HMS Foley (K474)
The second HMS Foley was a British Captain-class frigate of the Royal Navy in commission during World War II. Constructed as the United States Navy Evarts-class destroyer escort USS Gillette, she served in the Royal Navy from 1943 to 1945 and in the U. S. Navy as USS Foley from August to October 1945; the ship was ordered as the U. S. Navy destroyer escort DE-270 on 25 January 1942 and assigned the name USS Gillette, the first ship of the name, on 23 February 1943, she was laid down by the Boston Navy Yard in Boston, Massachusetts, on 7 April 1943 and launched on 19 May 1943, sponsored by Mrs. Thomas O'Dea; the United States transferred the ship to the United Kingdom under Lend-Lease upon completion on 8 September 1943. Commissioned into service in the Royal Navy as HMS Foley under the command of Lieutenant Commander Donald Emberton Mansfield, RN, on 8 September 1943 with her transfer, the ship served on patrol and escort duty. On 21 November 1943 she joined the British sloop HMS Crane in a depth-charge attack that sank the German submarine U-538 in the North Atlantic Ocean southwest of Ireland at position 45°40′00″N 019°35′00″W.
The Royal Navy returned Foley to the U. S. Navy at Harwich, England, on 22 August 1945; the ship was commissioned into the U. S. Navy as USS Foley with Lieutenant S. M. Strauss, USNR, in command on 22 August 1945 with her return, she moved to Trinity Bay on 28 August 1945, on 29 August 1945 departed Trinity Bay as a part of Task Group 21.3. She crossed the Atlantic Ocean, called at Naval Station Argentia in the Dominion of Newfoundland, arrived at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, on 10 September 1945, she remained there until decommissioned on 19 October 1945. The U. S. Navy struck Foley from its Naval Vessel Register on 1 November 1945, she was sold on 19 June 1946 for scrapping. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships; the entry can be found here. Navsource Online: Destroyer Escort Photo Archive Gillette HMS Foley uboat.net HMS Foley Photo gallery of HMS Foley
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
A frigate is a type of warship, having various sizes and roles over the last few centuries. In the 17th century, a frigate was any warship built for speed and maneuverability, the description used being "frigate-built"; these could be warships carrying their principal batteries of carriage-mounted guns on a single deck or on two decks. The term was used for ships too small to stand in the line of battle, although early line-of-battle ships were referred to as frigates when they were built for speed. In the 18th century, frigates were as long as a ship of the line and were square-rigged on all three masts, but were faster and with lighter armament, used for patrolling and escort. In the definition adopted by the British Admiralty, they were rated ships of at least 28 guns, carrying their principal armaments upon a single continuous deck – the upper deck – while ships of the line possessed two or more continuous decks bearing batteries of guns. In the late 19th century, the armoured frigate was a type of ironclad warship that for a time was the most powerful type of vessel afloat.
The term "frigate" was used because such ships still mounted their principal armaments on a single continuous upper deck. In modern navies, frigates are used to protect other warships and merchant-marine ships as anti-submarine warfare combatants for amphibious expeditionary forces, underway replenishment groups, merchant convoys. Ship classes dubbed "frigates" have more resembled corvettes, destroyers and battleships; some European navies such as the French, German or Spanish ones use the term "frigate" for both their destroyers and frigates. The rank "frigate captain" derives from the name of this type of ship; the term "frigate" originated in the Mediterranean in the late 15th century, referring to a lighter galley-type warship with oars, sails and a light armament, built for speed and maneuverability. The etymology of the word remains uncertain, although it may have originated as a corruption of aphractus, a Latin word for an open vessel with no lower deck. Aphractus, in turn, derived from the Ancient Greek phrase ἄφρακτος ναῦς - "undefended ship".
In 1583, during the Eighty Years' War of 1568-1648, Habsburg Spain recovered the southern Netherlands from the Protestant rebels. This soon resulted in the use of the occupied ports as bases for privateers, the "Dunkirkers", to attack the shipping of the Dutch and their allies. To achieve this the Dunkirkers developed small, sailing vessels that came to be referred to as frigates; the success of these Dunkirker vessels influenced the ship design of other navies contending with them, but because most regular navies required ships of greater endurance than the Dunkirker frigates could provide, the term soon came to apply less to any fast and elegant sail-only warship. In French, the term "frigate" gave rise to a verb - frégater, meaning'to build long and low', to an adjective, adding more confusion; the huge English Sovereign of the Seas could be described as "a delicate frigate" by a contemporary after her upper decks were reduced in 1651. The navy of the Dutch Republic became the first navy to build the larger ocean-going frigates.
The Dutch navy had three principal tasks in the struggle against Spain: to protect Dutch merchant ships at sea, to blockade the ports of Spanish-held Flanders to damage trade and halt enemy privateering, to fight the Spanish fleet and prevent troop landings. The first two tasks required speed, shallowness of draft for the shallow waters around the Netherlands, the ability to carry sufficient supplies to maintain a blockade; the third task required heavy armament, sufficient to stand up to the Spanish fleet. The first of the larger battle-capable frigates were built around 1600 at Hoorn in Holland. By the stages of the Eighty Years' War the Dutch had switched from the heavier ships still used by the English and Spanish to the lighter frigates, carrying around 40 guns and weighing around 300 tons; the effectiveness of the Dutch frigates became most evident in the Battle of the Downs in 1639, encouraging most other navies the English, to adopt similar designs. The fleets built by the Commonwealth of England in the 1650s consisted of ships described as "frigates", the largest of which were two-decker "great frigates" of the third rate.
Carrying 60 guns, these vessels were as capable as "great ships" of the time. The term "frigate" implied a long hull-design, which relates directly to speed and which in turn, helped the development of the broadside tactic in naval warfare. At this time, a further design evolved, reintroducing oars and resulting in galley frigates such as HMS Charles Galley of 1676, rated as a 32-gun fifth-rate but had a bank of 40 oars set below the upper deck which could propel the ship in the absence of a favourable wind. In Danish, the word "fregat" applies to warships carrying as few as 16 guns, such as HMS Falcon, which the British classified as a sloop. Under the rating system of the Royal Navy, by the middle of the 18th century, the term "frigate" was technically restricted to single-decked ships of the fifth rate, though small 28-gun frigates classed as sixth rate; the classic sailing frigate, well-known today for its role in the Napoleonic wars, can be traced back to French deve
Destroyer escort was the United States Navy mid-20th-century classification for a 20-knot warship designed with endurance to escort mid-ocean convoys of merchant marine ships. Kaibōkan were designed for a similar role in the Imperial Japanese Navy; the Royal Navy and Commonwealth forces identified such warships as frigates, that classification was accepted when the United States redesignated destroyer escorts as frigates in 1975. Destroyer escorts and kaibōkan were mass-produced for World War II as a less expensive antisubmarine warfare alternative to fleet destroyers. Other similar warships include the 10 Kriegsmarine escort ships of the F-class and the two Amiral Murgescu-class vessels of the Romanian Navy. Postwar destroyer escorts and frigates were larger than those produced during wartime, with increased antiaircraft capability, but remained smaller and slower than postwar destroyers; as Cold War destroyer escorts became as large as wartime destroyers, the United States Navy converted some of their World War II destroyers to escort destroyers.
Full-sized destroyers must be able to steam as fast or faster than the fast capital ships such as fleet carriers and cruisers. This requires a speed of 25–35 knots, they must carry torpedoes and a smaller caliber of cannon to use against enemy ships, as well as antisubmarine detection equipment and weapons. A destroyer escort needed only to be able to maneuver relative to a slow convoy, be able to defend against aircraft, detect and attack submarines; these lower requirements reduce the size and crew required for the destroyer escort. Destroyer escorts were optimized for antisubmarine warfare, having a tighter turning radius and more specialized armament than fleet destroyers, their much slower speed was not a liability in this context, since sonar was useless at speeds over 20 knots. Destroyer escorts were considerably more sea-kindly than corvettes; as an alternative to steam-turbine propulsion found in full-sized destroyers and larger warships, many US destroyer escorts of the World War II period had diesel-electric or turboelectric drive, in which the engine rooms functioned as power stations supplying current to electric motors sited close to the propellers.
Electric drive was selected because it does not need gearboxes to adjust engine speed to the much lower optimum speed for the propellers. The current from the engine room can be used well for other purposes, after World War II, many destroyer escorts were recycled as floating power stations for coastal cities in Latin America under programs funded by the World Bank. Destroyer escorts were useful for coastal antisubmarine and radar picket ship duty. During World War II, seven destroyer escorts were converted to radar picket destroyer escorts, supplementing radar picket destroyers. Although these were relegated to secondary roles after the war, in the mid-1950s, 12 more DEs were converted to DERs, serving as such until 1960-1965, their mission was to extend the distant early warning line on both coasts, in conjunction with 16 Guardian-class radar picket ships, which were converted Liberty ships. In World War II, some 95 destroyer escorts were converted by the US to high-speed transports; this involved adding an extra deck which allowed space for 150 men.
Two large davits were installed, one on either side of the ship, from which landing craft could be launched. The Lend-Lease Act was passed into law in the United States in March 1941, enabling the United Kingdom to procure merchant ships, warships and other materiel from the US, to help with the war effort; this enabled the UK to commission the US to design and supply an escort vessel, suitable for antisubmarine warfare in deep open-ocean situations, which they did in June 1941. Captain E. L. Cochrane of the American Bureau of Shipping came up with a design, known as the British destroyer escort; the BDE designation was retained by the first six destroyer escorts transferred to the United Kingdom. When the United States entered the war, found they required an antisubmarine warfare ship and that the destroyer escort fitted their needs a system of rationing was put in place whereby out of every five destroyer escorts completed, four would be allocated to the U. S. Navy and one to the Royal Navy.
After World War II, United States Navy destroyer escorts were referred to as ocean escorts, but retained the hull classification symbol DE. However, other navies, most notably those of NATO countries and the USSR, followed different naming conventions for this type of ship, which resulted in some confusion. To remedy this problem, the 1975 ship reclassification declared; this brought the USN's nomenclature more in line with NATO, made comparing ship types with the Soviet Union easier. As of 2006, no plans existed for future frigates for the US Navy. USS Zumwalt and the littoral combat ship were the main ship types planned in this area. However, by 2017 the Navy had reversed course, put out a Request For Proposals for a new frigate class, temporarily designated FFG. One major problem with ship classification is whether to base it on a ship's role, or on its size (s
Laying the keel or laying down is the formal recognition of the start of a ship's construction. It is marked with a ceremony attended by dignitaries from the shipbuilding company and the ultimate owners of the ship. Keel laying is one of the four specially celebrated events in the life of a ship. In earlier times, the event recognized as the keel laying was the initial placement of the central timber making up the backbone of a vessel, called the keel; as steel ships replaced wooden ones, the central timber gave way to a central steel beam. Modern ships are now built in a series of pre-fabricated, complete hull sections rather than being built around a single keel; the event recognized as the keel laying is the first joining of modular components, or the lowering of the first module into place in the building dock. It is now called "keel authentication", is the ceremonial beginning of the ship's life, although some modules may have been started months before that stage of construction. Keel-related traditions from the times of wooden ships are said to bring luck to the ship during construction and to the captain and crew during her life.
They include placing a newly minted coin under the keel and constructing the ship over it, having the youngest apprentice place the coin, when the ship is finished, presenting the owners with the oak block on which the keel is laid. The tradition of the placement of coins derives from the mast stepping custom of placing coins under the mast and is believed to date back to Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome and were intended to "pay the ferryman" to convey the souls of the dead across the River Styx should the ship sink; the first milestone in the history of a ship is the simple ceremony that marks the laying of the keel. Invitations to the ceremony are issued by shipyard officials, the ceremony is conducted by them; the builder may be the president of a private company. The ship's prospective name, without the "USS", is mentioned in the invitation.
HMS Bayntun (K310)
USS Bayntun the first of the American built lend lease Captain-class frigates in the Royal Navy as HMS Bayntun. She was named for Henry William Bayntun. Bayntun was laid down on 5 April 1942, at the Boston Navy Yard, she was given the pennant number K310 and departed Boston the following month, bound via New York, for Bermuda to conduct her "working up."Allocated to the 44th Escort Group, part of the Western Approaches Command and her sister ship Bazely sailed on 2 April 1943 for Chesapeake Bay where they were to load stores for transportation to the United Kingdom. However, Bayntun returned to Bermuda to pick up men from her crew, quarantined there due to scarlet fever before she sailed for England and got underway on 15 April for the British Isles, in company with Berry; the two Captain-class frigates reached Northern Ireland, on 23 April. Assigned to Escort Group B 4, operating from Derry, Bayntun underwent voyage repairs at Liverpool in May before she sailed for Bermuda. Next shifting northward from Bermuda, Bayntun joined the screen for convoy HX 250 and sailed from New York on 30 July.
The warship escorted two merchantmen, SS Biscaya and SS Bruarfoss, detached from the convoy, to Iceland before she herself proceeded on to Belfast. In his autobiography, Capt. John Treasure Jones describes a different series of events, he states that he took command of Bayntun at Derry on 19 June 1943, where he was attached to a Liverpool-based escort group. He was allocated as an additional escort to this group for the outward passage, with instructions to proceed to Boston on completion, to have new bearings fitted to the diesel engines, as they were badly worn, he states. She remained at Boston under repair in dry dock for four weeks and returned to Britain as an additional escort with another convoy. On 29 August Capt Treasure Jones relinquished command of Bayntun and was given command of the frigate Dart. In September, an accident in Bayntun's forward motor room caused extensive damage and flooding, the resultant repairs kept her in the yard at Belfast until 6 December. Leaving Belfast, she rejoined Escort Group B 4 at Derry.
Five days into 1944, the frigate departed her home base as part of the screen for convoy OS 64. The escorts gave chase. Bayntun located the U-boat in the fading daylight and carried out three attacks, joined by the Canadian corvette HMCS Camrose which made five. Bayntun pronounced the attack successful, she was indeed correct for U-757 had perished, victim of the joint attack launched by Bayntun and Camrose. Reaching Gibraltar on 17 January, Bayntun departed "The Rock" on the 22 January and arrived back at her home base on 2 February. Bayntun remained in port for voyage repairs and enjoyed a brief respite from convoy duty before heading back to Gibraltar on 13 February. During this voyage, she again made contact with a U-boat, attacking on 10 March in the Bay of Biscay during the search for the attacker that had torpedoed and sunk the corvette Asphodel the previous day; these attacks, made in concert with the corvette Clover, failed. Over the next few months, Bayntun remained engaged in the prosaic but important duties of a convoy escort.
In August, she was involved in an operation coded "CX" designed to counter inshore operations by U-boats. On 1 September, Bayntun took part in the hunt for the killer of Hurst Castle, a corvette, torpedoed 11 miles north of Tory Island, but the search yielded no result. With the disbandment of Escort Group B 4, Bayntun was assigned to Escort Group 10, retaining Derry as her base of operations. On 27 October, she was detailed to shepherd SS Empire Almond, a straggler from Convoy KMS 67 from U-boats known to be in the vicinity and carried out attacks against a suspected U-boat. Again no wreckage appeared to suggest a successful attack. On 21 November 1944, Bayntun, on channel patrol, recovered the bodies of four sailors, lost with the trawler, HMS Transvaal that had gone down earlier in the English Channel; the year 1945 was to prove a successful one for the hunting and killing of U-boats. Sailing for Scapa Flow in late January, Bayntun teamed with the frigates Brathwaite and Loch Eck on 3 February and sank U-1279.
During her next voyage, commencing at Scapa Flow on 9 February, Bayntun detected a U-boat on 14 February, called for help from Brathwaite, Loch Dunvegan, Loch Eck, together they sank U-989, rescuing six survivors. Three days Bayntun and Loch Eck pooled their resources to destroy U-1278. Joining the Portsmouth patrol on 11 March, Bayntun made contact with a U-boat 10 days but the ensuing attack was not successful. In company with Loch Eck on 25 March, Bayntun investigated a reported U-boat sinking and, on 26 April, took part in what she thought to be a successful search for a U-boat. However, records of lost German submarines do not list any losses for that date. After hostilities ended in Europe, Bayntun formed part of the escort for eight U-boats which sailed from Stavanger, Norway, to Scotland on 27 May 1945. Three days when the little convoy reached its destination, Bayntun proceeded to Bergen, for her second escort mission. Reaching Scapa Flow on 4 June, she proceeded to Rosyth, where she became an escort for the "Apostle" convoy that sailed the following day.
Reduced to reserve, Category "B", on 14 June 1945, Bayntun was returned to US Navy custody at Harwich, England, on 22 August 1945. Commissioned the same day, Lt. Comdr
High-frequency direction finding
High-frequency direction finding known by its abbreviation HF/DF or nickname huff-duff, is a type of radio direction finder introduced in World War II. High frequency refers to a radio band that can communicate over long distances. HF/DF was used to catch enemy radios while they transmitted, although it was used to locate friendly aircraft as a navigation aid; the basic technique remains in use to this day as one of the fundamental disciplines of signals intelligence, although incorporated into a larger suite of radio systems and radars instead of being a stand-alone system. HF/DF used a set of antennas to receive the same signal in different locations or angles, used those slight differences in the signal to display the bearing to the transmitter on an oscilloscope display. Earlier systems used a mechanically rotated antenna and an operator listening for peaks or nulls in the signal, which took considerable time to determine on the order of a minute or more. HF/DF's display made the same measurement instantaneously, which allowed it to catch fleeting signals, such as those from the U-boat fleet.
The system was developed by Robert Watson-Watt starting in 1926, as a system for locating lightning. Its role in intelligence was not developed until the late 1930s. In the early war period, HF/DF units were in high demand, there was considerable inter-service rivalry involved in their distribution. An early use was by the RAF Fighter Command as part of the Dowding system of interception control, while ground-based units were widely used to collect information for the Admiralty to locate U-boats. Between 1942 and 1944, smaller units became available and were common fixtures on Royal Navy ships, it is estimated. The basic concept is known by several alternate names, including Cathode-Ray Direction Finding, Twin Path DF, for its inventor, Watson-Watt DF or Adcock/Watson-Watt when the antenna is considered. Radio direction finding was a used technique before World War I, used for both naval and aerial navigation; the basic concept used a loop antenna, in its most basic form a circular loop of wire with a circumference decided by the frequency range of the signals to be detected.
When the loop is aligned at right angles to the signal, the signal in the two halves of the loop cancels out, producing a sudden drop in output known as a "null". Early DF systems used a loop antenna; the operator would tune in a known radio station and rotate the antenna until the signal disappeared. This meant that the antenna was now at right angles to the broadcaster, although it could be on either side of the antenna. By taking several such measurements, or using some other form of navigational information to eliminate one of the ambiguous directions, the bearing to the broadcaster could be determined. In 1907 an improvement was introduced by Ettore Bellini and Alessandro Tosi that simplified the DF system in some setups; the single loop antenna was replaced by two antennas, arranged at right angles. The output of each was sent to its own looped wire, or as they are referred to in this system, a "field coil". Two such coils, one for each antenna, are arranged close together at right angles.
The signals from the two antennas generated a magnetic field in the space between the coils, picked up by a rotating solenoid, the "search coil". The maximum signal was generated when the search coil was aligned with the magnetic field from the field coils, at the angle of the signal in relation to the antennas; this eliminated any need for the antennas to move. The Bellini–Tosi direction finder was used on ships, although rotating loops remained in use on aircraft as they were smaller. All of these devices took time to operate; the radio operator would first use conventional radio tuners to find the signal in question, either using the DF antenna or on a separate non-directional antenna. Once tuned, the operator rotated the antennas or goniometer looking for peaks or nulls in the signal. Although the rough location could be found by spinning the control for more accurate measurements the operator had to "hunt" with small movements. With periodic signals like Morse code, or signals on the fringe of reception, this was a difficult process.
Fix times on the order of one minute were quoted. Some work on automating the B-T system was carried out just prior to the opening of World War II by French engineers Maurice Deloraine and Henri Busignies, working in the French division of the US's ITT Corporation, their system motorized the search coil as well as a circular display card. A lamp on the display card was tied to the output of the goniometer, flashed whenever it was in the right direction; when spinning about 120 RPM, the flashes merged into a single dot that indicated the direction. The team destroyed all of their work in the French office and left France in 1940, just before Germany invaded, continued the development in the US, it had long been known. The signal is spread across many frequencies, but is strong in the longwave spectrum, one of the radio frequencies for long-range naval communications. Robert Watt had demonstrated that measurements of these radio signals could be used to track thunderstorms and provide useful long-range warning for pilots and ships.
In some experiments he was able to detect thunderstorms over Africa, 2,500 ki