S/PDIF is a type of digital audio interconnect used in consumer audio equipment to output audio over reasonably short distances. The signal is transmitted over either a coaxial cable with RCA connectors or a fibre optic cable with TOSLINK connectors. S/PDIF interconnects components in other digital high-fidelity systems. S/PDIF is based on the AES3 interconnect standard. S/PDIF can carry compressed 5.1 / 7.1 surround sound. S/PDIF is a data link layer protocol as well as a set of physical layer specifications for carrying digital audio signals between devices and components over either optical or electrical cable; the name stands for Sony/Philips Digital Interconnect Format but is known as Sony/Philips Digital Interface. Sony and Philips were the primary designers of S/PDIF. S/PDIF is standardized in IEC 60958 as IEC 60958 type II. A common use for the S/PDIF interface is to carry compressed digital audio for surround sound as defined by the standard IEC 61937; this mode is used to connect the output of a DVD player or computer, via optical or coax, to a home theatre amplifying receiver that supports Dolby Digital or DTS.
Another common use is to carry two channels of uncompressed digital audio from a CD player to an amplifying receiver. S/PDIF was developed at the same time as the main standard, AES3, used to interconnect professional audio equipment in the professional audio field; this resulted from the desire of the various standards committees to have at least sufficient similarities between the two interfaces to allow the use of the same, or similar, designs for interfacing ICs. S/PDIF remained nearly identical at the protocol level, but changed the physical connectors from XLR to either electrical coaxial cable or optical fibre, both of which cost less than the XLR connection; the RCA connectors are colour-coded orange to differentiate from other RCA connector uses such as composite video. The cable was changed from 110 Ω balanced twisted pair to 75 Ω coaxial cable, using RCA jacks. Signals transmitted over consumer-grade TOSLINK connections are identical in content to those transmitted over coaxial connectors, though TOSLINK S/PDIF exhibits higher jitter.
S/PDIF is used to transmit digital signals of a number of formats, the most common being the 48 kHz sample rate format and the 44.1 kHz format, used in CD audio. In order to support both systems, as well as others that might be needed, the format has no defined data rate. Instead, the data is sent using biphase mark code, which has either one or two transitions for every bit, allowing the original word clock to be extracted from the signal itself. S/PDIF is meant to be used for transmitting 20-bit audio data streams plus other related information. To transmit sources with less than 20 bits of sample accuracy, the superfluous bits will be set to zero. S/PDIF can transport 24-bit samples by way of four extra bits. S/PDIF protocol is identical to AES3 with one exception: the channel status bit differs in S/PDIF. Both protocols group 192 samples into an audio block, transmit one channel status bit per sample, providing one 192-bit channel status word per channel per audio block; the meaning of the channel status word is different between AES3 and S/PDIF.
For S/PDIF, the 192-bit status word is identical between the two channels and is divided into 12 words of 16 bits each, with the first 16 bits being a control code. Bits 8–14 of the control code are a 7-bit category code indicating the type of source equipment, bit 15 is the "L-bit", which indicates whether copy-restricted audio is original or a copy; the L-bit is only used. The L-bit polarity depends on the category, with recording allowed if it is 1 for DVD-R and DVR-RW, but 0 for CD-R, CD-RW, DVD. For plain CD-DA, the L-bit is not defined, recording is prevented by alternating bit 2 at a rate of 4–10 Hz; the receiver does not control the data rate, so it must avoid bit slip by synchronizing its reception with the source clock. Many S/PDIF implementations cannot decouple the final signal from influence of the source or the interconnect; the process of clock recovery used to synchronize reception may produce jitter. If the DAC does not have a stable clock reference noise will be introduced into the resulting analog signal.
However, receivers can implement various strategies. TOSLINK optical fiber, unlike coaxial cables, are immune to RF interference; the fiber core of TOSLINK, may suffer permanent damage if bent. ADAT Lightpipe Dolby Digital Plus I²S McASP Manchester code S/PDIF at Epanorama.net More about channel data bits Interfacing AES3 and S/PDIF
A tunnel diode or Esaki diode is a type of semiconductor diode that has negative resistance due to the quantum mechanical effect called tunneling. It was invented in August 1957 by Leo Esaki, Yuriko Kurose, Takashi Suzuki when they were working at Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo, now known as Sony. In 1973, Esaki received the Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Brian Josephson, for discovering the electron tunneling effect used in these diodes. Robert Noyce independently devised the idea of a tunnel diode while working for William Shockley, but was discouraged from pursuing it. Tunnel diodes were first manufactured by Sony in 1957, followed by General Electric and other companies from about 1960, are still made in low volume today. Tunnel diodes have a doped p–n junction, about 10 nm wide; the heavy doping results in a broken band gap, where conduction band electron states on the n-side are more or less aligned with valence band hole states on the p-side. They are made from germanium, but can be made from gallium arsenide and silicon materials.
Their negative differential resistance in part of their operating range allows them to function as oscillators and amplifiers, in switching circuits using hysteresis. They are used as frequency converters and detectors, their low capacitance allows them to function at microwave frequencies, above the range of ordinary diodes and transistors. Tunnel diodes are not used due to their low output power. In recent years, new devices that use the tunneling mechanism have been developed; the resonant-tunneling diode has achieved some of the highest frequencies of any solid-state oscillator. Another type of tunnel diode is a metal–insulator–metal diode, but its present application appears to be limited to research environments due to inherent sensitivities. There is a metal–insulator–insulator–metal diode, where an additional insulator layer allows "step tunneling" for precise diode control. Under normal forward bias operation, as voltage begins to increase, electrons at first tunnel through the narrow p–n junction barrier and fill electron states in the conduction band on the n-side which become aligned with empty valence band hole states on the p-side of the p-n junction.
As voltage increases further, these states become misaligned, the current drops. This is called negative differential resistance because current decreases with increasing voltage; as voltage increases, the diode begins to operate as a normal diode, where electrons travel by conduction across the p–n junction, no longer by tunneling through the p–n junction barrier. The most important operating region for a tunnel diode is the negative resistance region, its graph is different from normal p–n junction diode. When used in the reverse direction, tunnel diodes are called back diodes and can act as fast rectifiers with zero offset voltage and extreme linearity for power signals. Under reverse bias, filled states on the p-side become aligned with empty states on the n-side, electrons now tunnel through the p–n junction barrier in reverse direction. In a conventional semiconductor diode, conduction takes place while the p–n junction is forward biased and blocks current flow when the junction is reverse biased.
This occurs up to a point known as the "reverse breakdown voltage". In the tunnel diode, the dopant concentrations in the p and n layers are increased to a level such that the reverse breakdown voltage becomes zero and the diode conducts in the reverse direction. However, when forward-biased, an effect occurs called quantum mechanical tunneling which gives rise to a region in its voltage-current behavior where an increase in forward voltage is accompanied by a decrease in forward current; this negative resistance region can be exploited in a solid state version of the dynatron oscillator which uses a tetrode thermionic valve. The tunnel diode showed great promise as an oscillator and high-frequency threshold device since it operated at frequencies far greater than the tetrode could: well into the microwave bands. Applications for tunnel diodes included local oscillators for UHF television tuners, trigger circuits in oscilloscopes, high-speed counter circuits, fast-rise time pulse generator circuits.
In 1977, the Intelsat V satellite receiver used a microstrip tunnel diode amplifier front-end in the 14 to 15.5 GHz frequency band. Such amplifiers were considered state-of-the-art, with better performance at high frequencies than any transistor-based front end; the tunnel diode can be used as a low-noise microwave amplifier. Since its discovery, more conventional semiconductor devices have surpassed its performance using conventional oscillator techniques. For many purposes, a three-terminal device, such as a field-effect transistor, is more flexible than a device with only two terminals. Practical tunnel diodes operate at a few milliamperes and a few tenths of a volt, making them low-power devices; the Gunn diode can handle more power. Tunnel diodes are more resistant to ionizing radiation than other diodes; this makes them well suited to higher radiation environments such as those found in space. Tunnel diodes are notable with devices made in the 1960s still functioning. Writing in Nature and coauthors state that semiconductor devices in general are stable, suggest that their shelf life should be "infinite" if kept at room temperature.
They go on to report that a
Sony Music Entertainment Japan
Sony Music Entertainment Inc. abbreviated as SMEJ or SME, known as Sony Music Japan for short, is Sony's music arm in Japan. SMEJ is directly owned by Sony Corporation and independent from the United States-based Sony Music Entertainment due to its strength in the Japanese music industry, its subsidiaries including the Japanese animation production enterprise, established in September 1995 as a joint-venture between Sony Music Entertainment Japan and Sony Pictures Entertainment Japan, but which in 2001 became a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Music Entertainment Japan. It was prominent in the early to mid'90s producing and licensing music for animated series such as Roujin Z from acclaimed Japanese comic artist Katsuhiro Otomo and Capcom's Street Fighter animated series; until March 2007, Sony Music Japan had its own North American sublabel, Tofu Records. Releases of Sony Music Japan now appear on Columbia Records and/or Epic Records in North America. Sony does not have the trademark rights to the Columbia name in Japan, so releases under Columbia Records from another country appears on Sony Records in Japan, but retains the usage of the "walking eye" logo.
The Columbia name and trademark is controlled by Nippon Columbia, which was, in fact, the licensee for the American Columbia Records up until 1968 though relations were severed as far back as World War II. Nippon Columbia does not have direct relations with the British Columbia Graphophone Company, so the licensee for the British Columbia Graphophone Company was Toshiba Musical Industries. With Sony Corporation of America's buyout of Bertelsmann's stake in Sony BMG, Sony Music Entertainment Japan stepped in to acquire outstanding shares of BMG Music Japan from Sony BMG, making it a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Music Japan. Sony Music Entertainment Japan was incorporated in March 1968 as a Tokyo-based 50/50 joint venture between Sony Corporation and U. S. conglomerate CBS to distribute the latter's music releases in Japan. The company was incorporated with Sony co-founder Akio Morita as president. Norio Ohga was part of the management team from the formation of the company and served as president and representative director since April 1970.
In 1972, when CBS/Sony was generating robust profits, Ohga was named chairman and at the same time gained further responsibility and influence within Sony. He would continue to work for the music company one morning a week. In 1980, Toshio Ozawa succeeded Ohga as president. In 1983, the company was renamed CBS/Sony Group. In January 1988, after more than a year of negotiations, Sony acquired CBS Records and the 50% of CBS/Sony Group that it did not own. In March 1988, four wholly owned subsidiaries were folded into CBS/Sony Group: CBS/Sony Inc. Epic/Sony Records Inc. CBS/Sony Records Inc. and Sony Video Software International. The company was renamed Inc.. Shugo Matsuo was named new president in January 1992, replacing Toshio Ozawa, appointed to the post of chairman. Overall sales for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1991 were 83.8 billion yen with a pretax profit of 9.2 billion yen. In June 1996, Ryokichi Kunugi became the new president. Shugo Matsuo was named chairman. Shigeo Maruyama was appointed to the new post of CEO on October 1, 1997 and replaced Kunugi as president in February 1998.
As of 2007, Naoki Kitagawa is the current CEO of the group. In May 2018, SMEJ acquired a 39% stake in the Peanuts comic strip franchise from DHX Media. Sony Music Entertainment announced the launch of its first video game publishing label, Unties, in October 2017. Unties will publish indie games for the PlayStation 4, PlayStation VR, Nintendo Switch, PC; the name was selected by Sony as representative of helping to "unleash" the power of independent video game development and "unshackle" such developers from the traditional video game publishing process. Unties’ first release was Tiny Metal, a turn-based tactics video game developed by Area 35, for the Nintendo Switch, PS4, PC; the game was first premiered at PAX West Indie Megabooth. Published Azure Reflections, a side-scrolling bullet hell developed by Souvenir Circ. on May 15 2018 for the PS4. Published Touhou Gensou Wanderers Reloaded, a roguelike rpg developed by Aqua Style, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch, PC. Published Necrosphere, a platformer developed by Cat Nigiri, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch, PC, PSVita.
Published Midnight Sanctuary, a VR/3D Novel game developed by CAVYHOUSE, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch and PC. Published Tokyo Dark, a visual novel mystery adventure hybrid developed by Cherrymochi, for the PC. Published Chiki-Chiki Boxy Racers, an arcade racing game developed by Pocket, for the Nintendo Switch on August 30 2018. Scheduled to publish on Last Standard, a 3d action game developed by I From Japan, intended for PC. Scheduled to publish The Good Life, a daily-life rpg developed by White Owls Inc. for the PS4 and PC. Scheduled to publish Merkava Avalanche, a 3d cavalry warfare action game developed by WinterCrownWorks, for the PC. Scheduled to publish Olija, an action adventure game developed by Skeleton Crew Studio, for the PC. Scheduled to publish Deemo Reborn, a music rhythm and urban fantasy game developed by Taiwanese studio Rayak, for the PS4 with PSVR support. Scheduled to publish Giraffe and Anika, a 3d adventure game developed by Atelier Mimina, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch and PC.
Scheduled to publish 3rd Eye, a 2d horror exploration game, based on the Touhou franchise, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch, PC. Scheduled to publish Gensokyo Defenders, a tower-defense game developed by Neetpia, for the PS4 and Nintendo Switch; the company's leading role on the Ja
Sony Corporation is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Tokyo. Its diversified business includes consumer and professional electronics, gaming and financial services; the company owns the largest music entertainment business in the world, the largest video game console business and one of the largest video game publishing businesses, is one of the leading manufacturers of electronic products for the consumer and professional markets, a leading player in the film and television entertainment industry. Sony was ranked 97th on the 2018 Fortune Global 500 list. Sony Corporation is the electronics business unit and the parent company of the Sony Group, engaged in business through its four operating components: electronics, motion pictures and financial services; these make Sony one of the most comprehensive entertainment companies in the world. The group consists of Sony Corporation, Sony Pictures, Sony Mobile, Sony Interactive Entertainment, Sony Music, Sony/ATV Music Publishing, Sony Financial Holdings, others.
Sony is among the semiconductor sales leaders and since 2015, the fifth-largest television manufacturer in the world after Samsung Electronics, LG Electronics, TCL and Hisense. The company's current slogan is Be Moved, their former slogans were The One and Only, It's like.no.other and make.believe. Sony has a weak tie to the Sumitomo Mitsui Financial Group corporate group, the successor to the Mitsui group. Sony began in the wake of World War II. In 1946, Masaru Ibuka started an electronics shop in a department store building in Tokyo; the company started with a total of eight employees. In May 1946, Ibuka was joined by Akio Morita to establish a company called Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo; the company built Japan's first tape recorder, called the Type-G. In 1958, the company changed its name to "Sony"; when Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo was looking for a romanized name to use to market themselves, they considered using their initials, TTK. The primary reason they did not is that the railway company Tokyo Kyuko was known as TTK.
The company used the acronym "Totsuko" in Japan, but during his visit to the United States, Morita discovered that Americans had trouble pronouncing that name. Another early name, tried out for a while was "Tokyo Teletech" until Akio Morita discovered that there was an American company using Teletech as a brand name; the name "Sony" was chosen for the brand as a mix of two words: one was the Latin word "sonus", the root of sonic and sound, the other was "sonny", a common slang term used in 1950s America to call a young boy. In 1950s Japan, "sonny boys" was a loan word in Japanese, which connoted smart and presentable young men, which Sony founders Akio Morita and Masaru Ibuka considered themselves to be; the first Sony-branded product, the TR-55 transistor radio, appeared in 1955 but the company name did not change to Sony until January 1958. At the time of the change, it was unusual for a Japanese company to use Roman letters to spell its name instead of writing it in kanji; the move was not without opposition: TTK's principal bank at the time, had strong feelings about the name.
They pushed for a name such as Sony Teletech. Akio Morita was firm, however. Both Ibuka and Mitsui Bank's chairman gave their approval. According to Schiffer, Sony's TR-63 radio "cracked open the U. S. market and launched the new industry of consumer microelectronics." By the mid-1950s, American teens had begun buying portable transistor radios in huge numbers, helping to propel the fledgling industry from an estimated 100,000 units in 1955 to 5 million units by the end of 1968. Sony co-founder Akio Morita founded Sony Corporation of America in 1960. In the process, he was struck by the mobility of employees between American companies, unheard of in Japan at that time; when he returned to Japan, he encouraged experienced, middle-aged employees of other companies to reevaluate their careers and consider joining Sony. The company filled many positions in this manner, inspired other Japanese companies to do the same. Moreover, Sony played a major role in the development of Japan as a powerful exporter during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s.
It helped to improve American perceptions of "made in Japan" products. Known for its production quality, Sony was able to charge above-market prices for its consumer electronics and resisted lowering prices. In 1971, Masaru Ibuka handed the position of president over to his co-founder Akio Morita. Sony began a life insurance company in one of its many peripheral businesses. Amid a global recession in the early 1980s, electronics sales dropped and the company was forced to cut prices. Sony's profits fell sharply. "It's over for Sony," one analyst concluded. "The company's best days are behind it." Around that time, Norio Ohga took up the role of president. He encouraged the development of the Compact Disc in the 1970s and 1980s, of the PlayStation in the early 1990s. Ohga went on to purchase CBS Records in 1988 and Columbia Pictures in 1989 expanding Sony's media presence. Ohga would succeed Morita as chief executive officer in 1989. Under the vision of co-founder Akio Morita and his successors, the company had aggressively expanded in
Cell is a multi-core microprocessor microarchitecture that combines a general-purpose PowerPC core of modest performance with streamlined coprocessing elements which accelerate multimedia and vector processing applications, as well as many other forms of dedicated computation. It was developed by Sony, IBM, an alliance known as "STI"; the architectural design and first implementation were carried out at the STI Design Center in Austin, Texas over a four-year period beginning March 2001 on a budget reported by Sony as approaching US$400 million. Cell is shorthand for Cell Broadband Engine Architecture abbreviated CBEA in full or Cell BE in part; the first major commercial application of Cell was in Sony's PlayStation 3 game console. Mercury Computer Systems has a dual Cell server, a dual Cell blade configuration, a rugged computer, a PCI Express accelerator board available in different stages of production. Toshiba had announced plans to incorporate Cell in high definition television sets, but seems to have abandoned the idea.
Exotic features such as the XDR memory subsystem and coherent Element Interconnect Bus interconnect appear to position Cell for future applications in the supercomputing space to exploit the Cell processor's prowess in floating point kernels. The Cell architecture includes a memory coherence architecture that emphasizes power efficiency, prioritizes bandwidth over low latency, favors peak computational throughput over simplicity of program code. For these reasons, Cell is regarded as a challenging environment for software development. IBM provides a Linux-based development platform to help developers program for Cell chips; the architecture will not be used unless it is adopted by the software development community. However, Cell's strengths may make it useful for scientific computing regardless of its mainstream success. In mid-2000, Sony Computer Entertainment, Toshiba Corporation, IBM formed an alliance known as "STI" to design and manufacture the processor; the STI Design Center opened in March 2001.
The Cell was designed over a period of four years, using enhanced versions of the design tools for the POWER4 processor. Over 400 engineers from the three companies worked together in Austin, with critical support from eleven of IBM's design centers. During this period, IBM filed many patents pertaining to the Cell architecture, manufacturing process, software environment. An early patent version of the Broadband Engine was shown to be a chip package comprising four "Processing Elements", the patent's description for what is now known as the Power Processing Element; each Processing Element contained 8 APUs, which are now referred to as SPEs on the current Broadband Engine chip. This chip package was regarded to run at a clock speed of 4 GHz and with 32 APUs providing 32 gigaFLOPS each, the Broadband Engine was shown to have 1 teraFLOPS of raw computing power; this design was fabricated using a 90 nm SOI process. In March 2007, IBM announced that the 65 nm version of Cell BE is in production at its plant in East Fishkill, New York.
Bandai Namco Entertainment used the cell processor for their 357 arcade board as well as the subsequent 369. In February 2008, IBM announced that it will begin to fabricate Cell processors with the 45 nm process. In May 2008, IBM introduced the high-performance double-precision floating-point version of the Cell processor, the PowerXCell 8i, at the 65 nm feature size. In May 2008, an Opteron- and PowerXCell 8i-based supercomputer, the IBM Roadrunner system, became the world's first system to achieve one petaFLOPS, was the fastest computer in the world until third quarter 2009; the world's three most energy efficient supercomputers, as represented by the Green500 list, are based on the PowerXCell 8i. The 45 nm Cell processor was introduced in concert with Sony's PlayStation 3 Slim in August 2009. By November 2009, IBM had discontinued the development of a Cell processor with 32 APUs but was still developing other Cell products. On May 17, 2005, Sony Computer Entertainment confirmed some specifications of the Cell processor that would be shipping in the then-forthcoming PlayStation 3 console.
This Cell configuration has one PPE on the core, with eight physical SPEs in silicon. In the PlayStation 3, one SPE is locked-out during the test process, a practice which helps to improve manufacturing yields, another one is reserved for the OS, leaving 6 free SPEs to be used by games' code; the target clock-frequency at introduction is 3.2 GHz. The introductory design is fabricated using a 90 nm SOI process, with initial volume production slated for IBM's facility in East Fishkill, New York; the relationship between cores and threads is a common source of confusion. The PPE core is dual threaded and manifests in software as two independent threads of execution while each active SPE manifests as a single thread. In the PlayStation 3 configuration as described by Sony, the Cell processor provides nine independent threads of execution. On June 28, 2005, IBM and Mercury Computer Systems announced a partnership agreement to build Cell-based computer systems for embedded applications such as medical imaging, industrial inspection and defense, seismic processing, telecommunications.
Mercury has since released blades, conventional rack servers and PCI Express accelerator boards with Cell processors. In the fall of 2006, IBM released the QS20 blade module using double Cell BE processors for tremendous performance in certain applications, reaching a peak of 410 gigaFLOPS in FP8 quarter precision per module; the QS22 based on the PowerXCell 8i processor was used for the IBM Roadrunner supercomputer. Mercury and IBM uses the utilized Cell processor with eight active SPEs. On April
HDMI is a proprietary audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio device. HDMI is a digital replacement for analog video standards. HDMI implements the EIA/CEA-861 standards, which define video formats and waveforms, transport of compressed and uncompressed LPCM audio, auxiliary data, implementations of the VESA EDID. CEA-861 signals carried by HDMI are electrically compatible with the CEA-861 signals used by the Digital Visual Interface. No signal conversion is necessary, nor is there a loss of video quality when a DVI-to-HDMI adapter is used; the CEC capability allows HDMI devices to control each other when necessary and allows the user to operate multiple devices with one handheld remote control device. Several versions of HDMI have been developed and deployed since initial release of the technology, but all use the same cable and connector.
Other than improved audio and video capacity, performance and color spaces, newer versions have optional advanced features such as 3D, Ethernet data connection, CEC extensions. Production of consumer HDMI products started in late 2003. In Europe either DVI-HDCP or HDMI is included in the HD ready in-store labeling specification for TV sets for HDTV, formulated by EICTA with SES Astra in 2005. HDMI began to appear on consumer HDTVs in 2004 and camcorders and digital still cameras in 2006; as of January 6, 2015, over 4 billion HDMI devices have been sold. The HDMI founders were Hitachi, Philips, Silicon Image, Thomson, RCA, Toshiba. Digital Content Protection, LLC provides HDCP for HDMI. HDMI has the support of motion picture producers Fox, Warner Bros. and Disney, along with system operators DirecTV, EchoStar and CableLabs. The HDMI founders began development on HDMI 1.0 on April 16, 2002, with the goal of creating an AV connector, backward-compatible with DVI. At the time, DVI-HDCP and DVI-HDTV were being used on HDTVs.
HDMI 1.0 was designed to improve on DVI-HDTV by using a smaller connector and adding audio capability and enhanced Y′CBCR capability and consumer electronics control functions. The first Authorized Testing Center, which tests HDMI products, was opened by Silicon Image on June 23, 2003, in California, United States; the first ATC in Japan was opened by Panasonic on May 2004, in Osaka. The first ATC in Europe was opened by Philips on May 2005, in Caen, France; the first ATC in China was opened by Silicon Image on November 2005, in Shenzhen. The first ATC in India was opened by Philips on June 2008, in Bangalore; the HDMI website contains a list of all the ATCs. According to In-Stat, the number of HDMI devices sold was 5 million in 2004, 17.4 million in 2005, 63 million in 2006, 143 million in 2007. HDMI has become the de facto standard for HDTVs, according to In-Stat, around 90% of digital televisions in 2007 included HDMI. In-Stat has estimated that 229 million HDMI devices were sold in 2008. On April 8, 2008 there were over 850 consumer electronics and PC companies that had adopted the HDMI specification.
On January 7, 2009, HDMI Licensing, LLC announced that HDMI had reached an installed base of over 600 million HDMI devices. In-Stat has estimated that 394 million HDMI devices would sell in 2009 and that all digital televisions by the end of 2009 would have at least one HDMI input. On January 28, 2008, In-Stat reported that shipments of HDMI were expected to exceed those of DVI in 2008, driven by the consumer electronics market. In 2008, PC Magazine awarded a Technical Excellence Award in the Home Theater category for an "innovation that has changed the world" to the CEC portion of the HDMI specification. Ten companies were given a Technology and Engineering Emmy Award for their development of HDMI by the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences on January 7, 2009. On October 25, 2011, the HDMI Forum was established by the HDMI founders to create an open organization so that interested companies can participate in the development of the HDMI specification. All members of the HDMI Forum have equal voting rights, may participate in the Technical Working Group, if elected can be on the Board of Directors.
There is no limit to the number of companies allowed in the HDMI Forum though companies must pay an annual fee of US$15,000 with an additional annual fee of $5,000 for those companies who serve on the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors is made up of 11 companies who are elected every 2 years by a general vote of HDMI Forum members. All future development of the HDMI specification take place in the HDMI Forum and are built upon the HDMI 1.4b specification. On the same day HDMI Licensing, LLC announced that there were over 1,100 HDMI adopters and that over 2 billion HDMI-enabled products had shipped since the launch of the HDMI standard. From October 25, 2011, all development of the HDMI specification became the responsibility of the newly created HDMI Forum. On January 8, 2013, HDMI Licensing, LLC announced that there were over 1,300 HDMI adopters and that over 3 billion HDMI devices had shipped since the launch of the HDMI standard; the day marked the 10th anniversary of the release of the first HDMI specification.
The HDMI specification defines the protocols, electrical interfaces and mechanical requirements of the standard. The maximum pixel clock rate for HDMI 1.0 is 165 MHz, suffic