In military terminology, desertion is the abandonment of a duty or post without permission and is done with the intention of not returning. In contrast, unauthorized absence or absence without leave refers to a temporary absence. In the United States Army, United States Air Force, British Armed Forces, Australian Defence Force, New Zealand Defence Force, Canadian Armed Forces, military personnel will become "AWOL" or "AWL" if absent from their post without a valid pass, liberty or leave; the United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Coast Guard refer to this as "unauthorized absence" or "UA". Personnel are dropped from their unit rolls after thirty days and listed as deserters. S. military law, desertion is not measured by time away from the unit, but rather: by leaving or remaining absent from their unit, organization, or place of duty, where there has been a determined intent to not return. People who are away for more than thirty days but return voluntarily or indicate a credible intent to return may still be considered AWOL.
Those who are away for fewer than thirty days but can credibly be shown to have no intent to return may be tried for desertion. On rare occasions, they may be tried for treason. Missing movement is another term used to describe when members of the armed forces fail to arrive at the appointed time to deploy with their assigned unit, ship, or aircraft. In the United States Armed Forces, this is a violation of the Article 87 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice; the offense may draw more severe punishment. Failure to repair consists of missing a formation or failing to appear at an assigned place and time when so ordered, it is a lesser offense within article 86 of the UCMJ. During World War I, the Australian Government refused to allow members of the First Australian Imperial Force to be executed for desertion, despite pressure from the British Government and military to do so; the AIF had the highest rate of soldiers going absent without leave of any of the national contingents in the British Expeditionary Force, the proportion of soldiers who deserted was higher than that of other forces on the Western Front in France.
In 2011, Vienna decided to honour Austrian Wehrmacht deserters. In 2014, on October, 24th a Memorial for the Victims of Nazi Military Justice was inaugurated on Vienna's Ballhausplatz by Austria's President Heinz Fischer; the monument was created by German artist Olaf Nicolai and is located opposite the President's office and the Austrian Chancellery. The inscription on top of the three step sculpture features a poem by Scottish poet Ian Hamilton Finlay with just two words: all alone. During WWI 600 French soldiers were executed for desertion. During the First World War, only 18 Germans who deserted were executed. In contrast of the Germans who deserted the Wehrmacht, 15,000 men were executed. In June 1988 the Initiative for the Creation of a Memorial to Deserters came to life in Ulm. A central idea was, "Desertion is not reprehensible, war is". During WWI a total of 28 New Zealand soldiers were sentenced to death for desertion; these soldiers were posthumously pardoned in 2000 through the Pardon for Soldiers of the Great War Act.
Those who deserted before reaching the front were imprisoned in what were claimed to be harsh conditions. Order No. 270, dated August 16, 1941, was issued by Joseph Stalin. The order required superiors to shoot deserters on the spot, their family members were subjected to arrest. Order No. 227, dated July 28, 1942, directed that each Army must create "blocking detachments" which would shoot "cowards" and fleeing panicked troops at the rear. Many Soviet soldier deserters of the Soviet War in Afghanistan explain their reasons for desertion as political and in response to internal disorganization and disillusionment regarding their position in the war. Analyses of desertion rates argue that motivations were far less ideological than individual accounts claim. Desertion rates increased prior to announcements of upcoming operations, were highest during the summer and winter. Seasonal desertions were a response to the harsh weather conditions of the winter and immense field work required in the summer.
A significant jump in desertion in 1989 when the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan may suggest a higher concern regarding returning home, rather than an overall opposition towards the war itself. In the beginning of the Soviet invasion, the majority of Soviet forces were soldiers of Central Asian republics; the Soviets believed that shared ideologies between Muslim Central Asians and Afghan soldiers would build trust and morale within the army. However, Central Asians' longstanding historical frustrations with Moscow degraded soldiers' willingness to fight for the Red Army; as Afghan desertion grew and Soviet opposition was strengthened within Afghanistan, the Soviet plan overtly backfired. The personal histories of Central Asian ethnic groups – between Pashtuns and Tajiks, caused tension within the Soviet military. Non-Russian ethnic groups related the situation in Afghanistan to Communist takeover of their own states' forced induction into the USSR
Her Majesty's Naval Base, Clyde sited at Faslane is one of three operating bases in the United Kingdom for the Royal Navy. It is the service's headquarters in Scotland and is best known as the home of Britain's nuclear weapons, in the form of nuclear submarines armed with Trident missiles. Faslane was first used as a base in the Second World War. During the 1960s, the British Government began negotiating the Polaris Sales Agreement with the United States regarding the purchase of a Polaris missile system to fire British-built nuclear weapons from five specially constructed submarines. In the end, only four were constructed; these four submarines were permanently based at Faslane. Faslane itself was chosen to host these vessels at the height of the Cold War because of its geographic position, which forms a bastion on the secluded but deep and navigable Gare Loch and Firth of Clyde on the west coast of Scotland; this position provides for rapid and stealthy access through the North Channel to the submarine patrolling areas in the North Atlantic, through the GIUK gap to the Norwegian Sea.
At the time it was chosen, the location was close to the American SSBN base at Holy Loch, which operated 1961–1992. One boat was always on patrol at any given time. In 1971 the base was home to the 3rd Submarine Squadron of Nuclear Fleet and Diesel Patrol Submarines, "the fighters", the 10th Submarine Squadron consisting of the four Polaris submarines, "the bombers". Included: Commodore Derrick G. Kent: August 1967 – May 1969 Commodore Peter G. La Niece: May 1969 – February 1971 Commodore Peter E. C. Berger: February 1971 – August 1973 Commodore Anthony J. Cooke: August 1973 – October 1975 Commodore Alan J. Leahy: October 1975 – May 1978 Commodore Colin N. MacEacharn: May 1978 – October 1980 Commodore George M. F. Vallings: October 1980 – October 1982 Commodore David H. Morse: October 1982 – October 1984 Commodore David Pentreath: October 1984 – June 1986 Commodore Patrick B. Rowe: June 1986 – December 1988 Commodore Robert N. Woodard: December 1988 – June 1990 Commodore David A. J. Blackburn: June 1990 – 1992 Commodore Stuart M. Tickner: 1992 Commodore John A. Trewby: March 1992 – February 1994 Commodore B.
Brian Perowne: February 1994 – 1996 Commodore Frederick G. Thompson: 1996–1999 Commodore Richard J. Lord: 1999 – January 2001 Commodore K. John Borley: January 2001 – June 2004 Commodore Carolyn J. Stait: June 2004 – October 2007 Commodore Christopher J. Hockley: October 2007 – January 2011 Commodore Michael P. Wareham: January 2011 – September 2013 Commodore Keith A. Beckett: September 2013 – October 2014 Commodore A. Mark Adams: October 2014 – February 2016 Commodore Mark E. Gayfer: February 2016–June 2018 Commodore Donald Doull: June 2018 - present The following notable vessels and units are based at Faslane. HMNB Clyde lies on the eastern shore of Gare Loch in Argyll and Bute, to the north of the Firth of Clyde and 25 mi west of Glasgow; the submarine base encompasses a number of separate sites, the primary two being: Faslane, 25 miles from Glasgow. Faslane is a Defence Equipment and Support site, operated in dual site organisation with Great Harbour, Greenock, by Babcock Marine and Technology, managed by Serco Denholm.
The naval shore establishment at Faslane is HMS Neptune, Naval personnel appointed to the base who do not belong to a seagoing vessel make up Ship's Company. Both the Gare Loch and Loch Long are sea lochs extending northwards from the Firth of Clyde; the base serves as home base to Britain's fleet of Vanguard-class nuclear-powered and nuclear-armed submarines, as well as conventionally armed nuclear-powered submarines, supported by the 43 Commando Fleet Protection Group Royal Marines. In command of HMNB Clyde is the Naval Base Commander, Commodore Donald Doull, who succeeded Commodore Mark Gayfer in Summer 2018; the base is home to a number of lodger units including Flag Officer Scotland and Northern Ireland, the Northern Diving Group and the Scottish Headquarters of the Ministry of Defence Police and Guarding Agency. It is base to 3,000 service personnel, 800 of their families and 4,000 civilian workers from Babcock Marine, forming a major part of the economy of Argyll and Bute and West Dunbartonshire.
By 2020 all 11 Royal Navy submarines will be based on the Clyde at Faslane, seeing the number of people directly employed at the base rising to 8,200. Secretary of State for Scotland David Mundell said: "The UK’s entire submarine fleet will be based at Faslane by 2020; this will reinforce Scotland’s vital role in protecting our country, guarantee skilled, secure jobs on the Clyde for years to come." Exercise Evening Star is the annual test of the emergency response routines to a nuclear weapon accident at Faslane. It is conducted by the Office for Nuclear Regulation. In 2011 the test failed as "a number of command and control aspects of the exercise were not considered to have been adequately demonstrated". In 2013–14 there were 99 radiation accidents concerning nuclear reactors, 6 with nuclear weapons; these are the highest numbers for at least six years. The MoD maintains; the SNP defence spokesman, Angus Robertson, called the figures "totally shocking". The MoD, argued that it was "entirely misleading" to focus only on the number of incidents, because they include "very minor issues such as the failure to fill out the correct form before painting works began".
Indeed, the MOD stated that this "rigorous system shows how MoD takes all aspects of nuclear safet
Marconi Electronic Systems
Marconi Electronic Systems, or GEC-Marconi as it was until 1998, was the defence arm of The General Electric Company. It was acquired by British Aerospace on 30 November 1999 to form BAE Systems. GEC renamed itself Marconi plc. MES exists today as BAE Systems Electronics Limited, a subsidiary of BAE Systems, but the assets were rearranged elsewhere within that company. MES-related businesses include BAE Systems Submarine Solutions, BAE Systems Surface Ships, BAE Systems Insyte and Selex ES. MES represented the pinnacle of GEC's defence businesses which had a heritage of 100 years. Following GEC's acquisition of Marconi as part of English Electric in 1968 the Marconi brand was used for its defence businesses e.g. Marconi Space & Defence Systems, Marconi Underwater Systems Ltd. GEC's history of military products dates back to World War I with its contribution to the war effort including radios and bulbs. World War II consolidated this position with the company involved in many important technological advances, most notably radar.
Between 1945 and GEC's demerger of its defence business in 1999, the company became one of the world's most important defence contractors. GEC's major defence related acquisitions included Associated Electrical Industries in 1967, English Electric Company in 1968, Yarrow Shipbuilders in 1985, parts of Ferranti's defence business in 1990, Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering in 1995 and Kvaerner Govan in 1999. In June 1998, MES acquired a major American defence contractor, for $1.4 bn. The 1997 merger of American corporations Boeing and McDonnell Douglas, which followed the forming of Lockheed Martin, the world's largest defence contractor in 1995, increased the pressure on European defence companies to consolidate. In June 1997 British Aerospace Defence managing director John Weston commented "Europe... is supporting three times the number of contractors on less than half the budget of the U. S.". European governments wished to see the merger of their defence manufacturers into a single entity, a European Aerospace and Defence Company.
As early as 1995 British Aerospace and the German aerospace and defence company DaimlerChrysler Aerospace were said to be keen to create a transnational aerospace and defence company. Merger discussions began between British Aerospace and DASA in July 1998. A merger was agreed between British Aerospace chairman Richard Evans and DASA CEO Jürgen Schrempp in December 1998. GEC was under pressure to participate in defence industry consolidation. Reporting the appointment of George Simpson as GEC managing director in 1996, The Independent had said "some analysts believe that Mr Simpson's inside knowledge of BAe, a long-rumoured GEC bid target, was a key to his appointment. GEC favours forging a national'champion' defence group with BAe to compete with the giant US organisations." When GEC put MES up for sale on 22 December 1998, BAE abandoned the DASA merger in favour of purchasing its British rival. The merger of British Aerospace and MES was announced on 19 January 1999. Evans stated that in 2004 that his fear was that an American defence contractor would acquire MES and challenge both British Aerospace and DASA.
The merger created a vertically integrated company which The Scotsman described as " contracting and platform-building skills with Marconi's coveted electronics systems capability". for example combining the manufacturer of the Eurofighter with the company that provided many of the aircraft's electronic systems. In contrast, DASA's response to the breakdown of the merger discussion was to merge with Aérospatiale to create the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company, a horizontal integration. EADS has since considered a merger with Thales to create a "fully rounded" company. While MES was responsible for the majority of GEC's defence sales other GEC companies achieved defence related sales, principally GEC Alsthom, GEC-Plessey Telecommunications and GEC Plessey Semiconductors. Marconi Avionics Marconi North America Marconi Naval Systems Alenia Marconi Systems Matra Marconi Space Thomson Marconi Sonar Marconi Research Centre Marconi Radar Systems Marconi Communications Systems This is a partial list: Produced 12 of the class of 16 Type 23 frigates.
The major electronics & equipment supplier for the class. Civil avionics, e.g. Boeing 777 fly-by-wire systems UK Prime Contractor on the Horizon CNGF programme until 1999. Following the withdrawal of the UK from the programme MES was awarded the subsequent Type 45 destroyer Prime Contractor position several days before merging with BAe. Part of Raytheon ASTOR bid team Royal Navy Astute class SSN Brimstone Anti-Armour Missile TIALD laser designator pod AI.24 Foxhunter, radar for the Tornado ECR-90, radar for the Eurofighter Typhoon. Member of Boeing X-32 JSF development team Spearfish torpedo Sting Ray torpedo Ariel 6 Prospero X-3 Zircon Aerospace industry in the United Kingdom GEC-Marconi scientist deaths conspiracy theory – Article about the 25+ defence employees who have died in mysterious circumstances since the early 1980s CMC Electronics – the Canadian Marconi Company, once part of EE/GEC & BAe "Forty Years of Marconi Radar from 1946 to 1986", GEC Review, Volume 13, No. 3, 1998 "Boeing, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, Raytheon to create B2B exchange for the aerospace and defense industry, powered by Microsoft"
The Vanguard class is a class of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines in service with the Royal Navy. The class was introduced in 1994 as part of the Trident nuclear programme, includes four boats: Vanguard, Victorious and Vengeance, they were built between 1986 and 1999 at Barrow-in-Furness by Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering, now owned by BAE Systems. All four boats are based at 40 km west of Glasgow, Scotland. Since the decommissioning of the Royal Air Force WE.177 free-fall thermonuclear weapons in 1998, the four Vanguard submarines are the sole platforms for the United Kingdom's nuclear weapons. Each submarine is armed with up to 16 UGM-133 Trident II missiles; the class is scheduled to be replaced starting 2028, though its replacement would not enter service until early 2030s. Beginning in the late 1960s, the United Kingdom operated four Resolution-class submarines, each armed with sixteen US-built UGM-27 Polaris missiles; the Polaris missile was supplied to Britain following the terms of the 1963 Polaris Sales Agreement.
This nuclear deterrent system was known as the UK Polaris programme. In the early 1980s the British government began studies examining options for replacing the Resolution-class submarines and its Polaris missiles, both of which would be approaching the end of their service lives within little over a decade. On the 24 January 1980, the House of Commons backed government policy, by 308 votes to 52, to retain an independent nuclear deterrent. Options that were examined built ballistic missile. However, it would be expensive, would be full of uncertainty and would not be available within the required time period, thus the option was considered "unattractive". Retain fitted on a new submarine class, it was concluded that any initial capital savings would have been lost beyond the 1990s, due to the high cost of sustaining a small stockpile of bespoke missiles kept only in British service. A European solution and the US UGM-73 Poseidon were briefly considered, but rejected on capability and uncertainty grounds.
The clear favourite was the UGM-96 Trident I, which as well as being a cost-effective solution — given the US would operate the missile in vast numbers — delivered the overall best long-term capability insurances against Soviet advancements in ballistic missile defence. Subsequently on 10 July 1980, the Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher wrote to US President Jimmy Carter requesting the purchase of Trident I missiles on a similar basis as the 1963 Polaris Sales Agreement. However, following the acceleration of the US UGM-133 Trident II missiles, Thatcher wrote to US President Ronald Reagan in 1982 requesting the United Kingdom be allowed to procure the improved system instead. An agreement was made in March 1982 between the two countries, under the agreement, Britain made a 5% research and development contribution. Beginning in 1985, both HMNB Clyde and the Royal Naval Armaments Depot Coulport at Faslane underwent extensive redevelopment in preparation for the Vanguard class submarines and Trident II missiles.
Rosyth dockyard underwent significant redevelopment. The work included enhanced "handling, armament processing, docking, engineering and refitting facilities" at an estimates cost of £550 million. Due to the huge scale of the Vanguard-class design, the Devonshire Dock Hall was built for the construction of the boats. Construction started in 1982 and was completed in 1986; the Vanguard class were designed in the early 1980s by Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering based at Barrow-in-Furness, now BAE Systems Maritime – Submarines. They were designed from the outset as nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines, able to accommodate the UGM-133 Trident II missiles; as such, the missile compartment is based on the same system used on the American Ohio class, equipped with the UGM-133 Trident II. This requirement lead to the Vanguard-class design being larger than the previous Polaris-equipped Resolution class, at nearly 16,000 tonnes they are the largest submarines built for the Royal Navy. Thatcher laid the keel of the first boat, HMS Vanguard, on 3 September 1986 at the Devonshire Dock Hall in Barrow-in-Furness.
Vanguard was launched in 1992 and commissioned in 1993. 1992 saw a debate over whether the fourth vessel, should be cancelled, however the Ministry of Defence ordered it in July 1992. Vengeance was commissioned in 1999. On 4 December 2006 Prime Minister Tony Blair revealed plans to spend up to £20 billion on a new generation of ballistic missile submarines to replace the Vanguard class. In order to reduce costs and show Britain's commitment to the Non-Proliferation Treaty, Blair suggested that submarine numbers could be cut from four to three, while the number of nuclear warheads would be cut by 20% to 160. On 23 September 2009 Prime Minister Gordon Brown confirmed that this reduction to three submarines was still under consideration. In February 2011, the Defence Secretary Liam Fox stated that four submarines would be needed if the UK was to retain a credible nuclear deterrent. On 18 May 2011 the British government approved the initial assessment phase for the construction of a new class of four submarines, paving the way for the ordering of the first long-lead items and preparations for the main build to begin in the future.
This new class of submarine, now known as the Dreadnought class, will retain th
Trident (UK nuclear programme)
Trident known as the Trident nuclear programme or Trident nuclear deterrent, covers the development and operation of nuclear weapons in the United Kingdom and their means of delivery. Its purpose as stated by the Ministry of Defence is to "deter the most extreme threats to our national security and way of life, which cannot be done by other means". Trident is an operational system of four Vanguard-class submarines armed with Trident II D-5 ballistic missiles, able to deliver thermonuclear warheads from multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles, it is operated by the Royal Navy and based at Clyde Naval Base on the west coast of Scotland, 40 kilometres from Glasgow. At least one submarine is always on patrol to provide a continuous at-sea capability; each one carries up to forty warheads, although their capacity is much larger. The missiles are American, drawn from a common pool; the British government negotiated with the Carter administration for the purchase of the Trident I C-4 missile.
In 1981, the Reagan administration announced its decision to upgrade its Trident to the new Trident II D-5 missile. This necessitated another round of concessions; the UK Trident programme was announced in July 1980 and patrols began in December 1994. Trident replaced the submarine-based Polaris system, in operation from 1968 until 1996. Since the tactical WE.177 free-fall bombs were decommissioned in 1998, Trident has been the only nuclear weapon system, operated by the UK. NATO's military posture was relaxed after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Trident's missiles were "detargetted" in 1994 ahead of the maiden voyage of the first Vanguard-class boat, meaning that the warheads are not aimed at specific targets but await co-ordinates that can be programmed into their computers and fired with several days' notice. Although Trident was designed as a strategic deterrent, the end of the Cold War led the British government to conclude that a sub-strategic—but not tactical—role was required.
A programme for the replacement of the Vanguard class is under way. On 18 July 2016 the House of Commons voted by a large majority to proceed with building a fleet of Dreadnought-class submarines, to be operational by 2028, with the current fleet phased out by 2032. During the early part of the Second World War, Britain had a nuclear weapons project, code-named Tube Alloys, which the 1943 Quebec Agreement merged with the American Manhattan Project to create a combined American and Canadian project; the British government expected that the United States would continue to share nuclear technology, which it regarded as a joint discovery, but the United States Atomic Energy Act of 1946 ended technical co-operation. Fearing a resurgence of United States isolationism, Britain losing its great power status, the British government resumed its own development effort; the first British atomic bomb was tested in Operation Hurricane on 3 October 1952. The subsequent British development of the hydrogen bomb, a fortuitous international relations climate created by the Sputnik crisis, facilitated the amendment of the McMahon Act, the 1958 US–UK Mutual Defence Agreement, which allowed Britain to acquire nuclear weapons systems from the United States, thereby restoring the nuclear Special Relationship.
During the 1950s, Britain's nuclear deterrent was based around the V-bombers of the Royal Air Force, but developments in radar and surface-to-air missiles made it clear that bombers were becoming vulnerable, would be unlikely to penetrate Soviet airspace by the mid-1970s. To address this problem, the United Kingdom embarked on the development of a Medium Range Ballistic Missile called Blue Streak, but concerns were raised about its own vulnerability, the British government decided to cancel it and acquire the American Skybolt air-launched ballistic missile. In return, the Americans were given permission to base the US Navy's Polaris boats at Holy Loch in Scotland. In November 1962, the American government decided to cancel Skybolt; the President, John F. Kennedy, the Prime Minister, Harold Macmillan negotiated the Nassau Agreement, under which the US would sell to the UK, Polaris systems for UK-built submarines; this was formalised in the Polaris Sales Agreement. The first British Polaris ballistic missile submarine, HMS Resolution, was laid down by Vickers-Armstrongs at its yard at Barrow-in-Furness in Cumbria on 26 February 1964.
She was launched on 15 September 1965, commissioned on 2 October 1967, conducted a test firing at the American Eastern Range on 15 February 1968. She was followed by HMS Repulse, completed by Vickers-Armstrongs on 29 September 1968; the four Resolution-class boats were based at HMNB Clyde at Faslane on the Firth of Clyde, not far from the US Navy's base at Holy Loch, which opened in August 1968. It was served by a weapons store at nearby RNAD Coulport. HM Dockyard, was designated as the refit yard for the 10th Submarine Squadron, as the Polaris boats became operational. Polaris proved to be reliable, its second-strike capability conferred greater strategic flexibility than any previous British nuclear weapons system, it was considered vital that an independent British deterrent could penetrate existing and future Soviet anti-ballistic missile capabilities. A powerful ABM system, the ABM-1 Galosh, defended Moscow, NATO believed the USSR would continue to develop its effectiveness; the deterrent logic required the ability to threaten the destr
Royal Navy Submarine Service
The Royal Navy Submarine Service is one of the five fighting arms of the Royal Navy. It is sometimes known as the Silent Service, as the submarines are required to operate undetected; the service operates seven fleet submarines, of the Trafalgar and Astute classes, four ballistic missile submarines, of the Vanguard class. All of these submarines are nuclear powered. Since 1993 the post of Flag Officer Submarines has been dual-hatted with the post of Commander Operations; the Royal Navy's senior submariner was for many years located at HMS Dolphin in Hampshire. It moved from Dolphin to the Northwood Headquarters in 1978; the Submarine School is now at HMS Raleigh at Torpoint in Cornwall. In 1900 the Royal Navy ordered five submarines from Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering of Barrow-in-Furness, designed by Electric Boat Company; the following year the first submarine, Holland 1, was launched, the navy recruited six officers for the Submarine Service, under Reginald Bacon as Inspecting Captain of Submarines.
At the beginning of World War I it consisted of 168 officers, 1250 ratings, 62 submarines. During the war it was awarded five of the Royal Navy's 14 Victoria Crosses of the war, the first to Lieutenant Norman Holbrook, Commanding Officer of B11. In the Mediterranean, British U-class submarines began operations against Italy as early as January 1941. Larger submarines began operations in 1940. U-class submarines operated from the Manoel Island Base known as HMS Talbot. No bomb-proof pens were available as the building project had been scrapped before the war, owing to cost-cutting policies; the new force was named the Tenth Submarine Flotilla and was placed under Flag Officer Submarines, Admiral Max Horton, who appointed Commander George Simpson to command the unit. Administratively, the Tenth Flotilla operated under the First Submarine Flotilla at Alexandria, itself under the admiral commanding in the Mediterranean, Andrew Cunningham. In reality, Cunningham gave his unit a free hand; until U-class vessels could be made available in numbers, British T-class submarines were used.
They had successes, but suffered heavy losses when they began operations on 20 September 1940. Owing to the shortage of torpedoes, enemy ships could not be attacked unless the target in question was a warship, tanker or other "significant vessel"; the flotilla's performance of the fleet was mixed at first. They sank 37,000 long tons of Italian shipping, it accounted for nine merchant vessels and one Motor Torpedo Boat. The loss of nine submarines and their trained crews and commanders was serious. Most of the losses were to mines. On 14 January 1941, U-class submarines arrived, the submarine offensive began in earnest. One of the most famous Mediterranean submarines was Upholder, commanded for its entire career by Lieutenant-Commander Malcolm Wanklyn, he received the Victoria Cross for attacking a well-defended convoy on 25 May 1941 and sinking an Italian liner, the Conte Rosso. In her 16 month operational career in the Mediterranean, before she was sunk in April 1942, Upholder carried out 24 patrols and sank around 119,000 tons of Axis ships – 3 U-boats, a destroyer, 15 transport ships with a cruiser and another destroyer sunk.
On 8 September 1944, C-in-C Mediterranean ordered that the submarine base at La Maddalena be closed, that Tenth Flotilla be disestablished and the submarines be incorporated into the First Submarine Flotilla at Malta. The submarine force was cut back after the end of the war; the first British nuclear-powered submarine, Dreadnought was launched in 1960, based around a U. S.-built nuclear reactor. This was complemented by the Valiant class from 1966, which used a new British-built Rolls-Royce PWR1 reactor; the UK's strategic nuclear deterrent was transferred to the Royal Navy from the Royal Air Force at midnight on 30 June 1968, ie 1 July. The Resolution class ballistic missile submarines were introduced to carry out this role under the Polaris programme from 1968; these carried US-built UGM-27 Polaris A-3 missiles and were replaced by the Vanguard class submarines and the Trident missile system from 1994. In 1978 the Flag Officer Submarines, COMSUBEASTLANT, part of Allied Command Atlantic, moved from HMS Dolphin at Gosport to the Northwood Headquarters.
HMS Conqueror made history in 1982 during the Falklands War when she became the first nuclear-powered submarine to sink a surface ship, the General Belgrano. At the end of the Cold War in 1989 the Flag Officer Submarines, a Rear Admiral, who double-hatted as NATO Commander Submarine Force Eastern Atlantic, commanded a fleet of 30 submarines, which were grouped into four squadrons at three bases. In May 1991 Oberon-class submarines Opossum and her sister Otus returned to the submarine base HMS Dolphin in Gosport from patrol in the Persian Gulf flying Jolly Rogers, the only indication that they had been involved in alleged SAS and SBS reconnaissance operations. In 1999 Splendid participated in the Kosovo Conflict and became the first Royal Navy submarine to fire a Tomahawk cruise missile in anger. During Operation Veritas, the attack on Al-Qaeda and Taliban forces following the September 11 attacks in the United States,Trafalgar was the first Royal Navy submarine to launch Tomahawk cruise missiles against targets in Afghanistan.
Triumph was involved in the initial strikes. Turbulent launched fourteen Tomahawks during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. In 2011, HMS Triumph and Turbulent participated in Operation Ellamy, they launched Tomahawk cruise missiles at targets