BT Group plc is a holding company which owns British Telecommunications plc, a British multinational telecommunications services company with head offices in London, United Kingdom. It has operations in around 180 countries, BTs origins date back to the founding of the Electric Telegraph Company in 1846 which developed a nationwide communications network. In 1912, the General Post Office, a government department, the Post Office Act of 1969 led to the GPO becoming a public corporation. British Telecommunications, trading as British Telecom, was formed in 1980, British Telecommunications was privatised in 1984, becoming British Telecommunications plc, with some 50 percent of its shares sold to investors. The Government sold its stake in further share sales in 1991 and 1993. BT has a listing on the London Stock Exchange, a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. BT controls a number of large subsidiaries, BT announced in February 2015 that it had agreed to acquire EE for £12.5 billion, and received final regulatory approval from the Competition and Markets Authority on 15 January 2016.
The transaction was completed on 29 January 2016, BTs origins date back to the establishment of the first telecommunications companies in Britain. Among them was the first commercial service, the Electric Telegraph Company. As these companies amalgamated and were taken over or collapsed, the companies were transferred to state control under the Post Office in 1912. These companies were merged and rebranded as British Telecom, in January 1878 Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated his recently developed telephone to Queen Victoria at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. John Hudson, with his premises in nearby Shudehill. As the number of installed telephones across the country grew it became sensible to consider constructing telephone exchanges to allow all the telephones in each city to be connected together, the first exchange was opened in London in August 1879, closely followed by the Lancashire Telephonic Exchange in Manchester. From 1878, the service in Britain was provided by private sector companies such as the National Telephone Company.
In 1896, the National Telephone Company was taken over by the General Post Office, in 1912 it became the primary supplier of telecommunications services, after the Post Office took over the private sector telephone service in GB, except for a few local authority services. Those services all folded within a few years, the exception being Kingston upon Hull. Converting the Post Office into an industry, as opposed to a governmental department, was first discussed in 1932 by Lord Wolmer. In 1932 the Bridgeman Committee produced a report that was rejected, in 1961, more proposals were ignored
Peanut butter is a food paste or spread made from ground dry roasted peanuts. It often contains ingredients that modify the taste or texture, such as salt. Peanut butter is popular in many countries, the United States is a leading exporter of peanut butter and itself consumes $800 million of peanut butter annually. Peanut butter is served as a spread on bread, toast or crackers and it is used in a number of confections and packaged foods, such as Reeses Peanut Butter Cups, candy bars and peanut-flavoured granola bars. Comparable preparations are made by grinding other nuts, a variety of other nut butters are sold, such as cashew butter and almond butter. The use of peanuts dates to the Aztecs and Incas, marcellus Gilmore Edson of Montreal, Quebec was the first to patent peanut butter in 1884. He mixed sugar into the paste to harden its consistency, kellogg served peanut butter to the patients at his Battle Creek Sanitarium. As the US National Peanut Board confirms, Contrary to popular belief, january 24 is National Peanut Butter Day in the United States.
The two main types of butter are crunchy and smooth. In crunchy peanut butter, some coarsely-ground peanut fragments are included to give extra texture, the peanuts in smooth peanut butter are ground uniformly, creating a creamy texture. In the US, no product labelled as peanut butter can contain artificial sweeteners, chemical preservatives, some brands of peanut butter are sold without emulsifiers that bind the peanut oils with the peanut paste, and so require stirring after separation. Most major brands of peanut butter add white sugar, but there are others that use dried cane syrup, in 2012, organic peanut butter was available. Since the market for organic peanut butter is small, there is not enough demand to support manufacturers who produce only organic peanut butter, as a result, most organic peanut butter is produced in factories that make non-organic peanut butter. A2012 article stated that China and India are the first and second largest producers, the United States of America. is the third largest producer of peanuts and more than half of the American peanut crop goes into making peanut butter.
Peanut butter is an excellent source of protein, dietary fiber, vitamin E, pantothenic acid, high in content are the dietary minerals manganese, phosphorus and copper. Peanut butter is a source of thiamin and potassium. Both crunchy/chunky and smooth peanut butter are sources of saturated and unsaturated fats, for people with a peanut allergy, peanut butter can cause a variety of possible allergic reactions, including life-threatening anaphylaxis. This potential effect has led to banning peanut butter, among other common foods, Peanut butters flavor combines well with other flavors, such as oatmeal, cured meats, savory sauces, and various types of breads and crackers
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
G. H. Mumm
G. H. Mumm & Cie, situated in Reims in northern France, is one of the largest Champagne producers and it is currently ranked 4th globally based on volume of bottles sold in 2015. It was founded by three brothers, Jacobus and Phillip Mumm, German winemakers from the Rhine valley and G. Heuser, P. A. stood for the initials of Mumm senior, a successful wine merchant from Solingen. Mumms label is famous for its red ribbon, patterned after, the French confiscated all of the Mumms property, although they had lived in Champagne for almost a century before World War I, because they had never become French citizens. The company is owned by Pernod Ricard, Mumm was the official sponsor of F1 racing from 2000 until 2015 and provided the champagne bottles for the podium celebrations after each race. Now, they are the official sponsor of Formula E. G. H, Mumm Cordon Rouge is the official champagne of Kentucky Derby and Australias Melbourne Cup, two major horse races. In October 2016, it was announced that G.
H, Mumm would replace J&B after 39 years as the headline sponsor of South Africas major horse race event, The Sun Met. Mumm announced the appointment of nine-time Olympic gold medallist sprinter Usain Bolt as its CEO to feature in a promotional campaign yet to be unveiled. Mumm played a role in Thomas Covilles celebration after achieving his new world record of 49 days and 3 hours for yacht solo-navigation around the world on Christmas Day 2016. Mumm Napa is one of Californias méthode traditionnelle sparkling wine producers, Mumm & Cie and Joseph E Seagram & Sons. The location at Napa Valley was founded by Guy Deveaux, who determined Napas long hot days and cold nights to be ideal for producing the amount of acidity. Begun in 1965, the Foujita chapel was designed by Foujita in the romanesque style. He supervised the building and interior decoration, the chapel was consecrated on 1 October 1966 and handed over to the City of Reims on 18 October 1966. The chapel was designated a monument in 1992.
Mumm a fresco depicting The Virgin in the Vines, the rose featured in the painting became the cuvées emblem and appears on the metallic cap on top of the cork of the rose Champagne. Media related to G. H. Mumm at Wikimedia Commons Mumm official site Mumm Napa official site
In the 20th century, DuPont developed many polymers such as Vespel, nylon, Teflon, Kapton, Zemdrain, M5 fiber, Tyvek, Sorona and Lycra. DuPont developed Freon for the refrigerant industry, and more environmentally friendly refrigerants and it developed synthetic pigments and paints including ChromaFlair. In 2014, DuPont was the fourth largest chemical company based on market capitalization. Its stock price is a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average, DuPont was founded in 1802 by Éleuthère Irénée du Pont, using capital raised in France and gunpowder machinery imported from France. It began as a manufacturer of gunpowder, as du Pont noticed that the industry in North America was lagging behind Europe, the Eleutherian Mills site is now a museum and a National Historic Landmark. DuPont continued to expand, moving into the production of dynamite, in 1902, DuPonts president, Eugene du Pont and the surviving partners sold the company to three great-grandsons of the original founder. Charles Lee Reese was appointed as director and the company began centralizing their research departments, the company subsequently purchased several smaller chemical companies, and in 1912 these actions gave rise to government scrutiny under the Sherman Antitrust Act.
The courts declared that the dominance of the explosives business constituted a monopoly. The court ruling resulted in the creation of the Hercules Powder Company, at the time of divestment, DuPont retained the single base nitrocellulose powders, while Hercules held the double base powders combining nitrocellulose and nitroglycerine. DuPont subsequently developed the Improved Military Rifle line of smokeless powders, in 1910, DuPont published a brochure entitled Farming with Dynamite. DuPont established two of the first industrial laboratories in the United States, where began the work on cellulose chemistry, lacquers. DuPont Central Research was established at the DuPont Experimental Station, across the Brandywine Creek from the powder mills. In 1914, Pierre S. du Pont invested in the automobile industry. The following year he was invited to sit on GMs board of directors, the DuPont company would assist the struggling automobile company further with a $25 million purchase of GM stock. In 1920, Pierre S.
du Pont was elected president of General Motors, under du Ponts guidance, GM became the number one automobile company in the world. However, in 1957, because of DuPonts influence within GM, in the 1920s, DuPont continued its emphasis on materials science, hiring Wallace Carothers to work on polymers in 1928. Carothers invented neoprene, a rubber, the first polyester superpolymer. The invention of Teflon followed a few years later, DuPont introduced phenothiazine as an insecticide in 1935
Rowntree was an English confectionery business based in York. Rowntree developed the Kit Kat and Smarties brands, founded in 1862, the company developed strong associations with Quaker philanthropy. Throughout much of the 19th and 20th centuries, it was one of the big three manufacturers in the United Kingdom, alongside Cadbury and Fry. By the time the company was acquired by Nestlé in 1988, the Rowntree brand continues to be used to market Nestlés jelly sweet brands, such as Fruit Pastilles and Fruit Gums. In 1862, Rowntrees was founded at Castlegate, York by Henry Isaac Rowntree, in 1864, Rowntree acquired an old iron foundry at Tanners Moat for £1,000, and moved production there. In 1869, the factory was staffed by 12 men, by 1869, Rowntree was in financial difficulties and his brother, Joseph Rowntree, joined him in full partnership, and H. I. Rowntree & Co was formally established, in 1881, Rowntree introduced Fruit Pastilles, competing against French imports of the time, and the product proved to be a great success, accounting for about 25% of the companys tonnage by 1887.
This success allowed the company to invest in a Van Houten press, in the 1890s, Rowntree transformed from a small family business into a large-scale manufacturer, as sales more than quadrupled due to an increased demand among the public for confectionery. In 1889, Seebohm Rowntree established a research and testing laboratory for analysing ingredients. In 1890, to cater for increased demand, Rowntree acquired a 20-acre site at Haxby Road on the outskirts of York. The Tanners Moat site had become too small for Rowntrees needs, in 1893, the company introduced Rowntrees Fruit Gums. Fitzgerald suggests that Joseph Rowntree imitated the successes of competitors, and that under his leadership, around 1898, the company acquired its own cocoa plantations in the West Indies. In 1899, Rowntree introduced its first milk chocolate block, Rowntree had struggled to make a milk chocolate product of comparable quality or value to Cadburys Dairy Milk. Joseph Rowntree even described the market for milk chocolate as a fad.
Rowntrees two major rivals and Fry, merged in 1918, and although Rowntree was invited to partake in the merger, the Rowntree board was torn as to whether it should become a low-turnover, high-quality product company or a mass producer of cheaper lines. Seebohm Rowntree inherited a company when he succeeded his father as chairman in 1923. By 1930, as a result of all its problems, Rowntree was approaching bankruptcy, in 1926, Cowans of Toronto, was acquired for $1 million. From 1931, Rowntree of Canada began to manufacture Mackintosh toffees under licence, in 1927, the company began to market its fruit gums, and its pastilles from 1928, in the now familiar tube packaging
Chef Boyardee is a brand of canned pasta products sold internationally by Conagra Brands. The company was founded by Italian immigrant Hector Boyardee in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1924, Boiardi opened Il Giardino dItalia restaurant at East 9th Street and Woodland Avenue in Cleveland, Ohio. The idea for Chef Boyardee came about when restaurant customers began asking Boiardi for his spaghetti sauce and he opened a factory in 1928, moving production to Milton, ten years later, where enough tomatoes and mushrooms could be grown. He decided to name his product Boy-Ar-Dee to help Americans pronounce his name correctly, the U. S. military commissioned them during World War II for the production of army rations, requiring the factory to run 24/7. After the war, instead of reducing production, the company was sold to American Home Products in 1946 so that everyone working there would be able to keep their job, American Home Products turned its food division into International Home Foods in 1996. Four years later, International Home Foods was purchased by ConAgra Foods, which continues to produce Chef Boyardee canned pastas bearing Boiardis likeness
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid and other trace chemicals, which may include flavorings. The acetic acid is produced by the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria, Vinegar is now mainly used as a cooking ingredient, or in pickling. As the most easily manufactured mild acid, it has historically had a variety of industrial, medical. Commercial vinegar is produced either by a fast or a slow fermentation processes, in general, slow methods are used in traditional vinegars where fermentation proceeds slowly over the course of a few months or up to a year. The longer fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a non-toxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria, fast methods add mother of vinegar to the source liquid before adding air to oxygenate and promote the fastest fermentation. In fast production processes, vinegar may be produced between 20 hours to three days, the conversion of ethanol and oxygen to acetic acid takes place by the following reaction, CH3CH2OH + O2 → CH3COOH + H2O Vinegar has been made and used by people for thousands of years.
Traces of it have been found in Egyptian urns from around 3000 BC, apple cider vinegar is made from cider or apple must, and has a brownish-gold color. It is sometimes sold unfiltered and unpasteurized with the mother of vinegar present and it can be diluted with fruit juice or water or sweetened for consumption. Balsamic vinegar is an aged vinegar produced in the Modena. The original product—Traditional Balsamic Vinegar—is made from the juice, or must. It is very dark brown, rich and complex, with the finest grades being aged in casks made variously of oak, chestnut, juniper. Regardless of how it is produced, balsamic vinegar must be made from a grape product, a high acidity level is somewhat hidden by the sweetness of the other ingredients, making it very mellow. It ranges from yellow to golden brown in color, and has a mellow flavor, similar in some respects to rice vinegar. Because it contains no sugar, it is no sweeter than any other vinegar. In the Philippines, it often is labeled as sukang maasim, cane vinegars from Ilocos are made in two different ways.
One way is to simply place sugar cane juice in large jars, the other way is through fermentation to produce a local wine known as basi. Low-quality basi is allowed to undergo acetic acid fermentation that converts alcohol into acetic acid, a white variation has become quite popular in Brazil in recent years, where it is the cheapest type of vinegar sold. It is now common for other types of vinegar to be mixed with cane vinegar to lower the cost
Venture capital firms or funds invest in these early-stage companies in exchange for equity–an ownership stake–in the companies they invest in. Venture capitalists take on the risk of financing risky start-ups in the hopes some of the firms they support will become successful. The start-ups are usually based on a technology or business model and they are usually from the high technology industries, such as information technology. The typical venture capital investment occurs after a seed funding round. The first round of venture capital to fund growth is called the Series A round. This institution helps identify promising new firms and provide them with finance, technical expertise, marketing know-how, and business models. Once integrated into the network, these firms are more likely to succeed. However, venture capitalists decisions are often biased, exhibiting for instance overconfidence and illusion of control, a venture may be defined as a project prospective converted into a process with an adequate assumed risk and investment.
With few exceptions, private equity in the first half of the 20th century was the domain of wealthy individuals, the Wallenbergs, Whitneys and Warburgs were notable investors in private companies in the first half of the century. In 1938, Laurance S. Rockefeller helped finance the creation of both Eastern Air Lines and Douglas Aircraft, and the Rockefeller family had vast holdings in a variety of companies. Eric M. Warburg founded E. M. Warburg & Co. in 1938, which would ultimately become Warburg Pincus, with investments in both leveraged buyouts and venture capital. The Wallenberg family started Investor AB in 1916 in Sweden and were early investors in several Swedish companies such as ABB, Atlas Copco, before World War II, money orders remained primarily the domain of wealthy individuals and families. Georges Doriot, the father of capitalism, founded INSEAD in 1957. Along with Ralph Flanders and Karl Compton, Doriot founded ARDC in 1946 to encourage investment in businesses run by soldiers returning from World War II. ARDC became the first institutional private-equity investment firm to raise capital from other than wealthy families.
ARDC is credited with the first trick when its 1957 investment of $70,000 in Digital Equipment Corporation would be valued at over $355 million after the initial public offering in 1968. Former employees of ARDC went on to several prominent venture-capital firms including Greylock Partners and Morgan, Holland Ventures. ARDC continued investing until 1971, when Doriot retired, in 1972 Doriot merged ARDC with Textron after having invested in over 150 companies
Dallas is a major city in the U. S. state of Texas. It is the most populous city in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, the citys population ranks ninth in the U. S. and third in Texas after Houston and San Antonio. The citys prominence arose from its importance as a center for the oil and cotton industries. The bulk of the city is in Dallas County, of which it is the county seat, sections of the city are located in Collin, Denton and Rockwall counties. According to the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 1,197,816, the United States Census Bureaus estimate for the citys population increased to 1,300,092 as of July 1,2015. In 2016 DFW ascended to the one spot in the nation in year-over-year population growth. In 2014, the metropolitan economy surpassed Washington, D. C. to become the fifth largest in the U. S. with a 2014 real GDP over $504 billion, as such, the metropolitan areas economy is the 10th largest in the world. As of January 2017, the job count has increased to 3,558,200 jobs.
The citys economy is based on banking, telecommunications, energy and medical research. The city is home to the third-largest concentration of Fortune 500 companies in the nation. Located in North Texas, Dallas is the core of the largest metropolitan area in the South. Dallas and nearby Fort Worth were developed due to the construction of railroad lines through the area allowing access to cotton, cattle. Later, France claimed the area but never established much settlement, the area remained under Spanish rule until 1821, when Mexico declared independence from Spain, and the area was considered part of the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. In 1836, the Republic of Texas, with majority Anglo-American settlers, in 1839, Warren Angus Ferris surveyed the area around present-day Dallas. John Neely Bryan established a permanent settlement near the Trinity River named Dallas in 1841, the origin of the name is uncertain. The Republic of Texas was annexed by the United States in 1845, Dallas was formally incorporated as a city on February 2,1856.
With construction of railroads, Dallas became a business and trading center and it became an industrial city, attracting workers from Texas, the South and the Midwest. The Praetorian Building of 15 stories, built in 1909, was the first skyscraper west of the Mississippi and it marked the prominence of Dallas as a city
Crosse & Blackwell
Crosse & Blackwell is a British food production company which has been in existence since 1706. Originally trading under the Jackson brand and West and Wyatt, over the years, the brand has been applied to various varieties of canned and bottled grocery products, including condiments and Christmas pudding. In 1960, Nestlé bought the Crosse & Blackwell Group and developed the name across a number of food categories worldwide, the acquisition increased Nestlés output and included the largest fish-canning factory in the UK. Crosse & Blackwell employed 4,700 workers in production and 1,900 other employees, the company divested the Crosse & Blackwell operations in 2002. Today ownership of the Crosse & Blackwell brand is divided between The J. M. Smucker Company in North America and Princes Group in Europe, the famous pickle the company created Major Greys Chutney UK website North American website