered 145 Flower-class corvettes in 1939, the first 26 on 25 July with a further batch of 30 on 31 August, all under the 1939 Pre-War Pr
The River Thames, known alternatively in parts as the Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At 215 miles, it is the longest river in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom, after the River Severn, it flows through Oxford, Henley-on-Thames and Windsor. The lower reaches of the river are called the Tideway, derived from its long tidal reach up to Teddington Lock, it rises at Thames Head in Gloucestershire, flows into the North Sea via the Thames Estuary. The Thames drains the whole of Greater London, its tidal section, reaching up to Teddington Lock, includes most of its London stretch and has a rise and fall of 23 feet. Running through some of the driest parts of mainland Britain and abstracted for drinking water, the Thames' discharge is low considering its length and breadth: the Severn has a discharge twice as large on average despite having a smaller drainage basin. In Scotland, the Tay achieves more than double the Thames' average discharge from a drainage basin, 60% smaller.
Along its course are 45 navigation locks with accompanying weirs. Its catchment area covers a small part of western England; the river contains over 80 islands. With its waters varying from freshwater to seawater, the Thames supports a variety of wildlife and has a number of adjoining Sites of Special Scientific Interest, with the largest being in the remaining parts of the North Kent Marshes and covering 5,449 hectares; the Thames, from Middle English Temese, is derived from the Brittonic Celtic name for the river, recorded in Latin as Tamesis and yielding modern Welsh Tafwys "Thames". The name may have meant "dark" and can be compared to other cognates such as Russian темно, Lithuanian tamsi "dark", Latvian tumsa "darkness", Sanskrit tamas and Welsh tywyll "darkness" and Middle Irish teimen "dark grey"; the same origin is shared by countless other river names, spread across Britain, such as the River Tamar at the border of Devon and Cornwall, several rivers named Tame in the Midlands and North Yorkshire, the Tavy on Dartmoor, the Team of the North East, the Teifi and Teme of Wales, the Teviot in the Scottish Borders, as well as one of the Thames' tributaries called the Thame.
Kenneth H. Jackson has proposed that the name of the Thames is not Indo-European, while Peter Kitson suggested that it is Indo-European but originated before the Celts and has a name indicating "muddiness" from a root *tā-,'melt'. Indirect evidence for the antiquity of the name'Thames' is provided by a Roman potsherd found at Oxford, bearing the inscription Tamesubugus fecit, it is believed. Tamese was referred to as a place, not a river in the Ravenna Cosmography; the river's name has always been pronounced with a simple t /t/. A similar spelling from 1210, "Tamisiam", is found in the Magna Carta; the Thames through Oxford is sometimes called the Isis. And in Victorian times and cartographers insisted that the entire river was named the Isis from its source down to Dorchester on Thames and that only from this point, where the river meets the Thame and becomes the "Thame-isis" should it be so called. Ordnance Survey maps still label the Thames as "River Isis" down to Dorchester. However, since the early 20th century this distinction has been lost in common usage outside of Oxford, some historians suggest the name Isis is nothing more than a truncation of Tamesis, the Latin name for the Thames.
Sculptures titled Tamesis and Isis by Anne Seymour Damer can be found on the bridge at Henley-on-Thames, Oxfordshire. Richard Coates suggests that while the river was as a whole called the Thames, part of it, where it was too wide to ford, was called *lowonida; this gave the name to a settlement on its banks, which became known as Londinium, from the Indo-European roots *pleu- "flow" and *-nedi "river" meaning something like the flowing river or the wide flowing unfordable river. For merchant seamen, the Thames has long been just the "London River". Londoners refer to it as "the river" in expressions such as "south of the river"; the river gives its name to three informal areas: the Thames Valley, a region of England around the river between Oxford and West London. Thames Valley Police is a formal body. In non-administrative use, the river's name is used in those of Thames Valley University, Thames Water, Thames Television, publishing company Thames & Hudson and South Thames College. An example of its use in the names of historic entities is the Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company.
The administrative powers of the Thames Conservancy have been taken on with modifications by the Environment Agency and, in respect of the Tideway part of the river, such powers are split between the agency and the Port of London Authority. The marks of human activity, in some cases dating back to Pre-Roman Britain, are visible at various points along the river; these include a variety of structure
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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The twenty-eight Anchusa-class sloops were built under the Emergency War Programme for the Royal Navy in World War I as the final part of the larger "Flower class", which were referred to as the "Cabbage class", or "Herbaceous Borders". They were single screw fleet sweeping vessels with triple hulls at the bow to give extra protection against loss when working; the Anchusa class of corvettes or convoy sloops were completed in 1917 and 1918. They were a small class of convoy protection ships built to look like merchant ships for use as Q-ships in World War I. Two members of the Anchusa group, HMS Chrysanthemum and HMS Saxifrage, survived to be moored on the River Thames for use as Drill Ships by the RNVR until 1988, a total of seventy years in RN service. HMS President was sold and preserved, is now one of the last three surviving warships of the Royal Navy built during the First World War; these ships were Q-ships. Six ships were ordered on 1 January 1917: Anchusa, built by Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth and Company, Walker on Tyne, launched 21 April 1917.
Sunk by the German submarine U-54 off the west coast of Ireland 16 July 1918. Bergamot, built by Armstrong Whitworth, launched 5 May 1917. Sunk by the German submarine U-84 in the Atlantic 13 August 1917. Candytuft, built by Armstrong Whitworth, launched 19 May 1917. Torpedoed by a German submarine 18 November 1917 and stranded near Bougie, Algeria. Ceanothus, built by Armstrong Whitworth, launched 2 June 1917. Transferred to Royal Indian Marine in May 1922, renamed Elphinstone. Convolvulus, built by Barclay Curle and Company, launched 19 May 1917. Sold for breaking up 1 December 1921. Eglantine, built by Barclay Curle, launched 22 June 1917. Sold for breaking up 1 December 1921. Two more ships were ordered on 15 January 1917: Spiraea, built by William Simons and Company, launched 1 November 1917. Sold for breaking up 6 September 1922. Syringa, built by Workman and Company, launched 29 September 1917. Sold to Egypt 31 March 1920 and renamed Sollum. Twenty more ships were ordered on 21 February 1917: Arbutus, built by Armstrong Whitworth, launched 8 September 1917.
Sunk by the German submarine UB-65 in the St. George's Channel 16 December 1917. Auricula, built by Armstrong Whitworth, launched 4 October 1917. Sold for breaking up 1 February 1923. Bryony, built by Armstrong Whitworth, launched 27 October 1917. Sold for breaking up 3 April 1938. Chrysanthemum, built by Armstrong Whitworth, launched 10 November 1917. Target towing vessel in May 1920. Transferred to Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve 1938, stationed on the Embankment in London. Coreopsis, built by Barclay Curle, launched 15 September 1917. Sold for breaking up 6 September 1922. Cowslip, built by Barclay Carle, launched 19 October 1917. Sunk by the German submarine UB-105 off Cape Spartel 25 April 1918. Dianthus, built by Barclay Curle, launched 1 December 1917. Sold to Mexican State Line 3 June 1921, became mercantile Guerrero. Gardenia, built by Barclay Curle, launched 27 December 1917. Sold for breaking up 15 January 1923. Gilia, built by Barclay Curle, launched 15 March 1918. Sold for breaking up 15 January 1923.
Harebell, built by Barclay Curle, launched 10 May 1918. Sold for breaking up in December 1939. Ivy, built by Blyth Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company, launched 31 October 1917. Sold 2 June 1921, became mercantile Sinaloa. Marjoram, built by Greenock & Grangemouth Dockyard Company, launched 26 December 1917. Intended to become RNVR drill ship President, but was wrecked in January 1921 off Flintstone Head while en route to fit out at Hawlbowline. Mistletoe, built by Greenock & Grangemouth, launched 17 November 1917. Sold 25 January 1921, became mercantile Chiapas. Pelargonium, built by William Hamilton & Company, Port Glasgow, launched 18 March 1918. Sold 25 January 1921, became mercantile Oaxaca. Rhododendron, built by Irvine's Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company, West Hartlepool. Sunk by the German submarine U-70 in the North Sea 5 May 1918. Saxifrage, built by Lobnitz and Company, launched 29 January 1918. Became RNVR drill ship 1921, stationed on the Embankment in London. Silene, built by William Simons and Company, launched 12 March 1918.
Sold for breaking up 29 December 1921. Sweetbriar, built by Swan Hunter and Wigham Richardson, Wallsend on Tyne, launched 5 October 1917. Sold for breaking up 7 October 1927. Tuberose, built by Swan Hunter, launched 16 November 1917. Sold for breaking up 15 January 1923. Windflower, built by Workman, Clark & Company, launched 12 April 1918. Sold for breaking up 7 October 1927. Media related to Anchusa class sloop at Wikimedia Commons
Saxifraga is the largest genus in the family Saxifragaceae, containing about 440 species of holarctic perennial plants, known as saxifrages or rockfoils. The Latin word saxifraga means "stone-breaker", from Latin saxum + frangere, it is thought to indicate a medicinal use for treatment of urinary calculi, rather than breaking rocks apart. The genera Saxifragopsis, Saxifragella are sometimes included in Saxifraga. In recent DNA based phylogenetic analyses of the Saxifragaceae, the former sections Micranthes and Merkianae are shown to be more related to the Boykinia and Heuchera clades, the most recent floras separate these groups as the genus Micranthes. Most saxifrages are smallish plants whose leaves grow close to the ground in a rosette; the leaves have a more or less incised margin. The inflorescence or single flower clusters rise above the main plant body on naked stalks; the small actinomorphic hermaphrodite flowers have five petals and sepals and are white, but red to yellow in some species.
As in other primitive eudicots, some of the 5 or 10 stamens may appear petal-like. and it lives tundra ecosystem. Saxifrages are typical inhabitants of Arctic–alpine ecosystems, are hardly found outside the temperate parts of the Northern Hemisphere. A good number of species grow in glacial habitats, such as S. biflora which can be found some 4,000 metres above sea level in the Alps, or the East Greenland saxifrage. The genus is abundant in the Eastern and Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows. Though the archetypal saxifrage is a small plant huddling between rocks high up on a mountain, many species do not occur in such a habitat and are larger plants found on wet meadows. Various Saxifraga species are used as food plants by the caterpillars of some butterflies and moths, such as the Phoebus Apollo. Charles Darwin – erroneously believing Saxifraga to be allied to the sundew family – suspected the sticky-leaved round-leaved saxifrage, rue-leaved saxifrage and Pyrenean saxifrage to be protocarnivorous plants, conducted some experiments whose results supported his observations, but the matter has not been studied since his time.
Numerous species and cultivars of saxifrage are cultivated as ornamental garden plants, valued as groundcover or as cushion plants in rock gardens and alpine gardens. Many require neutral soil to thrive. S. × urbium, a hybrid between Pyrenean saxifrage and St. Patrick's cabbage, is grown as an ornamental plant. Another horticultural hybrid is Robertsoniana saxifrage, derived from kidney saxifrage and Pyrenean saxifrage; some wild species are used in gardening. Cambridge University Botanic Garden hosts the United Kingdom's national collection of saxifrages; the following species and cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:- Purple saxifrage is a popular floral emblem. It is the territorial flower of Nunavut and the county flower of County Londonderry in Northern Ireland. Known as rødsildre in Norway, it is the county flower of Nordland, it is on the seal of Fitchburg State University, whose motto is "Perseverantia" in reference to the rock-breaking abilities of the plant over time.
Tsukuba in Japan has as its city flower hoshizaki-yukinoshita, the aptera form of Creeping saxifrage. The leaves of the Japanese variety "yukinoshita" can been eaten, is consumed at least within the large southern island of Kyushu, it is prepared by frying the younger succulent leaves in tempura batter. Plants placed in Saxifraga are but not Saxifragaceae, they include: Astilboides tabularis, as S. tabularis Bergenia crassifolia, as S. cordifolia, S. crassifolia Bergenia pacumbis, as S. ligulata, S. pacumbis Bergenia purpurascens, as S. delavayi, S. purpurascens Boykinia jamesii, as S. jamesii Boykinia occidentalis, as S. elata Boykinia richardsonii, as S. richardsonii Darmera peltata, as S. peltata Leptarrhena pyrolifolia, as S. pyrolifolia Luetkea pectinata, as S. pectinata Micranthes, including: Micranthes integrifolia Micranthes howellii, as S. howellii Micranthes stellaris, as S. stellaris Mukdenia rossii, as S. rossii Several plant genera have names referring saxifrages although they might not be close relatives of Saxifraga.
They include: Golden-saxifrages, Chrysosplenium Burnet-saxifrages, Pimpinella Pepper-saxifrage, Silaum silaus. The name "silaum" comes from the Latin word sil; this refers to the sulphorous yellow colour of the flowers. Some plants refer to Saxifraga in their generic names or specific epithets, either because they are "rock-breaking" or because they resemble members of the saxifrage genus: Campanula saxifraga Celmisia saxifraga W. M. Curtis Cineraria saxifraga DC. Dryopteris saxifraga Petrorhagia saxifraga – Tunicflower Pimpinella saxifraga – Burnet saxifrage Ptychotis saxifraga Saxifragella Saxifragodes Saxifragopsis Small The Saxifrage Society Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Saxifrage". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. Cambridge University Press. P. 264