Life imprisonment is any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted persons are to remain in prison either for the rest of their natural life or until paroled. Crimes for which, in some countries, a person could receive this sentence include murder, attempted murder, conspiracy to commit murder, apostasy, severe child abuse, child rape, treason, high treason, drug dealing, drug trafficking, drug possession, human trafficking, severe cases of fraud, severe cases of financial crimes, aggravated criminal damage in English law, aggravated cases of arson, burglary, or robbery which result in death or grievous bodily harm, aircraft hijacking, in certain cases genocide, ethnic cleansing, crimes against humanity, certain war crimes or any three felonies in case of three strikes law. Life imprisonment can be imposed, in certain countries, for traffic offenses causing death; the life sentence does not exist in all countries, Portugal was the first to abolish life imprisonment, in 1884.
For more info about life imprisonment in other countries worldwide, refer here. Where life imprisonment is a possible sentence, there may exist formal mechanisms for requesting parole after a certain period of prison time; this means. Early release is conditional on past and future conduct with certain restrictions or obligations. In contrast, when a fixed term of imprisonment has ended, the convict is free; the length of time served and the conditions surrounding parole vary. The date when a convict is eligible for parole does not predict when or if parole will be granted. In many countries around the world in the Commonwealth, courts have the authority to pass prison terms which exceed a century. For example, courts in South Africa have handed out at least two sentences that have exceeded a century. In Tasmania, Martin Bryant, the perpetrator of the Port Arthur massacre in 1996, received 35 life sentences, plus 1,035 consecutive years, all to run concurrently and for the term of his natural life.
Another example of a life sentence that exceeded a century was Aurora Cinema shooter James Holmes, who received 12 consecutive life sentences and an extra 3,318 years without the possibility of parole for injuring 70,killing 12, 112 counts of attempted murder in the Colorado cinema and booby trapping his apartment with explosives. Few countries allow for a minor to be given a lifetime sentence with no provision for eventual release. According to a University of San Francisco Law School study, only the U. S. had minors serving such sentences in 2008. In 2009, Human Rights Watch estimated that there were 2,589 youth offenders serving life sentences without the possibility for parole in the U. S; the United States leads in life sentences, at a rate of 50 people per 100,000 residents imprisoned for life. In 2011, the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that sentencing minors to life without parole, automatically or as the result of a judicial decision, for crimes other than intentional homicide, violated the Eighth Amendment's ban on "cruel and unusual punishments", in the case of Graham v. Florida.
Graham v. Florida was a significant case in juvenile justice. In Jacksonville, Terrence J. Graham tried to rob a restaurant along with three adolescent accomplices. During the robbery, one of Graham's accomplices had a metal bar that he used to hit the restaurant manager twice in the head. Once arrested, Graham was charged with attempted armed robbery and armed burglary with assault/battery; the maximum sentence he faced from these charges was life without the possibility of parole, the prosecutor wanted to charge him as an adult. During the trial, Graham pleaded guilty to the charges, resulting in three years of probation, one year of which had to be served in jail. Since he had been awaiting trial in jail, he served six months and therefore was released after six additional months. Within six months of his release, Graham was involved in another robbery. Since he violated the conditions of his probation, his probation officer reported to the trial court about his probation violations a few weeks before Graham turned 18 years old.
It was a different judge presiding over his trial for the probation violations a year later. While Graham denied any involvement of the robbery, he did admit to fleeing from the police; the trial court found that Graham violated his probation by "committing a home invasion robbery, possessing a firearm, associating with persons engaged in criminal activity", sentenced him to 15 years for the attempted armed robbery plus life imprisonment for the armed burglary. The life sentence Graham received meant he had a life sentence without the possibility of parole, "because Florida abolished their parole system in 2003". Graham's case was presented to the United States Supreme Court, with the question of whether juveniles should receive life without the possibility of parole in non-homicide cases; the Justices ruled that such a sentence violated the juvenile's 8th Amendment rights, protecting them from punishments that are disproportionate to the crime committed, resulting in the abolition of life s
HM Prison Maidstone
HM Prison Maidstone is a Category C men's prison, located in Maidstone, England. The prison is operated by Her Majesty's Prison Service. Maidstone Prison is one of the oldest penal institutions in the United Kingdom, having been in operation for over 200 years. Serving as a county jail, Maidstone was converted to a prison during the 1740s. During his visits to the prison, reformer John Howard reported poor living conditions at the prison including overcrowding and poor ventilation. However, conditions would remain unchanged until a reconstruction of the prison took place under the supervision of Daniel Asher Alexander, who had worked on the construction of Dartmoor Prison, lasting from 1811 until its completion in 1819 at a cost of £200,000. Involved in the design of Maidstone Prison was Kent architect John Whichcord Snr, Surveyor to the County of Kent from the 1820s. Mr Whichcord is best known for designing the Kent County Lunatic Asylum in the 1830s in Maidstone, similarities between the two buildings are apparent.
Constructed using Kentish Ragstone from a local quarry, the original design of the prison was intended to house 552 prisoners, including 62 female inmates. The first 141 prisoners arrived in March 1819. Over the next decade, additions to the prison were made including a courthouse in 1826 as well as individual cells, dayrooms and offices attributed to suggestions made by Howard. Other reforms included a enforced segregation of prisoners by offence and the general improvement of living conditions such as improving the water supply and ventilation systems, many of these renovations were made with prison labour over the course of the century. By the late 20th century, the only remaining signs of the original prison are the large and small roundhouses, the Weald Wing, the Administrative Block, the Training Complex, the Visits Building and the perimeter wall. Reggie Kray married Roberta Jones in Maidstone prison on 14 July 1997Jonathan King was an inmate from 2001-2005. In August, 2007 Weald Wing was closed.
80 prisoners were dispersed to other prisons. At the end of January, 2009 it was announced. Maidstone accommodates foreign national prisoners convicted of a range of offences; the prison is classed as a "training prison" and it includes a print shop and brick works. A good deal of work is carried out on the gardens, they win awards, a new environmental garden area is being developed; the exterior of Maidstone Prison was shown in the title sequence of the 1970s BBC comedy series Porridge and the 1990s BBC comedy series Birds of a Feather. Roth, Mitchel P. Prisons and Prison Systems: A Global Encyclopedia. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006. ISBN 0-313-32856-0 Whitfield, Dick, ed; the State of Prisons – 200 Years On. London: Routledge Press, 1991. Ministry of Justice pages on Maidstone
HM Prison Isle of Wight
HMP Isle of Wight is a prison on the Isle of Wight, UK, combining the two island prisons and Parkhurst. The two former prisons along with Camp Hill were merged in 2009 and each site still retained its old name. Across the three sites there were nearly 1,700 prisoners making it one of the largest prisons in the country; the reorganisation took effect on 1 April 2009. In March 2013 Camp Hill closed, reducing the overall prison population by 595; the idea for re-organising the three island prisons was suggested in October 2008 as a way of improving efficiency across the three sites. The plans attracted criticism from prison officers who feared for their jobs and claimed with fewer staff on duty, the safety of staff and the public was being put at risk; the chairman of the Prison Officer's Association claimed that the main aim of the move was to save around £1.1 million through natural wastage and scrapping eight principal officers' posts. On announcement of the proposals names for new prison were suggested as HMP Solent, HMP Mountbatten, HMP Vectis and the tongue in cheek suggestion "Barry Island" after the governor sent to implement the cluster Barry Greenberry who left in October 2010 to work for the private sector.
However none of these new names were implemented and the new name HMP Isle of Wight was announced in March 2009. It was stated that the individual sites would still retain their old names. HMP Isle of Wight was launched on 1 April 2009. On the day of the launch the prison union slammed the move stating that it had only been done to save money, would become more of a danger to the public; the Ministry of Justice stated that other similar schemes such as one in the Isle of Sheppy had proved a success and that although there would be a saving of around £1 million this was only being done through better economies and that there was no added danger to the public. The main motivation of "clustering", as the process is known, is cost cutting. In May 2010 a man dressed as Snoopy and an accomplice failed in their attempt to enter the Albany site in the prison, trying to free a prisoner; the pistol the costumed man carried was a water gun. The person the men were trying to free was located in the Camp Hill site at the time.
In January 2013, the Ministry of Justice announced that the Camp Hill site of the prison will close, with a reduction of 595 places at the prison. The prison formally closed in March 2013. Clustering Project information on HM Prison Service website HM Prison Service pages on HMP Isle of Wight
HM Prison Bullingdon
HM Prison and Young Offenders Institute Bullingdon is a public sector prison operated by HM Prison and Probation Service an executive agency of the Ministry of Justice. The prison is located in the Oxfordshire countryside. HM Prison Bullingdon is a local and resettlement prison accepting Security Category B and C male prisoners. New admissions from courts are sent to'local' prisons and are considered as a Category B prisoner until their initial security assessment. Prisoners must be over the age of 18; as YO prisoners are not subject to the same 4 level security category, they are either considered'YOI Closed' or'YOI Open' - depending on whether they are suitable for transfer to open conditions. The prison only holds prisoners on short sentences and those on remand. With the additional resettlement function, prisoners in the local area of the prison should be transferred for their 12 week pre-release period. HMP & YOI Bullingdon has a dedicated'Vulnerable Prisoners' unit which holds several hundred sex offenders who are at Bullingdon in order to complete a Sex Offender Treatment Programme.
Opened in 1994, Bullingdon was constructed on obsolete Ministry of Defence site - MoD Bicester. The prison opened with 4 residential units, named after villages in the local area. A - Wing B - Wing C - Wing D - Wing Each of the 4 wings were created identical, with only different coloured doors to be able to identify the unit; as the prison population continued to grow the prison constructed 2 new units E - Wing - used to house vulnerable prisoners only. F - Wing - Spur 1 - Induction / First Night Centre and Spur 2 - Enhanced Spur Since the prison opened back in 1994 it has been surrounded in scandal and failing HMIP reports; the most noticeable is when back in January 2003, former Deputy Governor Terence McLaren was suspended from the prison after he had been arrested on suspicion of being involved with child pornography offences. In 2006. Alongside this HM Inspectorate of Prisons have published countless damning reports into overcrowing, safety issues, gang violence and drugs to name just a few.
Munir Hussain, a businessman who participated with others in beating a home invader was held for a month in Bullingdon. Rolf Harris, entertainer and TV personality, found guilty in July 2014 of twelve sex crimes against minors, was imprisoned in Bullingdon instead of HM Prison Wandsworth. Ministry of Justice pages on HMP Bullingdon HMP Bullingdon - HM Inspectorate of Prisons Reports
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper. It was founded in 1821 as The Manchester Guardian, changed its name in 1959. Along with its sister papers The Observer and The Guardian Weekly, the Guardian is part of the Guardian Media Group, owned by the Scott Trust; the trust was created in 1936 to "secure the financial and editorial independence of the Guardian in perpetuity and to safeguard the journalistic freedom and liberal values of the Guardian free from commercial or political interference". The trust was converted into a limited company in 2008, with a constitution written so as to maintain for The Guardian the same protections as were built into the structure of the Scott Trust by its creators. Profits are reinvested in journalism rather than distributed to shareholders; the current editor is Katharine Viner: she succeeded Alan Rusbridger in 2015. Since 2018, the paper's main newsprint sections have been published in tabloid format; as of November that year, its print edition had a daily circulation of 136,834.
The newspaper has an online edition, TheGuardian.com, as well as two international websites, Guardian Australia and Guardian US. The paper's readership is on the mainstream left of British political opinion, its reputation as a platform for liberal and left-wing editorial has led to the use of the "Guardian reader" and "Guardianista" as often-pejorative epithets for those of left-leaning or "politically correct" tendencies. Frequent typographical errors in the paper led Private Eye magazine to dub it the "Grauniad" in the 1960s, a nickname still used today. In an Ipsos MORI research poll in September 2018 designed to interrogate the public's trust of specific titles online, The Guardian scored highest for digital-content news, with 84% of readers agreeing that they "trust what see in it". A December 2018 report of a poll by the Publishers Audience Measurement Company stated that the paper's print edition was found to be the most trusted in the UK in the period from October 2017 to September 2018.
It was reported to be the most-read of the UK's "quality newsbrands", including digital editions. While The Guardian's print circulation is in decline, the report indicated that news from The Guardian, including that reported online, reaches more than 23 million UK adults each month. Chief among the notable "scoops" obtained by the paper was the 2011 News International phone-hacking scandal—and in particular the hacking of the murdered English teenager Milly Dowler's phone; the investigation led to the closure of the News of the World, the UK's best-selling Sunday newspaper and one of the highest-circulation newspapers in history. In June 2013, The Guardian broke news of the secret collection by the Obama administration of Verizon telephone records, subsequently revealed the existence of the surveillance program PRISM after knowledge of it was leaked to the paper by the whistleblower and former NSA contractor Edward Snowden. In 2016, The Guardian led an investigation into the Panama Papers, exposing then-Prime Minister David Cameron's links to offshore bank accounts.
It has been named "newspaper of the year" four times at the annual British Press Awards: most in 2014, for its reporting on government surveillance. The Manchester Guardian was founded in Manchester in 1821 by cotton merchant John Edward Taylor with backing from the Little Circle, a group of non-conformist businessmen, they launched their paper after the police closure of the more radical Manchester Observer, a paper that had championed the cause of the Peterloo Massacre protesters. Taylor had been hostile to the radical reformers, writing: "They have appealed not to the reason but the passions and the suffering of their abused and credulous fellow-countrymen, from whose ill-requited industry they extort for themselves the means of a plentiful and comfortable existence, they do not toil, neither do they spin, but they live better than those that do." When the government closed down the Manchester Observer, the mill-owners' champions had the upper hand. The influential journalist Jeremiah Garnett joined Taylor during the establishment of the paper, all of the Little Circle wrote articles for the new paper.
The prospectus announcing the new publication proclaimed that it would "zealously enforce the principles of civil and religious Liberty warmly advocate the cause of Reform endeavour to assist in the diffusion of just principles of Political Economy and support, without reference to the party from which they emanate, all serviceable measures". In 1825 the paper merged with the British Volunteer and was known as The Manchester Guardian and British Volunteer until 1828; the working-class Manchester and Salford Advertiser called the Manchester Guardian "the foul prostitute and dirty parasite of the worst portion of the mill-owners". The Manchester Guardian was hostile to labour's claims. Of the 1832 Ten Hours Bill, the paper doubted whether in view of the foreign competition "the passing of a law positively enacting a gradual destruction of the cotton manufacture in this kingdom would be a much less rational procedure." The Manchester Guardian dismissed strikes as the work of outside agitators: " if an accommodation can be effected, the occupation of the agents of the Union is gone.
They live on strife "The Manchester Guardian was critical of US President Abraham Lincoln's conduct during the US Civil War, writing on the news that Abraham Lincoln had been assassinated: "Of his rule, we can never speak except as a series of acts abhorrent to every true notion of constitutional right and human liberty " C. P. Scott ma
HM Prison Blantyre House
HM Prison Blantyre House was a Category C/D resettlement prison for men, located on the outskirts of Goudhurst in Kent, England. The prison was operated by Her Majesty's Prison Service until it closed in January 2016 for refurbishment work; as of 2018 the prison still remains closed, but the Ministry of Justice have stated the prison is still available to use and may have a future as a training facility. A country house, the Prison Service converted the building into a Young Offenders Institution in 1954; the prison was re-classified as an adult prison in 1991. Blantyre House courted controversy in 1996 after an ex-inmate accused the prison regime of corruption; this followed an incident that resulted in the death of a woman when two prisoners caused a multiple-vehicle traffic accident during a 100 mph chase while out on day release. In 2000 a large raid at Blantyre House caused controversy amongst politicians. Prison authorities claimed the raid was needed to expose potential deep-rooted corruption at the prison.
The Prison Service claimed that investigations stretched back to the original allegations in 1996, involved Kenneth Noye placing a prisoner at Blantyre House as part of a fraud plot. The following year Blantyre House was singled out as having the best community relations of any prison in the UK along with one of the lowest re-offending rates; the management at Blantyre House was amalgamated with HMP East Sutton Park in 2007. In the same year the Home Office announced plans to expand the prison by building a new block which could double capacity at Blantyre House when built. Prisoners tend to have served three years or more in other prisons and are transferred to Blantyre House to complete the last part of their sentence; because of this the prison's main focus is the re-integration and re-settlement of prisoners into the community and preparation for life after prison. Education is compulsory for the first six months of the inmates's stay at the prison, prisoners who wish to continue their education are allowed attending external colleges to study as part of their resettlement plan.
Prisoners are able to find full-time paid work outside of the prison 12 months before their release. The prison closed in January 2016. There are no confirmed plans regarding what to do with the buildings Suggestions have been made about the site opening again as a training facility. Satpal Ram, convicted murderer whose case caused controversy after allegations racism by the courts and prison service. Ram was released from Blantyre House in 2002 Winston Silcott, member of the Tottenham Three was held at Blantyre House for a time after a murder conviction until his release in 2003 Terry Perkins Ministry of Justice pages on HMP Blantyre House HMP Blantyre House - HM Inspectorate of Prisons Reports Damage and Humanity in Custody - Kindle book written by inmates, comparing the Blantyre House prison experience with that of secure category B prisons - circa 1995